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Cofmologia  Sacra : 

o  R    A 


OF     THE 


As  ic  is  the 

Creature  and  j^inguom 

O   F 


Chiefly  Written, 

To  t)emonftrate  the  T^rut kand  Excellency  of  the 
BIBLE;  which  contains  the  Larps  of  his 
Kingdom  in  this  Lower  World. 

In    Five    Books. 

Fellow  of  the  College  of  Thyficiansj  and  of  the  ^yal  Socitty. 

L  0  nX>  0  N: 

Printed  for  W.  ^gers,  S.  Smith,  and  !B.  Walford :  At  the  Sun 
againft  ^t.VunJlans  Church  in  Fleetjlreet 5  and  at  the  frinces 
Arms  in  St.  <faul\  Church-Yard ,    M  D  CCI. 



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d  lo 

^«  IJl  O   H 1^ 

— *r 


TO     HIS 

Moft  Sacred  MAJESTY 


The  THIRD, 


O    F 

Great  Britain,  &c. 

S  I  R, 

Tis  a  J  em  el  of  much  Lujire^ 
^^  in  Your  Ma  j  e  s  tyV  Im- 
perial Crown^  that  You  are 
Defcended  of  many  moft 
Noble  Progenitors.  And  yet  a  fairer 
One^  that  You  are  the  Inheritor  of  Their 


The  Epiftle  Dedicatory. 

Princely  Endoivments,  meeting  in  Your 
Royal  Perfon  m  their  Centre.  Horn 
7mtch  a  Greater  Conqueror  .was  Your 
Ma  J  F  STY,  than  the  Firft  William  ; 
when  England  ,  Renowned  for  Her 
Beauty^  having  made  Her  Court  to  You ; 
You  came  not  to  Force,  hut  to  Embrace 
Her,  with  Your  Arms,  And  being  then 
pleas  d  to  take  upon  You,  theSafegiiard 
of  Our  Ejlates,  Our  Liberties,  and  Our 
Lives  ;  and  of  what  k  dearer  to  Us  than 
all  Ihefe,  Our  BIB  LES :  Your  M  a- 
j  E  s  T  Y.,  by  Your  Wifdom  and  Valour, 
hath  abundantly  anjwered  this  Sacred 
TrujL  For  whereas  fome  Princes,  through 
their  Unhappy  Birth,Education^  or  Coun- 
fels,  apprehend  they  cannot  be  Great, 
without  being  Cruel-,  that  their  Crowns 
look  but  dull,  unlefs  they  are  Vamifhed 
with  Blood :  It  eminently  appears,  be- 
fides  the  Native  Goodnefl  of  Your  Royal 
Mind,  Your  Majesty  confiders.  That 
One  of  the  Princes  of  the  Empire^  upon 
whom  the  Senate  beflowed  the  Title  of 
Maximus  ^  was  alfo  the  Bell.  That^ 
^  Optimus 

The  Epiftle  Dcdicatoty. 

Optimus  Maximus,  mas  the  Style  ap- 
propriated by  their  Anceflors  ^  to  the 
Deity  Himfelf.  That  in  Imitating  the 
Pattern  given  You  by  the  King  of  Kings ^ 
You  have  proposed  Your  Self  a  Glorious 
One,  both  to  Your  Royal  Succefors,  and 
to  all  ether  Pjinces  :  the  Worji  among 
Us,  feeling  the  Clemency,  and  Your 
Majesty V  Dutiful Subje£is,  the  Jufi 
and  Gracious  Influences  of  Your  Reign. 

In  Contemplation  whereof  I  take  this 
Occafion ,  moft  humbly  to  prefent  Your 
M  A  J  E  s  T  Y,  with  the  Tribute  of  my 
Thanks,  for  that  fufficient  Share,  I  have 
my  Self  the  Happinefl  to  Enjoy.  And ' 
her  emit  hal  a  Specimen,  of  the  Ufe 
which  may  be  made  of  thofe  Encourage- 
ments.  Your  Ma  j  esty  gives  unto 
'rue  Religion  and  Virtue,  Believing,  it 
would  be  very  pleafing  to  You,  if  all  Your 
Subjeds,  after  Your  Majesty  V  Own 
Example,  were,  in  their  Inferior  Sphere^ 
Defenders  of  the  Faith, 

May  it  pleafe  Almighty  God,  who 
hath  raifed  You  up  to  make  Us  Happy 

b  at 

^1      11    -■■ I..— .M  -—...—  I        I'     I    ■■^■■1       M     I     ^       -■  ■       '  '  ■..--.■■.-.-  ' '     '        ~  ■■  - 

The  Epiftle  Dedicatory. 

at  Home  ;  to  BleJI  Your  M  a  j  e  s  t  y  V 
Endeavours,  for  the  Redemption  of  the 
Foreign  Churches^  and  the  Peace  of 


Moft  Humble 


Moft  Obedient 




ToHisGrace,  THOMAS  Lord 
Auhhifhop  of  CantCYhuvy,  Primate 
and  Metropolitan  of  all  England, 
and  One  of  m  MAJESTYs  mofl 
Honourable  Privy-Council. 


lo  Hi^  Grace ,  J  O  H  N  Lord  Arch- 
bifhop  of  York,  Primate  and  Metro- 
politan  of  England. 


OUR  being  made  Choice  of  by  His 
Majesty,  with  whom  more  efpe- 
cially  to  entruft  the  Bufinefs  of  Reli- 
gion ;  and  Your  known  Readinefs  to  allift  His 
Princely  Endeavours  for  the  promoting  hereof: 
have  induced  me,  to  prefent  to  both  Your  Gra- 
ces the  following  IVork.  And  the  rather,  as 
being  affured ,  That  of  Your  Zeal  for  the  Ho- 
nour of  God,  and  the  Welfare  of  his  Churchy 
no  Offering  added  to  the  Treafury  of  Divine 
Knowledge,  how  Small  or  by  Whomfoever, 
would  be  Unacceptable  to  You. 


The  Efijile  Dedicatcry» 

And  yet,  My  Lords,  I  have  not  forgot^ 
how  much  it  behooved  me  to  take  care,  in  Com- 
pofing  it,  Not  to  trouble  You,  with  what  has 
been  already  done  by  Others.  Nor  to  alTert  any 
thing  herein,  without  good  Proof.  Nor  only  to 
Write,  what  is  True,  but  alfo  Seafonable.  And 
that  in  other  refpecfts,  it  might  abide  Your  Cen- 
iiire  5  Whofe  Abilities  to  make  an  Exad  Judg- 
ment hereof,  are  Unqueftionable.  Which  I 
have  faid,  the  better  to  prepare  the  Reader,  duly 
to  Confider  what  I  have  Writ.  If  this  be  done, 
the  Fublick,  with  God's  Bleffing,  will  not  lofe 
the  Benefit  hereby  intended,  nor  Your  Grace's 
the  good  Hopes  You  are  pleas'd  to  conceive 
of  it. 

I  am  ^ 

My   LOKT>  S, 

To  both  Your  GRACES 

A  mojl  Humbk 

Servant  , 

Neh.  Grew. 



TH  E  many  Lcud  Opinions,  efpeciaily  thofe  of  Anti- 
fcripturifts,  which  have  been  publiflied  of  late  Years  5 
by  Sp'mofa  and  fome  others,  in  Latirij  Dutch^  and 
En^Hp?  3  have  been  the  Occafion  of  my  Writing  this  Book. 
As  feeing  too  well,  that  hereby,  not  only  Men  of  Erudition  , 
but  the  Citizens  themfclves,  grown  of  late  more  Bookifh, 
are  very  dangeroufly  infeited.  In  fo  much,  that  every  Ap- 
prentice, who  can  but  get  a  Play  to  his  Tooth,  Stuffed  with 
Vice  and  Prophanenefs ,  formeth  all  his  Thoughts,  Words, 
and  Actions,  by  This,  as  his  Bible. 

Whereupon,  though  I  confider'd,  we  have  as  Learned  a 
Clergy  in  England^  as  in  the  World :  yet  I  refolved,  with  the 
beft  Skill  I  had,  to  contribute  towards  the  Antidoting  of  this 
City  and  Kingdom,  againft  a  Contagion  fo  difmal  in  it 
felf,  and  the  Confequences  of  it.  Neither  Duplejjy  a  Sol- 
dier ,  nor ,  Grotius  a  Civilian  ,  were  ever  thought  to  have 
mifengaged  themfelves ,  in  the  like  Undertaking.  And  if 
I  had  not  their  Examples,  nor  had  ever  heard  of  them  j 
yet  the  fame  Reafons  which  prevailed  with  them ,  are 
now  in  being.     Nor  did  I  fee  caufe  to  flay  at  the  Refiexi- 

which  the  Lord  Verulam  makes  upon  Phyficiins,  for 
ploying  their  Pens  fometimes  on  other  Subje(5ts  befides 
Medicine.  When  himfelf  undertook  die  Improvement  of 
all  other  Sciences  and  Profeffions  ,  more  than  his  Own. 
And  though  it  is  not  neceilary ,  that  every  one  fhould 
meddle  with  Hippocrates ,  or  Littleton  3  yet  the  Scriptures 
are  a  Book,  we  are  all  bound  to  Read  and  Confider.  I 
can  truly  fay  too,  That  the  Writing,  neither  of  This,  not 

A  of 

the  ?  KEF  AGE. 

of  any  ocher  Book,  hath  at  any  time  occafioned  the  omif- 
fion  of  my  Duty  to  the  Sick.  It  is  very  well  known,  That 
there  is  no  one  Phyfician  in  London  at  this  Day  ,  but  he 
hath  his  Spare  Hours.  And  I  will  take  it  for  Excufable  , 
if  I  have  dedicated  my  Own ,  unto  this  Work.  And  having 
addi6ted  my  felf,  to  the  Contemplation  of  Nature,  from 
my  Youth  upward  :  as  I  hop'd  ,  I  was  in  fome  meafure 
qualified,  for  an  Eflay  of  this  kind  3  fo  I  concluded,  the 
applying  of  my  fmall  Talent  hereunto  ,  to  be  the  Beft 
life,  I  fliould  ever  be  able  to  make  of  it.  .  I  had  therefore 
nothing  further  to  think  of ,  but  endeavouring ,  the  Per- 
formance might  in  fome  degree,  anfwer  the  propofed 

For  This,  I  intended  at  firft ,  only  a  few  Sheets.  But 
looking  further,  I  faw  it  neceffary  to  proceed  from  the 
Beginning  of  things.  Hereby  the  better  to  fliew,  That 
there  is  nothing  contained  in  the.  Holy  Scriptures,  concerning 
God  or  Man,  the  Vifible  or  Invifible  World,  but  what  is 
agreeable  unto  Right  Reafon. 

The  Firft  Chapter,  Concerning^  GOD;  I  have  comprized 
in  as  few  words  as  I  could.  Suitable  to  a  Subje(5t,  of  all 
others,  the  moft  Sublime.  In  which,  I  have  Demonftrated 
the  Nature  of  God,  a  Priori ;  >/;^.  from  the  Neceflity  of 
his  Being.  In  the  following  Chapters ,  a  Tofteriori  j  or  from 
theUniverfe,  his  Handy-Work.  And  v.hereas  the  Being  of  the 
Sacred  TRINITY,  is  thought  by  fome  to  be  Impoffible: 
I  have^  proved,  on  the  contrary,  in  four  or  Five  Paragraphs, 
that  we  cannot  have  a  due  Conception  of  the  Deity  with- 
out it.  ■  ' 

Of  the  Second  Chapter  ,  Concerning  the  Corporeal  World , 
having  neither  Health ,  nor  Leifure,  nor  Convenience,  Cm 
the  making  of  Nod:urnal ,  and  other  Celeftial  Obferva- 
tionS  5  I  have  taken  the  greater  part,  from  the  Beft  Aftro- 
nomers  of  the  prefent  Age.  Not  omitting^  to  intermix 
fuch  Remarks  of  my  own,  as  are  proper  to  the  Scope  I 
aim  at. 


The  ?  KEF  ACE. 

For  all  the  following  Chapters,  both  of  This,  and  of  the 
Second  and  Third  Books  3  fo  much  only  excepted,  as  is 
Hiftorical ;  Nature  hath  been,  in  a  manner,  my  only  Book  : 
which  I  have  Read,  and  Copied,  as  exactly  as  I  could. 
In  doing  of  which,  I  purpofely  avoided  the  perufal  of  forae 
Works,  of  much  Efteem.  That  this  Copy  of  Mine,  might 
be  no  where  Interlined,  nor  my  Thoughts  diverted,  front 
their  own  proper  Motion  aud  Compafs. 

When  I  came,  in  the  Fourth  Book,  to  difcourfe  of  the 
Holy  Scriptures  3  I  law  it  neceflary  to  underftand  the  Nature 
of  the  Hebrew  Tongue  ;  the  firfl  occaiion  I  ever  had  to 
meddle  with  it.  And  the  Reader  may  be  afliired,  I  have 
taken  care,  as  not  to  miflead  him  in  that  moderate  ufe  I 
have  made  of  it  5  fo  like  wife,  fully  to  comprehend  the  Au- 
thors I  was  obliged  to  Confultj  efpecially  for  the  Firft 
Chapter,  Of  the  Integrity  of  the  tiehrew  Code. 

The  reft  of  this  Book,  and  all  the  Laft  5  which  further 
prove  the  Integrity ,  and  herewith  ,  the  Truth  and  Excellency, 
both  of  the  Old  and  New  Teftament  3  avoiding  as  much 
as  I  could,  to  repeat  what  has  been  already  very  well  faid 
by  others :  I  have  compofed  chiefly,  out  of  my  own  fmall 
Reading  and  Obfervation.  To  the  End,  I  might  be  both 
another  Witnefs  3  and  alfo  be  ablcj  to  bring  further  Evidence 
in  the  Cafe. 

One  particular  I  have  advifedly  omitted  3  and  that  is, 
the  Defcription  of.  Solomons  Temple 3  the  Learned  VtUalpandm 
having  faved  me  the  Labour.  But  I  have  taken  fome  Pains 
for  that  of  the  Tabernacle,  which,  I  think,  hath  hithertb 
been  wanting.  . 

I  have  made  no  Quotations,  in  proof  of  any  Aflcrtion  or 
Opinion,  but  only  in  point  of  Fad.  And  havefeldom  trou- 
bled the  Reader  ,  or  my  Self,  in  anfwering  Objections. 
For,  if  the  things  I  have  Written,  are  True  :  as  no  Authority 
can  make  them  Truer  5  fo  a  Thoufand  Objed:ions  cannot 
make  them  falfe* 


The  ?  KEF  ACE. 

Whoever  (hall  think  fie  to  Read  the  following  Difcourfe, 
I  have  this  piece  of  Juftice  to  reqiieft  of  him,  That  he  will 
begin  with  it.  For  though  he  lliould  be  lefs  acquainted 
with  fome  of  the  Subjeds  treated  of,  yet  will  he  be  Maftcr 
of  fo  much  all  along ,  as  to  difcern  the  dependance  of  one 
thing  on  another,  from  firft  to  lafl:.  And  \v\\\  then  come  to 
fee,  that  Religion  is  fo  far  from  being  inconfiftenc  with 
Philofopliy,  as  to  be  the  highefl:  point  of  it. 

To  fay,  that  no  Man  is  an  Antifcripturift,  but  for 
want  of  Wit 5  is  neither  good  Manners,  nor  good  Senfe. 
But  this  I  fay,  That  if  any  Man  will  Study  the  Grounds 
of  Religion  ,  with  the  like  Application ,  as  he  doth  any 
thing  elfe  he  takes  to  be  his  Bufinefs  to  think  of;  I 
will  then  give  him  leave  to  be  an  Antifcripturift  if  he 

The  hardeft  Queftion  I  have  been  asked,  is  this.  Do 
you  think  to  Damm  up  the  Thames  ?  I  Anfwer ,  No  : 
yet  a  Bridg  may  be  laid  over  it.  And  this  too,  may  be 
fo  far  from  Stemming  the  Tide ;  as  only  to  caufe  it  to  make 
a  greater  Noife.  But  as  the  Bridg  may  not  be  able  to 
flop  the  Tide;  fo,  I  truft,  the  Tide,  fhall  never  be  able 
to  beat  down  the  Bridge ;  but  that  many  will  hereby, 
Land  themfelves,  fafe  from  Drowning  in  the  common 





OF     THE 

FoDowing  D  I  S  COU  RS  E 


BOOK    I. 

Heweth,  That  God  made  the 
Corporeal  World.  And  what 
it  is. 

Chap.  I.  Of  God. 

Chap.  2.  Of  the  Corporeal  World. 

Chap.  5.  Of   Corporeal   Trinci- 

■  pies. 
Chap.  4.  Qf  Compounded'Bodies. 
Chap.  5.    Of  their  life. 

BOOK     II. 

Shewethj  That  there  is  a  Vital 
World  which  God  hath  made. 
And  ivhat  it  is. 

Chap.  I.   Of  Life. 

Chap.  2.   Of  Senfe. 

Chap.  3.  Of  Mind.     And  fir  ft  ^ 

OfThancy.or  ^hantaftickMnd. 
Chap.  4.  of  IntelleBual  Mind. 
Chap.  5 .  Of  the  Three  chief  En- 

dowments  of  Intelleclual  Mind. 

And  fir  ft.     Of  Science. 

Chap.  <$.   OfWtfdom, 
Chap.  7.    Of  Virtue. 
Chap.  8.    Of  Celeftial  Mind. 

BOOK     III. 

Shewethy  That  Cod  governs  the 
UniVerfe  he  hath  made.  And 
in  what  Manner. 

Chap.  I .  Of  the  Nature  of  God's 
Government,  or  of  Providence. 

Chap.  2.  Of  the  Ends  of  Provi- 
dence.   Andfirft,  in  this  Life. 

Chap.  ^.  Of  (providence  oVer 
^ublick.  States. 

Chap.  4.   Of  the  Celeftial  Life. 

Chap.  5.  Of  the  (I(ides  of  Provi- 
dence. And  fir  ft.  Of  the  Law 
of  Nature. 

Chap.  6.    Of  TofttiVe  Law. 

BOOK     IV. 

Sheweth^That  the 'Bible,  and  fir  ft, 
the  Hebrew  Code,  or  Old  lefta- 
ment,  is  God's  (poftttVe  Law. 

(a.)  Chap.  1, 

chap.  1 .    Of  the  Integrity  of  the 

Hebrew  Code. 
Chap.  2.   Of  the  Truth  and  Ex- 
cellency of  the  Hebrew  Code. 

And  firfij  as  they  appear  from 

Foreign  ^roof 
Chap,  3 .   Of  the  Truth  and  Ex- 

cellency  hereof^  a^s  they  appear 

in  it  Self    Jndjirjij  if  we  con- 

jider  the  Writers. 
Chap.  4.  Of  the  Contents  hereof. 

And  firftj  Of  the  Biftory. 
Chap.  5.    Of  the  Miracles. 
Chap.  6.    Of  the  Prophecies. 
Chap.  7.   OftheLaws.AndfirJi^ 

of  thofe  given  to  Adam  and 

Chap.  8.    Of  the  Moi^uckLaw. 

BOOK    V. 

Sheweth,  That  the  New  Tejia" 
ment,  is  alfo  God's  ToftiVe 
Law.  . 

Chap.  I.  Of  the  Integrity  of  the 
New  Tejhmenty 

Chap.  1.  Of  the  Truth  and  Ex- 
cellency hereof.  And  fir fl,  O/S 
they  appear  from  the  Writers. 

Chap.  3.0/  the  Contents.  And 
firjij  Of  the  Miracles. 

Chap.  4.  Of  the  DoBrine.  And 
frfl^  Of  the  ^'Velations  we  are 
to  'Belie'Ve. 

Chap.  5.  Of  the  Laws. 

Chap.  6.  Of  our  Saviour's  Tro' 






O  F     T  H  E 


BOOK   the   Firft. 


CBJT.  1.     Of  GOD. 

I S  natural  for  a  truly  Wife  Man^  to  Enquire  after  God^  ^.  i , 
Whofe  Beings  is  as  certainly  knowahle,  as  our  own^  x.  As  he 
isSelf-ExiJlent,  3.  And  mofi  Perfe^y  4v5>  6.  That  is  to 
Jay,  Infinite  in  Duration^  or  Eternal,  7,  8,  9.  In  Ejfence, 
or  Immenfe,  10,  n,  12.  In  Power,  13,  14,  15-.  In  Knowledge,  16, 17. 
in  Goodnefs,  18, 19,  zo,  xi.  And  Imrnutahly  Juch,  zz,  13.  Andasfuch, 
of  necejjity.  Eternally  Energetick,  24.  And  Omnipotently,  2,5,  2.6.  So 
as  to  heget  the  Divine  Images  of  Himfelf,  27,  28,  29^-^  And  hy  Thefe,  td 
Make  the  World,  30.  to  the  end. 

CHA^P.  1.     Of  the  Corporeal  World. 

7T  was  made  Perfe^,  i.     In  the  Whole,  or  in  its  Extent.     As  appears, 
■*  partly  ^  from  theDijlance  of  the  Vifible  Fixed  Stars,  2.    Partly^  of  thofe, 
which  areVifille  only  with  the  help  of  Glares,  3.     And  in  its  Parts,  ioth 
Great  and  Small,  4.     Firfl,  the  Greater,  whereof  in  this  Chapter  \  viz.  the^ 
Planets,  &c.    As  appears,  in  the  Regularity  of  their  Motions,  5.    ,A»a 
their  great  Variety,   6,  7,  8,  9,  10,  1 1.     In  the  Suhftance  and  Splendor  of 
the  Sun,   12,  13,  14.     In  the  Command  hereof,  over  all  the  Primary  Pla- 
nets ;  and  of  Thefe, .  over  their  Satellites,  1 5'.     Extraordinary,  yet  not  of 
that  Extent  as  isfuppofed,  16,  17.     But  other  Caufes,  to  he  added,  18,  19. 
The  Caufe  of  the  Suns  own  Motion,  alfo  Unknown,  20.      And  wherein  the 
Power  of  his  Command  lyeth,  if/icertain,  21.     Alfo  the  Magnet ick  Poles,  4 
great  Secret,  22.     The  Rarity  of  the  Ether,  of  great  Ufe,  23.     The  ma- 
nifold Ufe  of  the  Air ;  and  the  Caufes  of  Winds,  24,  25-.     The  Generation 
of  Clouds,  26.     The  Ufe  of  Seas  and  Rivers,  Currents  and  Tides,  27,  2?.' 
The  Moon,  and  other  Planets,  fo  many  more  Terraqueous  Orhs,  29.     And 
every  Fixed  Star,  another  Sun;  having  the  Command  of  another  Syflem  of 
Planets,  30. 

CHAP.  3. 

it  The  Contents  of  the  Chapters. 

C  HAT.   I.     Of  Corporeal  Principles. 

/IS  far  as  the  World  is  Extenfible,fo  far  is  every  part  ofit^  Divijihle^  that  is 
Infinitehj^  i.  Proved^  2-,  3, 4, 5".    From  hence  we  may  learn^  To  conceive 
jufily,  of  the  Smallnefs  of  the  Principles  of  Bodies,  6.     And  from  what  is 
ohfervahle  of  Compounded  Bodies^  with  a  Microfcope,  7,  8.     From  hence 
alfo,  we  may  judge  of  their  Qualities,  9.     Particularly,  in  the  Magnet,  10. 
And  fame  other  Bodies  which  Attra^y  xi.     The  Principles  of  Bodies  like- 
wife  proved.  To  he  Unalterahle,  Both  in  Confiflent  Bodies,   ix.     And  in 
Fluids,  i-^.     And  this,  for  great  Reafon,  14.     And  were  therefore  Created 
fuch,  1 5.     The  fame  Principles,  were  alfo  Created,  Regular.     Proved  In 
Inflances,  in  Fluids,  1 6,  17, 1 8, 19, 20.     And  in  Confiflents.  As  in  Stones 
zi,  XX.     In  Metals,  x^.     In  Salts,  24 /o  30.     In  Snow,  and  Frofl,  ?i 
to  3  5-.  The  greater  part  of  all  which,  have  One  certain  Angle  in  common,  164. 
Therefore  Regular,  and  Created  fuch,   37,38. 

CHjT.  4.     of  Compounded  Bodies. 

n~'HE  Compofiiion  of  Principles,  is  alfo  Regular,  i.  As  ohfervahle  in  the 
■*■  Suhfiance  of  feveral  Kinds  of  Bodies.  In  Plants,  x.  And  in  Animals. 
Both  the  Conjijlent  Parts,  ^,  4,  ^.  And  the  Fluid,  6.  Likewife  tn  the 
Vifihle  Organifm  of  Bodies.  As  in  Plants,  7.  So  in  Animals.  Wherein 
all  the  Parts,  as  well  as  in  Plants,  do  Originally  conjiji  of  Fibers,  8.  Either 
Soft,  or  Hard,  or  hoth,  9,10.  By  the  various  Pofition,  and  Compojition 
of  which  Two  Sorts,  all  the  Parts  of  an  Animal  are  formed,  1 1.  Cartila- 
ges and  Bonis,  1 1.  Mufcles,  1 3, 14, 1 5'.  Membranes  and  Skins,  1 6, 1 7. 
Glands  and  Giandulous  Parts,  18.  Whether  Conglobated,  19.  Or  Con- 
glomerated,  20.  The  Tejlicles,  x  1 .  The  Heart  and  all  Mufcular  Parts,  22. 
The  Spleen,  23,  The  Kidneys,  24.  77?^  Pancreas,  25.  The  Brain,  xG. 
The  Coats  wherein  they  are  all  irruolved,  xj,  x%.  The  like  Regularity  is 
alfofeen  in  their  Figures,  29,  30,  31,  32.  Some  further  Remarks  of  the 
Labyrinth  of  the  Ear,  33.     And  the  Cryflal  of  the  Eye,  34. 

C  BAT.  <).     Of  the  Ufe  of  Compounded  Bodies. 

^f^E  ^fe  of  1'kings  further  ohfervahle,  i.  As  appearing  everywhere^ 
efpecially  in  all  the  Parts  of  Plants  and  Animals,  x.  In  the  manifold 
^airiation  of  every  Part;  as  for  example,  of  the  Skin,  3.  The  Swim- 
Bladder,  4.  The  Cjyftal  of  the  Eye,  5.  The  Rock-Bone  of  the  Ear,  6. 
The  Parotides,  7.  The  Teeth,  S.  The  Wind-pipe,  ^,  10.  The  Lufigs,\i'. 
The  Brain,  12.  Likewife,  in  the  multifarious  Ufe  of  each  Part ;  as  for 
example,  of  the  I^ofe,  13.  The  Eye,  14,  15.  The  Tongue,  16.  The 
Hand,x'].  The  Belly -Mufcles,  \%.  In  the  Confpinng  too,  of  many  Parts 
mto  One  Ufe  -,  as  for  Nutrition,  18.  For  a  Single  Ad,  as  the  Flight  of  a 
Bird,  20.  Or  hut  to  Talk,  21.  Or  Laugh,  22.  Orjor  a  Single  Thought,  23. 
As  alfo,  in  the  Relation  of  one  Part  to  another,  24.  And  between  Man 
and  other  Parts  of  the  Univerfe,  x^.  All  of  them,  the  Undeniable  Effeds 
0f  a  mofi  Perfe^  Underftanding,  x6.    And  of  Equal  Goodnefs,  27. 



BOOK   the   Second. 


CHAT.   I.     Of  Life. 

THere  is  a  Vital  Sahftance  diflin£l  from  a  Body,  i.  The  Being  here- 
of, Pojfthle,  2,3.  Tho"  we  have  no  Adequate  Conception  hereof^  4,  5-. 
Reafonaik,  6.  Atld  Neceffary^  7.  For  as  much  as  Body,  cannot 
he  Vital,  8.  Neither  as  Suhtilized,  9,10,11.  Nor  as  Organized,  ix, 
15,  14,  15".  Nor  as  moved,  1 6.  Nor  as  Immediately  Endowed  with  Life, 
ly^  18,  19.  The  Communication  of  Things  Corporeal  and  Incorporeal,  how 
made,  20,  xi,22.  And  their  Union,  23.  The  feveral Species  of  LifCyX:^. 
The  Lowefi,  that  without  Senfe,  25,  26.  By  which  ail  Bodies  have  their 
Radiations  and  Mutual  Inclinations,  27.  And  are,  in  a  fort.  Animated,  28. 
So  as  to  make  one  Moiety  of  the  Univerfe,  29.  More  Remarkable  in  Plants 
and  Animals,  30.  In  their  Generation,  and  Nutrition,  31,  32.,  33,  34. 
And  in  fundry  of  their  Motions^  35'.  The  Benefit  of  this  its  Independence 
on  Senfihle  Life,  3  6. 

CHAT.   2.     Of  Senfe. 

CEnfe,  the  highefl  Species  of  Life,  in  fome  Things,  i .  Tet  the  AdjunSl 
^  of  a  diflinil  Principle^  2..  What  Senfe  is,  3.  The  Modes  of  Motion, 
on  which  Senfe  depends,  4.  On  which,  a/I  Grateful  Senfe,  5.  Sounds,  how 
diverffyd ;  in  being  Bigger,  6.  Louder y  and  Sharper,  7.  Mufical,  8. 
Whence  the  famenefi  of  a  Mufical  Note,  whether  Strong  or  Soft,  9.  Whence, 
Mufical  Concords,  lo.  Or  Difcords,  11,12.  Figures,  and  Colours,  how' 
they  become  Beautiful,  13,14.  Whence  the  diftin^ion  ofTaftes,  and  Scents, 
15,16.  Whence  any  pleafant  Touch,  1 7.  The  Trouhleftmenefi  of  Tickling,  1 8^ 
TVhencePain,  19.  The  fuitahlenefi  of  all  the  Injirume'nts  of  Senfe,  20.  77?^ 
Number  of  Senfe s,  limited  by  the  Number  of  Organs,  21.  The  Notice  they 
give  us  of  Senfibles,  True  and  Ju/i,  22,  23,  24,  25.  Tet  not  fujfficient  of 
themfelves,  to  produce  Senfe,  26. 

CHAT.   3.      OFMind.     And  firfl:  ,    Of  Phancy, 
•  or  Phancaflick  Mind. 

Jl4Ind or  Thought,  dijiind  from  Senfe,  i.     The  Species  hereof,  Phancy, 
and  Intelled,  2.     Of  Phancy,  we  are  to  d/ftingui/h  the  Organ,,^.    The 
Images,   4.     And  the  A^s,  5.     The  great  Ufe  hereof,  even  in  Brutes,  6. 
Tet  amounteth  not  to  IntelleLiion  ;  Becaufe  they  are  not  Improvable,   beyond 
their  own  Injlin£l,  7.     Nor  do  they  Work  Elellively,  8.    Nor  by  Imitation, 
nor  Drfquifition,  9.     Something  like  them,  in  Mad-men,   10.     Explain  d 
by  Inflances,  1 1.    Great  Evidences  of  the  Divine  Art,  1 2.    Human  Phancy, 
much  more  Noble,  13.    Defined,  14.     Its  Acls,  15,     The  Firft,  viz.  Per- 
ception', hath  its  Species,  16.     Every  Species,  Three  Modes,  17.    viz.  Re* 
cognition,  18.    Memory  and Reminijcence,  i<),  7.0,  ri.    Forefight  and  Fore ^ 
cafiy  22,23,24.     of  thefe,  confijl  the  Schemes  of  Phancy,  zj.     Either 

(b}  Anfwe"- 

-    •  !■■  iiM^ii  -   warn  I       I  ■ — ■ — ' — — 

iv*  The  Contents  of  the  Chapters. 

Attfwerahle  to  Senfe,  or  Arbitrary,  x6.  With  their  Parts,  an^ Colours,  %-]. 
And  are  the  Materials  of  Wit  and  Ingenuity,  i8.  Of  thefe  Alls,  which  pro- 
per  to  Mankind,  29.  Upon  Perception,  follow  the  f ever  al  Sorts  of  Fo  lit  ion 
or  Affe^ion,  10.  Their  various  Mixture, -^i.  And  Symptoms,  ;^z.  Front 
hence.  Habits,  3  5 ,  And  PaJJIons,  3 4,  3  ^.  The  l^eceffity  of  an  Incorporeal 
Principle,  demonflrated  from  the  Or^n  of  Phancy,  36,  :;7,  38.  And  from 
its  fever  al  Atts,  39,40,41.  The  Office  of  Phancy,  in  Generation,  ^x.  In 
ihe  t/fe  of  Corporeal  Habits,  43.     And  of  Mental,  44,  45,  46. 

CHAf.    4.      Of  Imelledual  Mind. 

HTHE  Intelle^^  hath  its  proper  Ohje^s,  andA&s,  i.  Senfe,  andPhancy^ 
■'■  have  nothing  to  do,  ivith  the  De^nition  of  the  Deity,  z.  Nor  of  any 
Thing  elfe,  3,  4,  5.  Nor  with  Univerfals,  6.  The  forming  of  which,  pe* 
culiar  to  the  Intelle^ual  Mind,  7.  Intelle^ion  defind,  8.  Its  Ails,  9. 
The  firfl,  viz.  Perception,  hath  Two  Modes,  10.  The  firfl,  Duhitation,  11. 
Attended  with  Difquijition  and  Collation,  ix,  13.  The  other,  Invention: 
Improperly,  or  Properly  fo  called,  14, 1 5, 1 6.  Attained,  either  by  Senfe,  17. 
Or  by  firfl  Theorems,  18.  Or  by  Confequence,  19.  All  Knowlege  ,  truly 
fo  called^  of  equal  Certitude,  lo.  To  fupfofe  the  Incertitude  of  any,  but 
that  of  Senfe  and  the  Mathematick,  abfurd^  zi.  Tet  Demonflration,  and 
Comprehenjion^  Two  Things ;  Jhewed  by  divers  Inflances,  zx,  z3,  z^,  z^. 
Next  to  Perception  y  Volition,  26.  Its  Modes,  27.  And  Concomitancy 
with  the  Underflandingy   28,  29,  30, 


CHAfP.   5.     Of  the  Three   Chief  Endowments   of 
Incelledual  Mind  5    And  firft,  Of  Science. 

HTRuth,  the  Obje^  of  the  Underflandin^ ,  1,  2.  The  feveral  Sorts  of 
■*•  Truth,  3 .  Theoremick  Truth,  Twofold,  4.  Tofitive  Truth,  the  Chief 
ground  of  Science  ;  which  confifleth  in  defining  the  Effences  of  Things,  5,  6. 
The  difference  between  Geniu  and  Generality,  7.  Definitions  of  Things 
Simple,  or  Senfble,  themoji  Perfe^,  8.  As  of  Quantity  ;  which  we  may 
confider  abflraSly,  9.  In  Geometry,  wetnufl,  10.  And  of  its  Relations; 
VIZ.  Equality,  XI.  Proportionality,  iz.  And Commenfurability,  i^.  As 
alfoy  of  Regular  Figures,  14.  And  their  Relations,  viz.  Similitude,  15. 
And  Coexijtence,  1 6.  The  Definitions  of  all  other  Things,  unattainable  j 
proved  by  Inflances,  17,  18,  19.  Definitions  fo  called,  are  no  more  than 
certain  Titles  or  Marks  to  know  them  by,  20,  21,  22.  Nor  are  the  Ideas 
we  have  of  Figure  and  Quantity,  abfolutely  Perfe^  ;  proved  by  Inflances, 
23,  24,  &c.  to  30.  Much  lefs,  that  we  have  of  the  Deity ,  31.  Tet 
are  ive  not  to  flay,  with  the  Schools,  upon  meet  Titles,  but  to  go  as  far 
as  we  can,  32. 

<:  H  A  P.    6. 


The  Contents  of  the  Chapters. 


CBAJ>.   6.     Of  Wifdom. 

T/fffont,  wore  JlreBly  looks  at  the  Caufes  of  Things,  i.  AJI  reducible 
to  the  Efficient,  x.  Whereof  there  are  Four  Cardinals,  3.  Each  of 
which ,  have  Four  General  Ways  of  Operation^  4,  j,  6,  7.  The  difiin£l 
Ohfervations  wheTeof  are  the  Elements  of  Wtfdom,  8. 

#/  the  Firft  Cardinal,  the  Firfl  v)ay  of  Operation,  is  that  of  Body  upok 
Body  ;  Either  ly  the  Bulk,  9.  The  Figure,  10.  Or  the  Po fit  ion,  n. 
On  which  are  grounded,  not  only  the  greater  part  of  Mechanick  Operations ; 
hut  the  Mechanifm  and  Motions  of  Animals,  12.  And  in  a  great  part, 
the  Produflion  of  Sundry  Difeafes,  13.  As  alfo  the  Internal  Anions  and 
Operations  of  Bodies,  14'.     Seldom  knowahle,  faving  in  their  vifible  Ef- 

fe£ls,  15,16.  The  Second  way  of  Operation,  is  that  of  Body  upon  Senfe,  1 7. 
The  Third,  of  Body  upon  Phancy  ;  whereof,  divers  Injlances,  1 8, 19,'  zo, 
11.     The  Fourth,  of  Body  upon  Reafon,  xx. 

Of  the  Second  Cardinal,  the  Firfi  way  of  Operation,  is  of  Senfe  upon 
Body,  13.  The  Second,  of  Senfe  upon  Senfe,  7,4,  z^.  The  Third,  of  Senfe 
upon  Phancy,  a6,  27.  The  Fturth,  of  Senfe  upon  Reafon,  xB.  Further 
Jnftanced,  in  the  Operation  of  Beauty,  19.  Cloaths,  30.  Speech,  jr. 
And  Gefture,  32. 

Of  the  Third  Cardinal,  the  Firft  way  of  Operation,  is  that  of  Phancy 
upon  Body,  whereof  divers  Inftances,  33,34,35,36.  The  Second,  of 
Phancy  upon  Senfe,  37,38,39.  The  Third ^  of  Phancy  upon  Phancy; 
/hewed  in  fundry  Inftances,  40,  &c.  to  46.  The  Fourth,  of  Phancy  upon 
Reafon.  By  its  Perceptive  Ails,  47.  And  thofe  of  Volition,  48,  49. 
Among  other  Phancies,  Four  efpeciaUy,  often  fuperier  unto  Reafon ;  viz. 
Wit,  51,  5  i,  5"  3.      Opinion;   whereof  fundry  Inftances,   54,  &c.  te  5-8. 

.  Ilove,  59,60.     And  Pride,  61. 

J  Of  ih&  Fourth  Cardinal,  the  Firfi  way  of  Operation,  is  that  of  Reafon 
upon  Body,  6 1,  6  3 .  The  Second,  of  Reafon  upon  Senfe,  64, 65-.  The  Third 
of  Reafon  upon  Phancy,  66,  6j.  Which  it  Governs,  andUfesfeveral  ways, 
69,  70.  77?^  Fourth,  of  Reafon  upon  Reafon.  Either  in  another,  71,71. 
Or  in  a  Man  s  Self.  As  one  Truth  begets  another,  73.  Either  Proxi- 
tmate ;  whereof  divers  Inftances,  74,  &c.  to  j^.  Or  Remote,  80,81, 
iBx,  83.  And  often  builds  high,  upon  mean  Foundations,  84,  &c.  to  88. 
And  as  the  Underftanding  operates  on  the  Intellectual  Will,  89.  How  all 
Wifdom  founded  in  the  Premifes,  90. 

CHAf.  7.      Of  Virtue. 

/^Oodneft,  what,  i.  Hereof,  many  Kinds,  z.  As  more  or  left  Certain, -i. 
^^  Or  Comprehenfve,  4.  Or  Enjoy  d;  Wiiether  Senfual,  5-.  Phanta- 
Jiick,  6.  Or  IntelleUual,  7.  As  one  kind,  or  degree,  is  related  to  ano- 
ther, 8.  Or  to  theUniverfe,  9,  10.  In  the  Choice  whereof,  confifteth 
Virtue,  1 1.  Which  is  one  Immutable  Thing,  12.  In  chufing  the  Beft  End 
and  Means,  13,  14.  And  is  the  higheft  Wifdcm,  15.  To  be  Virtuous, 
more  than  to  be  Innocent,  16.  Is  joyned  with  Refolution,  17.  And  is 
the  Force,  both  of  Reafon,  and  of  Phancy,  18.  Therefore  the  higheft  Wif- 
dom, and  fomethingmore,  i^,zo.     Mediocrity,  not  hereunto neceffary,zi^ 


vi  The  Contents  of   the  Chapters 

But  Proporiiorty  r%,xi.     And  Uniformity^  24.      Confifient  with  feveral 
Degrees^  z^.     But  with  none,  under   its  being  Intelledual,   1.6.     With 
Reafon^  the  Affe£lions  hecowe  Firtues ,  27.     Which  receive  their  Names ^ 
from  the  OljeBy  28.     Three  Virtues,  fo  called^  rather  lelonging  to  all  • 
viz.  Prudence,  29.     Conftancy,  30.     And  Love  or  Charity,  31.     Four^ 
mar^  eminently  Ufeful,  \%.     The  Firfiy  Humility  ;  Founded  upon  great  Rea~ 
fon,  33,34.     And  of  great  Ufe^  ISih^iM-     The  Second,  Magnanimity  ; 
alfo  of  great  Ufe,  38.     Chiefly,  as  it  begets  Indufiry,   39,40.     And  Sa- 
pience or  the  LoveofWifdom,  .41.     The  Third,  Juflice  ;  likewife  a  Ni^le 
Virtue,  and  of  Great  and  Publick  Ufe,  42-,  43.     The  Fourth,  Fortitude^ 
afewelcompofedoffeveralGems,  44?  4^.    viz.  Juftice,  ^6.     Prudence, 
47,     And  Courage,  48.     In  all,  we  are  to  fhew,  the  Dignity  of  Virtue^  49. 
As  the  Workman fl^ip,  and  Image,  of  the  Deity,  50,  51,  52. 

•~V'  CHAT.   8.   .Of  Ccleftial  Mind. 


'  T  the  knowledge  we  have  of  the  Divine  Perfeflion,  i .  And  of  our 
own  Imperfetlion,  2,3.  And  of  Nature  below  us,  4.  We  may  come 
to  the  Knowledge  of  Nature  above  m  -,  viz.  the  Exiflence  of  a  more  Per. 
fed  Mind,  4,  5,  6.  As  aljo,  from  the  Plenitude  of  the  Vifible  World,  7. 
And  its  Indefinite  Extent,  8.  That  there  are  feveral  Degrees  of  Supe- 
riority herein,  likewife  indicated.  From  our  Selves,  9.  An^  Jrom  the 
Creatures  below  us,  10,11.  .7'/'^^  they  are  of  Two  General  Orders,  ix,. 
Embody d,  13,14.  And  Pure  Mind,  15-.  The  former,  not  without 
Senfe,  1 6.  Nor  Phapcy,  1 7.  And  that  of  a  higher  Species,  than  the 
Human,  18.  But  withfuch  an  Intelled,  as  js  Coordinate  with  our  own, 
19,2.0.  And  capable  of  Moral  Evil,  21.  That  Pure  Mind^  is  either 
Compomnded,  viz.  of  Phancy  and  Intelle^,  z2,  &c.  to  26,  And  both  of 
a  Superior  Species,  27.  The  Latter  aBing  by  Dire^  Intuition,  28,  29, 
Or  Simple  ',  that  Ji,  Abftra£ied  Intellectual  Mind;  viewing  Things,  with 
■a  Contemporary  Intuition,  30.  Whereof,  we  have  the  Shadow  in  our 
Selves,  31.  P  erf ed  in  its  Nature,  32.  And  in  its  Extent,  t^t^.  With 
the  PerfedioM  of  Will,  34.     And  of  Happinefi  grounded  hereon,  35-. 

88  c^  , 

■      vv.  :i  *., 


The  Contents  of  the  Chapters. 


BOOK    the    Third. 

CHAT.   1 .      Of  the  Nature  of  God's  Government , 
or  of  Providence. 

PRovidence^  what^  i.  The  Being  hereof  demoHjlrated  from  the  Cre- 
ation, i,  3,  4.  ^fom  the  Imperfeiiion  of  the  Creature,  y.  And 
the  Conflitution  of  the  Univerfe,  6.  The  Nature  hereof  7.  Of 
Vniverfal  Extent^  8.  V roved,  9, 10,  11,  ix.  Of  a  Becoming  Form,  13. 
With  the  Minifiry  of  Second  Caufes,  14,  1 5-,  16.  And  their  due  Order ^ 
17, 18.  In  their  Dominion  feen  among  Corporeal  Principles,  19.  Among 
Motions,  xo.  In  that  of  Celejlial  Bodies,  over  the  Earth,  zi.  Parti- 
cularly,  that  of  the  Sun,  x%,  z^,  24.  Of  the  Moon  ;  feen  in  thofe  Ef- 
feds, efieemed Natural,  %^,z6,zy,zS.  And  Preternatural,  x^, -^o.  In 
the  Dominion  of  the  Vital,  over  the  Corporeal  World,  31,  3  x.  tet  tvith 
Limitation,  33.  And  in  that  feen  among  all  the  Parts  of  the  Vital;  as 
among  Brutes,  the  Phantafiick,  34.  The  ArUtraty^  of  Man  over  Brutes, 
54.  And  the  Civil,  among  Men,  35,36.  In  that  dlfo,  of  the  Superiof 
World,  over  the  Minds  of  Men,  37.  Proved,  38,  39,40.  Tet  t»ith 
Limitation ,  41,  41,  43.     And  that  of  the  Superior  World  within  it 

M*  44>  45- 

CHAf.   2. 

Of  the  Ends  of  Providence  :    And 
firflj^  in  this  Life. 

'THE   Ends  of  Things  with  refpeii  to  Providence,  i.     Not  always 
•*■  feen,  z.     for  divers  Caufes,  5,4,  5,  6.     Tet  our  Enquiries  into  thef)i, 
not  to  leftinted,  J.     No  real  Contingents,  %.     What,  fo  called,  ().     What 
meant,  ly  Fortune,  10.     No  Accident,  really  Minute,  ii.     AsGodworki 
hy  Accidents,  fo  iiy  fi^pending  Good  Counf els,  12.    And  frufl rating  the 
ieji  Precaution  i  called  Fate,  12.     The  Synmetry  of  Providence ,  hoiV 
feen,.  14,  i^,  16.     To  he  owned,  in  the  mofi  Natural  Ejfe^s^  17,  i^. 
And  in  all  /^reealle  Events,,  19.     Providence,  Good  and  Jwfi^  46,  zi. 
Notwithfianding  the  Permij^on.  of  Moral,  and  the  Forecaft  of  Penal  Evil, 
az,  zjy  »4,     Which  Men  commonly  hring  upon  themf elves,  z  j-.     The  ofie, 
Jomefimcs  vifihly  cmgrnom  to  the  other,  z6,  zj.     The  Divine  Goodnefi 
apparent,  in  over-ruling  of  both.     Sundry  Infiances  ;  In  the  Body  of  Man, 
18,  &c.  ^i»  33.     In  the  greater  Parts  of  the  World,  as  the  Air,  W^- 
ter,&cc.  34.     In  Minerals,  Plants,  and  Animals,  &c.  35.  to  40,     All 
which,  we  are  fitted  to  Command,  40.     In  fitting  us  alfo,  to  ferve  one 
another.    By  certain  Similitudes  in  Nature,  41.     By  fome  Difimilitudes, 
4Z,  43.     And  the  djfferent  Difpenfation,  of  her  Gifts,  44.     Tet  fo,  as 
that  every  one  hath,  or  may  have,  the  Suhftance  of  all  Good,  45.     In 
hinging  Good  out  of  Evil  j  whereof  fundry  Injiances,  In  the  greater  Parts 

CO  ef 

viii  The  jCon tents  of  the  Chapters. 

of  the  World,  46.  In  Minerals^  Plants,  and  Animals,  47,  48,49. 
Things  Hurtful,  hy  Accident,  50.  The  feeming  Faults  of  our  own  Bodies, 
of  great  Ufe,  51,  5:1.  As  alfo  thofe  of  our  Minds,  53,  to  56.  Lafily , 
In  the  Alternate  Diftrihution  of  Good  and  Evil,  57,  58. 

C  fiJT.   j.     Of  Providence  over  Publick  States. 


THerein  God  deals  with  the  Body  Politick,  as  with  One  Man,  i,  %. 
Exhibiting  both  his  Juflice  and  Benevolence,  fundry  ways,  3.  Shewed 
in  divers  Infiances.  In  the  Spartan  and  Meflenian  Commonwealths^  4. 
In  the  Athenian,  5.  In  the  Babylonian  Monarchy,  overthrown  hy  Cy- 
rus, 6.  In  the  Vex(\3in,fupplanted  by  VhiM^,  8.  And  overthrown  by  Alexan- 
4^r,  9, 10.  Who  afterward,  was  left  to  dejiroy  himfelf,  11.  But  efpeciaUy, 
in  the  Komzrx  State,  i%.  Eminent  for  their  Virtue,  12,13,14.  And 
the^EJleem  they  had  of  Virtuous  Men,  15.  Their  Courage,  16.  Pru- 
dence, 17.  'Juflice,  efpecially  in  their  Wars,  18,  19.  And  Moderation 
ivith  their  Victories,  zo.  And  thefe  their  Virtues,  as  Eminently  attended 
with  a  Divine  Favour.  Remarkable  upon  fundry  Occajions,  ri.  Efpeci- 
ally, in  their  Prefervation  from  Ruin,  by  Averroefles,  22.  And  by  Han-  ' 
nibal,  23.  And  in  the  Extent  of  their  Empire  afterwards,  24.  And 
their  Crimes,  as  Remarkably  Punifljd.  One,  in  relation  to  the  Gauls, 
25",  26.  The  other,  in  relation  to  the  Carthaginians,  27,  28.  And 
after  their  Advancement^  growing  worfe  j  were  left  in  conclu^on,  to  de- 
jiroy themfelves,  z^. 

CBJT.    4.      Of  the  Celeftial  Life. 

n^H  E  Certainty  we  have  of  the  Future  Life,  i.  Proved,  From  the 
■'■  perpetual  Identity  of  Corporeal  Principles,  and  of  Motion,  ,2,  3,4: 
From  the  Convenient  Tranfition  of  Corporeal  Principles,  from  one  Eftate 
of  Being  to  another,  5,  6.  And  from  the  ftrong  Conception  ,  which  the 
Mind  of  Man  hath,  of  Futurity,  7.  The  Future  Eftate  hereof,  fuperior 
to  the  Prefent,  S.  Tet  to  be.Invefted  with  a  Body,  9,  iq.  Of  another 
fort,  11,12,13.  But  capable  of  Senfe,  14.  And  of  Phancy,  i^.  And 
this,  as  well  as  Intellection,  more  perfeSl,  16.  But  with  the  fame  Incli- 
nations, 17.  According  to  which,  ever-^  one  will  be  dealt  with,  18;  At 
the  Divine  Tribunal,  19.  And  before  all,  20.  Either  to  a  fad  Eftate,  21. 
Or  Happinefi.  Depending  Chiefly  on  the  Perfe^ions  of  the  Mind,  22.  As 
refpe^ing  Things  pafl,  23,  24. .  Or  then  prefent.  Efpecially  in  the  Enjoy- 
hrent  of  God,  25',  26,  27.  As  the  Fulleft  Good,  28,  29.  The  Near  eft  to 
ttf ,  3  o,  3 1 .  And  the  moft  Certain,  3  2.  And  in  the  Imitation  of  him,  in 
the  Energy,  San^ity,  and  Regularity  of  our  Virtue,  33,  ^0  36*  In  every 
Celeftial  Eftate,  37,  38. 

-  "■•'     -'  'f-  ■"■  ■ 

•A      -      V  ' 

:^:,  CHAP. '). 


.The  Contents  of  the  Chapters.  ix 

CHAT.    5.      Of  the  Rules  of   Providence.      And 
fir  ft,  of  the  Law  of  Nature. 

N  on/er  to  the  Future  Life,  we  are  to  enquire  into  the  Rule;  nf<?  are 
to  go  ly,  i»  ThiSy  i.  Reafon,  is  one  Rule,  andthefirft,  2.  By  which ^ 
we  make  a  judgment  of  Good  and  Evil^  3.  And  are  account allc  unto 
God,  4,  Notwithflanding  the  pretended  Superiority  of  Senfcy  5,6.  Our 
Sulje£lion  unto  Whorn,  according  to  Reafon,  that  is.  Nature,  is  our  Natu- 
ral Religion,  7,  8.  Either  in  the  Duties  we  owe  to  our  Selves  and  Others  ; 
as  for  example.  In  the  Ufe  of  Temperance ^  9.  Sobriety,  10.  Qka- 
Jiity,  II.  Diligence,  iz.  Contentment,  13.  Or  in  fhofe,  we  owe  im. 
mediately  unto  God;  In  Learning  to  Know,  14,  if.  Love,  16,  17. 
Fear,  18.  Revere,  19,  ao.  Obey,  xi.  And  Adore  Him,  xi.  And 
herewith,  to  Rely  upon  him,  x^,  24,  xj.  Chiefly,  for  our  Future  Hap- 
pinefi,  z6,z'j.  To  be  always  hereunto  ready,  efpecially  in  our  Service 
of  Fray er,  z8,  &c.  to  ^z.     And  of  Praife,  33. 

.    CBAT.    6.      Of  Pofitive  Law. 

^T'Hough  the  Law  of  Nature,  is  of  feme  force,  i.  And  is  the  Foundation 
*•■•  of  all  Pofitive  Laws,  z.  Tet  the  giving  of  an  Exprefi  Divine  Law, 
veceffary,  3.  To  add  Light,  unto  that  of  Nature,  4.  Overjhadowd 
with  Darknefi,  5,  6.  Even  among  the  Wifeft  Men  and  Nations,  7,  8. 
And  to  add  Strength  to  it,  9.  And  unto  Human  Laws  themfelves , 
xo,  &c.  to  14.  Nor  was  it  fit,  for  the  Supream  Reafon,  to  leave  Men 
entirely  to  their  own  Reafon,  15,  16,  17.  Nor  to  their  own  Will,  18. 
It  would  Impeach  the  Wifdom  of  his  Creation,  19.  And  of  his  Provi' 
dence,  xo.     And  Eclipfe  his  Goodnefi,  fundry  ways,  xi,  xz,  xt,,  24. 


The  Gontents  of  the  Chapters. 

BOOK   the   Fourth. 

C  H  A^.    1 .     Of  the  Integrity  of  the  Hebrew  Code. 

THIS^  very  provable^  i.  From  the  fafe  Cufiody  of  the  Original 
Books ^  -i.^  T,.  And  their  frequent  Pul>licatioM,  ^.  From  the  Ma^ 
ny  and  Early  Copies  taken  of  the  faid  Originals,  5-,  6.  From  the 
Many  and  Early  Tranflations  of  the  fame.  As  firfi,  the  Two  mo  ft  ancient 
Pentateuchs,  viz.  the  Samaritan  and  the  Greek,  7.  Next,  that  of  the 
Septuagint,  8,9,10.  Which  took  in  the  whole  Hebrew  Code,  n. 
And  whereof  we  have  now  the  True  Copies.  As  appears,  from  the  fafe 
Cuftody  of  the  Original  for  a$ove  Two  Hundred  Tears,  12.  From  the  fe- 
deral and  very  early  Editions  hereof,  13,  14.  And  the  Antiquity  of  the 
Manufcript  Copies  now  Extant,  1 5:.  Next  to  this,  the  Targum  or  Chal- 
dee  Paraphrafe,  1 6.  Then  the  Syriac  Verfton,  1 7.  The  later  Samari- 
tan, Ethiopick,  Vulgar  Latin,  ^c.  18.  Further  proved.  From  the  M^~ 
fora  :  as  containing  the  Ohfervations  of  the  more  ancient  Rabhies,  10  ^.o. 
Of  theVoii'T2\m\xdLick  Rahhiesy  xi.  And  the  Hebrew  Puntiation,  zz. 
The  Tukkun  Sopherim  being  allow' d,  23  :  And  fame  few  Errata  of  the 
Scribes,  24  :  Tet  by  means  of  the  Three  Letters,  called  Matres  Lecili- 
onis,  the  Text  is  everywhere  tfncorruptcd,  7.$.  Which  none  could poffiblv 
have  Corrupted,  if  they  would,  ^6.  Nor  would  they,  if  they  could!,  xj. 
Nor  are  the  few  Errata  herein,  inconfiflent  with  its  being  cf  a  Divine 
Original,  28,  to  the  end. 

CHAT.    2.     Of  the  Truth  and  Excellency  of  the  Hehren> 
Code.     And  firft,  as  th^y  appear  from  Foreign  Proof. 

^^HE  Hebrew  Code,  a  True  Account  of  Things,  as  well  as  a  True  Copy,  1. 
■^  As  appears  from  the  Agreement  ofProphane,  with  the  Sacred  Writers, 
2,  3.  As  for  Injlance ;  In  what  is  faid  of  the  Creation,  4.  Adam'i 
Food,  f.  The  Serpent,  6.  Adam  J  Cloathing,  7.  CainV  Offering,  7. 
The  great  Age  fl/z/^e  Ante-diluvians,  8.  The  Mofzick  Genealogies,  8,9, 
10,11.  The  Flood  and  'Soah's  Ark,  12.  The  Tower  of  Bahd,  iS.  The 
Ci/y  0/ Nineveh,  14.  The  Burning  of  Sodom,  if.  Divers  of  the  Pa- 
triarchs ;  iM  Abraham,  16.  Jacob,  17.  Job,  18.  Jofeph,  19.  Mo- 
fes,  20.  Jofliua,  21.  The  Land  of  C'dnazn,  22.  David,  23.  Solo- 
mon, 24.  The  Babylonian  Captivity,  25.  Nebuchadnezzar,  26.  BeJ- 
fliazzar,  27.  The  Taking  of  Babylon,  28.  With  fame  other  Particu. 
lars,  29.  Which  Agreement,  though  fomewhat  obfcured,  30.  Tet  fuffici- 
ent,  3 1 .  Many  particulars,  not  only  Reported,  but  Imitated  by  Men  of 
other  Nations :  as  in  their  Fables,  3  2,  &c.  ^035.  And  Poet  ick  Sayings,  3  6. 
Much,  /j  Homer,  37,38,39.  By  Philofophers ,  40,41.  Efpecially 
Plato,  42.  By  Princes  and Legijlators.  In  their  Occajional Policies,  43,  &c. 
/o  47.  And  in  many  of  their  Stated  Laws,  48,49.  Anjwering  to  thofe 
of  the  Decalogue,  and  other  Mofa ick  Z.<7U'J,  50,  &c.  to  6'j.  The  ConcluJ 
(ion  from  the  Premifes,  68. 

C  HA  P^   ;. 

The  Contents  of  the  Chapters  xi 

CHAT.  3.  Of  the  Truth  and  Excelkncy  of  the  Hebrew 
Code,  as  they  appear  in  it  felf.  And  firft,  if  we  confider 
the  ^v  riters. 

THE  Truth  of  the  Old  Tcjiament,  though  hy  fome  doubted  of   i.     tet 
appears,  vot  ordy  from  the  Teliimony  of  Prophane  Authors,  as  we  have 
feen,  z.     But  further,  from  the  Sacred  Writers  themfehesf    Their  great 
Antiquity,  3.     Mofcs,  within  the  time  of  Longevity,  4,  5-,  6.     And  not 
the  jirjl'Sacred  Writer^   7.     Some  fort  oj  Writing,  prolahly  in  the  Churchy 
from  the  Beginning,   8.     The  Pentateuch,  except  fame  few  injerted  Paffa- 
gesy  Recorded  hy  himfelf,  or  his  Order,  9.     Both  the  Legiflative  Part,  10. 
And  the  Hiftorical,   11.     Mofl  of  the  ether  Books,  Writ,  or  Dilated,  ly 
thofe  wkofe  Names  they  bear,  1  z.     Whoever  were  the  Authors  of  the  reft, 
'tis  certain,  that  the  Contents  hereof,  were  Recorded  in  the  Puhlick  Jout- 
nals,  I  5 .     Whereof,  they  who  had  the  Making  and  Cuftody,  were  the  Priefts, 
14.     And  the  Prop,hets,  15.     The  former,  excellently  qualify  d  for  this 
Office,  16,     And  fo  the  Latter,   17.     And  their  Writings,  have  all  the 
Mvks  of  Truth.    Exathiefs  in  their  Chronology,  18.    And  Genealogies,  19. 
In  their  Defcriptions,  zo.     Simplicity  of  Style,  %i.     Their  Narratives, 
jufl,  zt.      Pertinent,  23.     Not pompoufly  amplify  d,  Z4.     Nor  vainly  re- 
pea  ted,  Xj.     Their  Speech,  proper,  z6,z7.     Of  Men,  one  to  another,  zS. 
Of  Men,  unto  God,  z^.     Of  God,  unto  Men  ;  where,  the  Prophetick  Style, 
is  confider  d,  30,  &c.  /<?  35".     Their  Harmony,  ohfervahle  everywhere,  not- 
■withfldndingmany  feemingContradi^lions,   36.     Chiefly,  through  mifohfer' 
ling  the  Sacred  Story  ;  as  in  divers  In  (lances,  11,  to  40.     Sundry  notori- 
ous Mijiakes  of  Spinofa,  41,  &c.  to  48.     The  Agreement  between  the  Old' 
Teftament-Hiftorians,  in  ivhat  they  Write,  49,  50,  ji.     And  between  the 
Prophets,  ^z,  5-3.     In  the  JEnd  they  all propofe  to  themfelves,  54,  5-5. 
And  the  Agreement  between  the  Old  left  ament  and  the  New,  56. 

C  HAT.  4.     Of  the  Contents  of  the  Old  Teflamenc. 
And  firfl: ,  of  the  Hiftpry. 

CCripture-H/ftory,  Singular,  i,  a.  In  the  account  we  have.  Of  Man s 
^  Primitive  Perfe^ion,  3.  The  coming  of  Evil  into  the  World,  4,  The 
Holy  Line,  ^.  The  Longevity  of  the  firft  Ages,  6.  The  Univerfal  De- 
luge, 7,  Noah'j-  Ark,  8,  And  the  Original  of  Nations,  9,  lo,  11.  Scrip- 
ture-Hiftory,  other  wife  Remarkable  ;  Jhewed  in  fundry  Inftances  iz  &c 
to  zi.  Not  Blemifhed  with  any  Immorality  :  though  there  feems  to  he  fome 
Inftances  hereof,  ix,  &c.  to  z%.  Nor  with  any  thing  Romantick  or  Ab- 
furd,  notwithftanding  any  feeming  Inftances,  29,  to  52.  Further  ft^ewed, 
33,  &C.  to  ij.  Nor  with  any  thing,  to  be  accounted  Trivial,  38,  &c. 
to  41, 

Cd}  C  HA  P,    s. 

xii  The  Contents  of  the  Chapters. 

CHJT.   5.     Of  the  Miracles. 

T"HE  Truth  of  thefe,  fpeciall^  proved^  r.  By  diftinguijhingthe  Mira* 
culous  Works  of  Creation^  from  Miracles^  commonly  fo  called^  x,  3,4. 
By  laying  down  the  fever  al  Properties  of  a  Miracle^  5,  &c.  /o  13.  Jppli- 
cable  to  all  thofe  reported  to  us  in  the  Scriptures.  As  the  feeming  Change 
of  Aaron'j  Rod^  into  a  Serpent^  14.  the  turning  of  the  Rivers  into 
Blood,  And  bringing  the  Frogs  into  the  Houfes  of  the  Egyptians,  1 5-. 
Turning  the  DUJi  into  Lice,  And  bringing  the  Swarm  of  Flies,  1 6.  The 
Murrain,  And  Boyls  upon  Man  and  Beaft,  1 7.  The  Hail,  Locufts,  Dark- 
nefi,  and  Peflilential  Plague,  18.  The  Caufes  of  all  ivhich,  were  Limited^ 
19.  Andfuited  to  their  Ends,  xo.  The  Truth  of  the  foref aid  Miracles^ 
further  proved,  xi,  ai.  And  of  fun  dry  others.  As  the  drying  up  of  the 
Red  Sea,  x4,  25.  The  Pillar  of  a  Cloud  by  day,  and  of  Fire  by  night,  x6. 
The  defcending  o/Manna,  zj,  i8,  29.  Bringing  Water  out  of  the  Rock,  30. 
Bringing  the  Quails,  31.  The'Earthfwallowing  up  Corah,  ^c.  t,x.  The 
Fire  which  confumed  thofe  who  offered  Incenfe,  33.  The  Bloffoming  of 
Aaron  V  Rod,  34.  The  Sanative  Power  of  the  Brazen  Serpent ,  35.  The 
Cutting  off  of  the  Waters  o/Jordan,3  6.  The  Fall  of  the  Walls  0/ Jericho,  3  7. 
The  ftanding  fiill  of  the  Sun  and  Moon,  38,39.  The  Suns  Jhadow  going 
back,  40.    Afjd  the  Confimption  of  the  Sacrifice,  by  Fire  from  Beaven,  41. 

C  H  Af.    6.     Of  the  Prophecies. 

PRophecy,  herefpoken  of  in  the  firi^efl  Senfe,  i.  Suppofeth,  the  non- 
being  of  Contingents,  x.  The  Definition  hereof;  with  Proofs  of  the 
Divinity  of  Scripture-Prophecies,  3 .  From  the  Manner  oj  their  being  Re- 
vealed,  4,  5,  6,  7.  With  the  Affurance  the  Prophets  always  had,  of  the 
Revelation,  8.  From  the  Matter  herein  contained,  9, 10,  11.  And  front 
the  Evidence,  wherewith  they  have  been  Fulfilled,  xr.  Both  thofe,  which 
■  relate  to  the  Heathen  World;  As  the  Ruin  0/ Nineveh,  13.  O/Tyre,  14. 
Of  Egypt,  15.  And off&zhylon,  16,  17;  Nebuchadnezzar'^  Dream,  of 
the  Four  Heathen  Monarchies,  1 8.  Daniel'^  Prophecy,  of  the  Grxcian,  19. 
And  thofe,  which  relate  to  the  Jews.  Either  to  particular  Perfons,  zo. 
'  Or  to  the  feveral  Tribes  ;  VIZ,  o/Reuben,  21.     Judah,  22.     Levi,  23. 

Jofeph,  or  Ephraim  W  Manafleh,  24.  And  the  reft,  25,26.  Or  to 
the  Whole  Jewifti  Nation.  With  refpe^  to  their  Sins  and  Punift^ments  for 
the  fame,  27,28,  29.  Chiefly,  upon  their  Captivity,  3  o,  3 1 .  And  after- 
mrds,  31.  And  with  refpeil  to  the  Bleffmgs  they  Enjoy  d;  Chiefly  Three, 
viz.  A  numerous  Offspring,  33,34,35:-  The  Land  of  C^n-^^t), -^6.  Re- 
markably, in  their  Return  thither,  37,  38.  And  after,  39.  And  the 
Efpecial  Prefence  of  God,  as  their  King ,  40, 6fc.  to  44. 

CHAP.  7. 

The  Contents  of  the  Chapters.  xiii 

CHAf-   7'      Of  the  Laws.     And  firft,   of  thofe 
given  to  Jdam  and  ISloah. 

'H  E  ReafoH  of  the  Law,  to  he  fuppofed  of  great  Extent^  i .  Four 
Difpenjations  hereof  z.  The  Laws  given  to  Adam  lefore  the  Fall  j 
CoiKerning  Food,  3.  The  Sahhath ,  4,5.  Daily  Labour,  6.  Modera^ 
tion,  6.  And  Marriage,  7,  After  the  Fall ;  The  Retrenchment  of  Li- 
lerty,  9.  The  Suhtraclion  of  Food,  10.  And  Addition  of  Labour,  11. 
The  giving  of  other  Laws  not  mentioned,  to  he  fuppofed^  11,13,14.  Chiefly, 
about  Sacrifices  ;  not  taught  by  Mature^  if,  16,  17,  r8.  But  of  Divine 
Jnflitution,  19,  lo,  21.  With  other  Laws,  anfwerable  to  the  Corruption 
of  Mankind,  and  the  Promife  of  a  Saviour,  ii,  21.  Laws  alfo  given  to 
Noah,  23.  Fiefh  allowed,  24.  Raw  Flefh,  and  Blood,  forbidden,  %^. 
And  Murder,  z6.  Befides  thefe^  others  not  mentioned,  to  be  fuppofed. 
Proved  from  Pajfages  recorded  of  the  Heathen  World,  27.  \And  of  the  Holy 
Seed,  z8,  &c.  /'o  33.     Chiefly,  c/ Abraham,  34.  As  given  unto  All,  jj. 

CHAT.   8.     Of  the  MofakkL^w. 

JI/HT  given  only  to  the  Jews  ;  and  what,  in  general,  i.  This  Difpen^ 
^^  fation,  admirable  ;  if  we  conjider  the  Preparatory  Part,  2.  The  De- 
corum wherewith  it  was  accompanied,  3.  The  Method  in  which  it  was 
writ,  4.  A«d  the  Reafon  of  the  Law  itfelf,  5.  Firfl,  In  Temporal  re- 
fpe£ls,6.  As  the  Duty  of  Children,  J, "i.  Of  Servants,  ^.  Of  Subjects,  loi 
The  Leffer  Sanhedrim,  11.  The  Court  of  Appeals,  1 1.  The  Greater  San- 
hedrim, 13.  The  King,  14.  .  The  Military  Orders,  15.  The  Laws  againfl 
■Murder,  1 6.  Manflaughter,  1 7.  The  Dietetick  Laws .-  partly  for  Health,  1 8. 
As  appears,  In  what  was  allowed,  ig.  Forbidden,  xo.  As  alfo,  for  Good 
Husbandry,  zi.  AndContinency,  zx.  The  Laws  againfl  all  forts  of  In- 
crdinate  Venery,  13,  24,  25.  Divers  other  Laws,  hereunto  relating,  z6, 
zj,  28.  Laivs  relating  to  their  Goods  and  Chattels,  29,  30,  31.  Their 
Real  Eflates.  The  Eflates  of  Each  Tribe,  32.  Of  Each  Family,  3  3 .  Par- 
ticularly,  of  the  Levites,  34.  Some  other  Laws  hereunto  relating,  35-. 
For  regulating  the  Courts  of  Jufl  ice,  7,6,  Tfj.  Againfl  Extortion,  t^^.  Op' 
preffion,  39.  And  other  Injuries,  40.  To  be  Benevolent  to  all,  41.  Thefe 
Laws,  further  Singular,  In  being  given  together^  42.  And  in  few  Words, 
43.     The  Advantages  thence  arifing,  44. 

Next,  In  Spiritual  refpeHs,  45-.  Again]}  Polytheifm,'%^  Idolatry, 
47,48.  Blajphemy ,  49.  Gods  Attributes,  alfa  to  he  obferved  in  hh 
Works.  Of  Creation,  50.  And  of  Providence,  51.  Efpecially  relating 
to  themfelves.     Here,  53.     And  in  the  Future  Life,  54. 

The  Ceremonial  Law,  further  infirutlive  herein,  5^5.  The  Defcription 
of  the  Tabernacle,  in  general,  56,  57,  58.  Of  the  Parts ;  viz.  The  Boards, 
59.  Bars,  60.  Curtains,  61,  62.  Floar ,  63.  The  Figure  of  the 
Whole,  64.  Of  the  moft  Holy  Place,  65.  The  Furniture  within  the  Veil; 
viz.  The  Ark,  66.  The  Mercy-Seat,  67.  The  Cherubims,  68.  With- 
fiut,  viz.  The  Altar  pf  Incenfe,  6^.  The  Table,  "/o.  TheCandleJlicks,yi. 
Their  Situation,  72.  And^  the  Vefluary,  73.  Without  the  Tabernacle; 
the  Brazen  Altar,  74,75.     The  Laver,  76.     And  the  Court,  77.     The 


xiv  The  Contents  of  the  Chapters. 

l^amlers  and  Meafures  in  the  Talernacle,  how  they  aKJvoer  to  thofe  in  the 
Body  of  Man^  78,  to  86.  The  Ornaments  of  the  High  Priefl^  87,  The 
Breafi.PIate,  88.  The  Urim  and  Thummim,  89.  The  Arts  ufed  for 
making  all,  90.  And  the  Materials,  91.  With  the  Service  hereunto  he- 
IcKging^  91. 

Of  all  which,  there  was  a  Myflical  Intent,  92.     To  Exhilit  the  Power 
and  Wifdom  of  God,  93,  94,     And  the  Excellency  of  hu  Works.     Of  Cre- 
ation, 95.     And  of  Providence,  96,  97.     As  alfo  his  Omnifcience ,  ^"i. 
Jnflice,  99.     Sovereignty,   100.      Holinefb^  loi,  loi,  103.     And  Good' 
;/(?/},  104.     To  Exhibit  likewife  fomething  of  Heaven,  lo--^.     The  polluted 
Eftate  of  this  Lower  World,  ic6.     And  the  San^ity  whereunto  the  Jews 
were  called,   107.     For  which,  the  Prieflhood  was  Ordain  d ,  108.     And 
the  Priefls  abundantly  Qjialify  d by  their  Confecration,  109,  no.     And  the 
Ufe  of  the  Urim  and  Thummim,   1 1 1 ,  112.     For  which  likewife,  fundry 
Laws  were  given,  refpetling  the  refl  of  the  People.     Partly,  in  appointing 
certain  Marks  of  Spiritual  Uncleannefs,  113,  to  116.     And  the  Degrees  of 
ity  I  in.     UntoAvhich  Ufe,  the  Dietetick  Laws  were  alfo  referrd,  1 1 8, 1 19. 
And  partly,   certain  Rites  andCeremonies  for  Expiation,  no.     The  Intent 
whereof,  was  both  Dire£l  and  Oblique,   1  x  r .     Diretl,  as  in  the  Burnt-  Of- 
fering; Which  was  either  the  Continual,  ixi.     Or  Occafwnal,  1x3.     The 
Meatoffering,  1x4.     The  Peace-Offering,  1x5-.     The  Trefpafs-Offering, 
\2.6.     With  other  Rites,  forPurijying  of  divers  forts  ofUncltannsJs^  117, 
ii8.     Efpecially,  theLeprofy,  1x9.     For  Capital  and  Prefumptuous  Sins^ 
no  Sacrifice,  130. 

But  thefirongefl  Fort,  was  that  raifed  againft  Idolatry  ;  By  flrid  Inqui- 
fit  ion,  and  fevere  Penalty,  131.  By  many  Ceremonial  Laws,  131.  By 
prohibiting  Intermarriage  with  Idolaters,  133.  By  the  Dietetick  Laws^ 
134.  And  hereby^  as  well  as  by  other  Means.,  in  making  Medicine  of  little 
Ufe  to  the  Jews,  135".  //  being  Evident,  from  the  Original,  and  State 
cf  Medicine,  under  Ofiris,  136.  Orus,  137,  138,  139.  Athothus, 
140,  141,  142.  With  the  Improvements  made  by  Serapis  and  other  Chief 
Priefis,  143,  144.  And  efpecially  by  Hermes,  145,146.  That  it  was 
either  wholly  Magical,  or  fuch  in  a  great. part,  147,  As  in  Egypt,  fo  all 
Over  the  World,  148.  For  which  Cauje  the  Jews  ivere  prohibited  medling 
with  Phyjicians,  1 49.  But  encourag'd  to  Study  the  Nature  of  Difeafes  and 
Medicines,  I  $0.  Miraculoufiycurd,  151.  And  placed  in  a  Country,  every 
way  conducing  to  their  Health,  151. 

There  was  alfo  an  Oblique  or  Typical  Intent,  151,  153.  Of  the  Taber- 
nacle,  x/j^.  Of  the  feveral  Parts,  15-5.  ^0  158.  And  of  the  Order 
wherein  they  were  all  placed.^  159.  Of  Perfons,  160,  161,  i6z.  And 
of  Things  appertaining  to  Divine  Service,  163.  Of  the  Anions,  164, 
1 6 J,  166.  And  of  the  Numbers  6  and  ^,  167.  This  Ceremonial  Law 
Injiitutedy  not  to  Humour  the  ]ews,  168.  Nor  to  imitate  the  Gentiles, 
169.     But  for  fundry  great  Reafons,  mentioned  from  ijo  to  i8o. 


The  Contents  of  the  Chapters.  xv 

BOOK  the  Fifth. 

CHAT.    I.      Of  the  Integrity  of  the  New  Teftamenr. 

TH  E  Divine  Authority  of  This,  equally  provahle  xvith  that  of  th^ 
OUTeftament.  And frji,  from  its  Integrity^  i,  z.  Of  the  Seven 
artif  Twenty  Books,  Twenty  were  always  acknowledged,  3:     viz.  The 

Gofpdof  St.  Mmhew,  4.  Of  St.  Mark,  c.  O/S/.Luke,  6.  0/-5/.John,  7. 

The  Aits,  8. ,  Thirteen  of  St.  Paul  s  Epiftles,  9;   The  Fir  ft  of  St.  Peter,  10. 

And  the  Firfi  ofSt.]ohn-,  1 1 .  The  other  Seven,  though  the  Authors  dbuhteti 

ofy.M  a.  few,  1 2.  •  Tet  Authentick :  viz.  The  Epijile  to  the  Hebrews,  13. 

Tht?t  af'iSt.  James,  14.    The  Second  of  St.  Peter,  i  j.  That  of  St.  Jude,  1 6. 

And'the  A^oz?.\)y\h,  17,18,     And fo  the  other  Six,  ih'id.     Their  hein^ 

puhlickly  Recvfft}ized,  not  hefore  the  Council  of  Laodicta,  noOhje£lionagainJi 

their.  Ajtrtarity^  t^I  .  Which  was  owned  hy  Hereticks  and  Injidels,  xo. 

Tl'.-' .i  j,o'<^rapha  ibewfehes,  for  feme  time  in  the  Church's  Cujlody,  xo. 

And  the  Copies  were  Innumerable,  x\.     AuJ  fufficiently  Attefted.    By  the 
Apcftles  and  ApolloUcal  Men,  2Z.     And iy  the  Prophets,  -li.     Nor  have 
thefe  Copies  been  Corrupted,  24.     Neither  hy  the  Catholichs  -,  for  want  of 
Care,  25.     OrofPrclity,  z6.     Nor  iy  the /-fereticks,  zy,toi,o.    And  as 
appears,  from  the  many  Verfions  made  hereof  3  r.    Next  to  the  Greek  Gofpet 
of  5/. Matthew,  theSyxhc^  32.  ThernoftAncient'Lznn,y^.  TheCo\inc\<. 
a;?^  Ethiopick,  34.    77?^  Arabick,  3  5-.     //-'^Perfian,  36.     77;£' Gothick, 
Sclavonian,   Armtnian,  Dalmatian,  37.     As  a!fo  from  their  Agreement 
with  theQjiotatiof^s  made  hy  the  Ancient  Doctors,  38.  And  from  the  Agree- 
ment of  all  the  Manufcript  Greek  Copies  among  themfelves,  39.    Notwith- 
fianding  the  Various  Lettions,  40.     Either  the  Emta  of  ScriheSy  /^i.    Or 
fuch  Various  Ledions  ,  as  were  purpofely  made;  By  Addition,  42,  43,  44. 
Omijfion,  45,  46,  47.     Or  Corretlion  ;  In  conformity  to  the  Latin,  48.    To 
the  Writings  of  the  Ancient  D odors,  49.     Or  to  the  WorJs  moft  in  ufe^ 
where  the  Scribes  lived,  50,51.     The  Conclufion  from  the  Premifes. 

I^f  CHAT.    1.    (Of  the  Truth  and  Excellency  of  the  New 
Tedament.     And  firft,  as  they  appear  from  the  Writers. 

*     ^T'Hefe  dcmonftrated.  In  that  the  Writers  could  not  he  Decervedy  1,2.  Ai 
-*■    being  Prcfent,  when  every  thing  was  fa  id  and  done,  or  Reporting  from 
thofe  that  voerel-n,.'    Mofi  Attentive,  4.     And  very  Difcreet ;  no  twit  h- 
flanding  that  in  fome  Exprefions,  they  feem  to  he  other  wife,  from  5  /o  14. 
Their  Record  therefore,  fofarUnqueftionahle,   15.     As  alfo,  in  that  it  is 
in  its  own  Nature,  credible,   16  to  zi.     Neither  could  they  have  a  mind  to 
Deceive  ;  If  we  confider.  When  they  Wrote,  22.     The  Cotjfequence  to  them- 
felves of  What  they  Wrote,   23,  24.     Or  the  Manner  of  their  Writing  ; 
With  Brevity,  25.     Simplicity,  z6.     Modefty,z'j.     Impartiality,  z'^.    If 
ure  further  confiikr.  Their  Agreement  with  Human  Writings,  29,  30.     With 
thofe  of  the  OldTeflament,  31  to  34.     And  one  with  another.   The  Agree- 
ment of  the  Ads  and  Epifiles,  with  the  Gofpels,  35.     Of  the  Epijlks  with 

C  e  }  thi 

xvi  The  Contents  of   the  Chapters. 

the  A£ls^  36.  And  of  the  Go/pels  one  with  another^  37.  Notwitb- 
Jl  an  ding  fame  feeming  ContradilUons ,  from  fundry  Caufes,  38,  39,  40. 
Whereof  many  Injlances,  from  41  /o  57.  Their  Way  of  Writing  julHfyd^ 
from  great  Reafon,  58/0  the  End.    ' 

CBA^.   3 .     of  the  Contents.    And  firft,  of  the  Miracles. 

n~HE  Truth  and  Excellency  of  the  New  Te (lament  demon flr at ed  from 
■'-  Thefe,  i,  x.  Confidcrd  firft^  In  the  Evidence  we  have  of  them ^  itt 
point  ofFa^i.  Either  in  the  Scripture  itfelf;  As  to  the  Number  of  Difeafei 
Curd^  3.  The  Number  of  Patients^  4,  When  Cur'd^  ^.  In  what  Manner^ 
6,  7,  8.  Before  Whom,  9,  10.  And  by  Whom,  11,  iz.  Or  i»  the  Wri- 
tings of  the  Ancient  Chrijiians,  13.  Or  in  thofe  o/Jews  and  Vzgzns,  14. 
Confiderd  next.  In  their  Caufes.  In  general,  1^  to  xo.  And  in  particu- 
lar,  XI  to  x8.  And  confiderd.  In  their  manifold  Reafon  or  Ends^  29. 
Whereof  fundry  Injlances,  from  30  ?o  43. 

CBA<P.    ^.     of  the   Dodrine.      And  firft,  of  the 
Revelations  we  are  to  BeHeve. 

n^^FIE  Do^rine  of  the  Gofpel,  anfwerable  to  the  Miracles,  i.  Of  the 
■*-  Unity  and  Nature  of  the  Godhead,  2.  Of  the  Sacred  Trinity,  -i^.  The 
Second  and  Third  Perfons  hereof,  Typify  d  many  Ways  in  the  Old  Tejlameni^ 
4,  5,  6.  More  evidently  Revealed  in  the  New,  7.  'jefus  Chrifl  the  Second, 
by  his  Divine  Attributes,  8,  9,  10,  11,  ix.  By  his  EJfence,  13.  And 
Name,  1^.  Hjs  Appearance  among  us,  was  Becoming,  15.  The  Marks  of 
his  Divine  and  Human  Natures, given  us  in  a  Becoming  Conjun^iony  16  toz^. 
And  his  Appearance  was  Necejfary  :  on  God's  part ^  x6.  And  on  Ours,  xj. 
The  Divinity  likewife  of  the  Holy  Ghofl,  proved  divers  ways,  x8  to  33. 
The  Being  of  Divine  Providence,  perfpicuoufly  ajferted  in  the  Scriptures  of 
the  New  Teftament,  34.  As  alfo  Election  by  the  Father,  35.  Juftifica- 
tion  by  the  Son,  36.  And San^ification  by  the  Spirit,  37.  With  the  Mi- 
nijlry  of  Good  and  Bad  Angels,  38.  And  the  RefurreUion,  Life,  and  Judg^ 
ment  to  come,  39.  Of  all  which,  the  Scriptures  fo  far  plain,  as  is  neceffa. 
ry,  40.  But  alfo  Myflerious,  as  this  Word  is  commonly  underflood :  the  de- 
nying whereof y  dangerous,  41,  42..  The  fame  Revelation,  with  refped  to 
divers  Capacities,  may  be  more  or  lefi  Myjlerious  or  Plain,  43.  And  more 
or  lefiufeful,  ^<^,  ^^1).  Further  proved  in  general,  ^6.  By  particular  In- 
Ji antes y  from  47  to  j6.  Knowledge  and  Comprehenjion  differ  not  in  Na- 
ture, but  Extent,  57.  That  the  Scriptures  are  Abjirufe  in  fome  ThingSy 
no  Faulty  58.     But  our  Difputes  about  them,  a  great  Oney  59. 

CHAP.    S' 

The  Contents  of  the  Chapters.  xvii 

CHAT.   5.     Of  the  Precepts. 

''T'H'cfe  another  part  of  the  Divhie  Revelation^  i.  Wherein  their  Excel- 
■*•  lency  appears,  2,  To  Repent  an^  Believe,  the  Two  Principal  Laws  of 
the  Go/pel,  3 .  Ami  were  Myjlicaliy  taught  in  the  LeviticalLaw,  4.  Re~ 
fentance  defind,  5.  Faith  defind,  6,  7.  All  the  other  Precepts,  a  Com^ 
ment  hereupon,  8.  Both  of  themfet  forth  in  our  Saviour  s  Sermon  on  the 
Mount,  9.  The  Former,  in  the  Seven  firfl  Benedi£iions,  10  to  16.  The 
Latter,  in  the  Three  folloiving,  17,  18,  19.  Specially  recommended  to  his 
Difciples,  zo.  And  diflinguifhed  from  the  Corrupt  Glojfes,  made  upon  the 
Com.mandments  hy  the  Scrihes  and  Pharifees,  xi.  In  doing  which,  he  paf. 
feth  over  the  Five  frfl,  and  Why,  2x.  He  begins  therefore,  in  Shewing 
the  Extent  of  the  Sixth,  23,24.  Then,  of  the  Seventh,  25-,  26.  And 
condemns  Polygamy,  27.  Next  of  the  Ninth,  28,  29.  Of  the  Eighth, 
30,  31.  And  of  the  Tent h^  32,  33.  He  then  diretts  them  infome  efpe- 
cial  parts  of  P  rail  ice,  34.  As  in  giving  of  Alms,  35.  In  Praying  ;  as  to 
Words  and  Meafure,  3  6.  Method  and  Matter,  3  7,  to  4  j.  In  Fajling,  46. 
And  with  refpett  to  Worldly  Affairs,  47.  And  then,  how  to  judge  of  others, 
48,  49,  ^o.  In  all,  to  depend  upon  the  Grace  of  God,  51.  To  recoiled 
what  he  had  Taught,  52.  To  ufe  great  Refolution  in  ohferving  the  fame,  53 . 
To  take  heed  of  Deceivers ,  54.  And  of  Self-Delufion ,  55,  5 6.  Befides 
there  is  afufficient  Store  ofGofpel-Precepts,forallPerfons  andOccafions,  /^-j. 
The  Manner  wherein  our  Lord  deliver  d  his  Dotlrine,  grounded  on  the  heji 
Reafon.  On  a  Mountain,  but  not  with  Terror,  58.  Nor  in  one  entire  Sy- 
Jiem  ;  that  many  Things  might  be  the  better  Repeated,  5-9.  Metaphors  the 
better  made  ufe  of,  60.  And  Parables,  61.  And  fome  Paradoxes,  62. 
As  alfo  Arguments,  63.  Allujions  to  CuflomSy  and  the  Sayings  of  Noted 
Men,  64.  That  he  might  give  them  Occajfionally,  and  Extempore,  6§.  And 
that  his  Life,  as  an  Illufirious  Example  of  Practice,  might  be  Interwoven 
with  his  Dodrine  :  Whether  we  look  upon  it,  as  A^ive^  66,  67.  Or  PaJ~ 
five,  68  to  71. 

CiiAT.  6.     of  our  Saviour's  Prophecies. 


/N  which,  he  forefels  the  Effects  of  his  Dodrine,  1.     Firjl,  his  PaJ/ion  : 
which,  though  Seemingly  Impoffible,  2.     Tet  was  contrived  Infallibly  to 
come  to  pajs,  3 .     And  then,  the  Great  Things,  which  followed  hereupon,  4. 
Firft,  The  Preaching  of  the  Gofpel  unto  all  Nations,  5.     Notwithfianding 
all  the  Oppofition  made  againji  it,  6.     For  which  Work,  the  Apofiles  were 
admirably  Qualify  d,  7.     And  favour  d  in  Judea ,  with  Equal  Succefi,  8. 
And  upon  their  Leaving  of  Judea,  dividing  all  Nations  among  them,  9. 
And  being  Eminently  ajpjled  by  St.  Paul,  i  o.     Preached  the  Gofpel  all  over 
the  World,  1 1 .     Next,  The  Defolation  <?/ Jerufalem  and  the  Temple.  Both 
the  Forerunners,  12,13.     And  the  Manner  hereof,  14,15,16.      Then, 
the  following  Perfecutions,  with  the  Caufes  of  the  fame,  viz.  The  Defama- 
tions cfChriJl's  Perfon,  and  Religion,  17 .  And  the  Corruptions  of  the  Church, 
18,19.     Upon  which  the  General  Perfecutions  arofe,xo.     And  La{[ly,  his 
Coming  to  ejiablijh  Chrifiianity  through  the  Empire,  21,  22.     The  Signs 
ivhereoj]  were  Confjikuous  :  viz.  His  Striking  of  all  the  Heathens  Oracles 


xviii  The  Contents  ot  the  Chapters. 

dumh^  23.  Continuing  Miracles  in  the  Church,  2-45X5.  Injpiring  the 
Martyrs  with  Invincible  Courage,  %6.  Stopping  the  Mouths  of  Wild 
Beajis,  27.  Setting  the  Marks  of  Divine  Vengeance  on  his  Enemies^  z8. 
The  Operation  of  all  which ^  very  admirable  upon  Men  of  all  Sorts,  %g,  ]o. 
On  the  Emperors  themfelves,  31.  But  the  great  eft  Signs  of  his  Coming, 
iv'ere  thofe  Exhibited  in  the  Days  of  Conftantine  :  Qjtalifyd  by  his  Vir- 
tue, and  a  Celejlial  Vifion,  32,  33.  For  the  Overthrow  of  all  the  Grand 
Enemies  of  Chriftianity,  34.  And  making  it  the  Religion  of  the  Empire^ 

.    ^ 

Z6e    E  R  R  A  T  A    c/   the  Trefs. 

P/)ge  ti.  £:««  4 y.  rwi,  Friable.  P.  35.  A 37.  r.  Adventitious.  P.  36.  /.  i(S.  r.  Still  in.  P  37, 
A  10.  r.  Modification.  P.  58.  /.  14.  r.  propofeth.  P.  61;/.  a8.  r.  as  in  the  Chapter.  P.6g. 
A  13.  r.  37tb.  P.  77. /.  43.  r.  Arc.  P.  81. /.  jo.  r.  and  whereof.  P.  87. /.  3.  r,  doth  not.  P.iio. 
l.-j.  r.  than  Fear.  P.  113.  /.  fenult.  r.  Operations.  P-  154.  /.  12.  r.  potivetit.  P.  lyy-  /.  31. 
r.  Shews  forth.  P.  161.  /.  41.  r.  could  propofe.  P.  196.  /.  49.  r.  eiFefted.  P.  j^g.  /.  22.  r.  the 
mention.  P.  an.  /.  42.  r.  asfpeaking  of  ihe  Nile.  P.  a8i.  /.  47.  r.  Qioip'ofQ-.  P.  299.  7.38. 
r.  Invidioufly.  P.  332.  /,  a.  imit ,  And  firft,  of,  the  Precepts  which  equally  concern  all.  p.  354. 
/.  15.  r.  Invidious. 




herein  is  fliewed,  That  GOD 
made  the  Corporeal  World.  And 
what  it  is. 

C  H  A  P.    I 

Of   GO  D. 

T  is  very  natural,  for  all.  Men  to  defire, 
in  the  enjoyment  of  what  is  agreeable 
to  them,  to  be  Happy.  It  is  therefore 
as  natural  fcr  every  wife  Man  to  enquire, 
^  Whethef  there  is  not  a  Supreme  Being, 
^1  who  is  fupremely  Good,  and  communica- 
ble to  us-;  in  the  enjoyment  of  whom, 
our  chief  Happinefs  muftconfift.  ;  , 
z.  Now  the  Exiftence  of  this  Supreme 
Being,  upon  the  ufe  of  found  Reafon, 
becomes  as  certain  to  us,  as  our  own.  For 
it"  is  mod  certain  ,  that  there  never  could  be  nothing.  For  if 
there  could  have  been  an Inftant,  wherein  there , was  Nothing:  then, 
either  Nothing,  made  Something:  or  Spmething,  rnade  it  lelf:and 
fo,  was,  and  adlcd,  before  it  was.  But  if  there  never  could  be  No- 
thing :  then,  there  is,  and  was,  a  Being  of  neceffity  without  any  Be- 

V  And  therefore  without  any  Caufe.  For  how  can  that  Being  have 
any  Caufe,  the  necedity  of  whofe  Exigence  is  in  Himfelf  ?  And  if  he 
were  his  own  Caufe,  he  muft  then  alfo  be  his  own  Effed  or  Creature  : 
which  is  nonfenfe.  So  that  there  is  a  Fir  ft  neceflary,  and  never-begun 
Being,  before,  and  above,  all  Caufe  or  Caufation :  tliaf  is,  a  Being 
which  is  Self-ex iftent.  .     " 

.4.  Whence  it  alfo  follows,  That  this  Self-exiftent  Being  hath  the 
Power  of  Perfedion,  as  well  as  of  Exiftence,  in  Himfelf.  For  he  that 
is  above,  or  exifteth  without,  any  Caufe ;  that  is,  hath  the  Pawer  of 
Exiftence  in  Himfelf:  cannot  be  without  the  Power  of  any  Poftible  Ex-: 
iftence.  Becaufe,  that  no  Pofiible  Exiftence,  nor  therefore,  State  of  Per- 
I'edion,  can  be  more  above  another,  than  Something  is  above  Nothing- 
Having  tlien,  the  Power  of  Self-exiftence :  He"  muft  needs  alfo  ha.vfe  the 

B  Pow- 

Oj  GOD,  Book  I. 

Power  of  any  fort  of  Exigence  :  And  therefore,  of  that  Way  or  Man- 
ner of  Exigence,  which  is  the  moll  Perfed, 

5-.  And  becaufe  the  fame  Self-exiftent  Being,  neceflarily  is  what  he 
is  ;  as  hath  been  proved  :  'Tis  therefore  evident.  That  what  he  May  Be, 
or  hath  the  Power  of  Being  ;  he  Mufl  Be.  If  then,  he  hath  the  Power 
of  Perfection  ;  he  is,  neceffarily  a  mofl;  PerfecSb  Being. 

6.  Again ;  Self-exiftence  is  fo  tranfcendent  and  perfed:  a  manner  of 
Being;  that  itcannot  be  conceived,  but  in  conjund:ion  with  all  other 
Perfedlions.  For  otherwife,  Perfection  would  be  wanting  to  it  felf ; 
that  is,  Perfedion  would  be  Imperfedt. 

ji  This  Perfect  Being,  cannot  but  be  every  way  Infinite.  And  firfl 
of  all,  in  his  Duration,  For  that  is  Infinite  which  is  without  Bounds. 
But  the  Duration  of  a  Never-begun  Being,  can  have  no  Bounds. 

8.  Now  that  Duration,  which  is  without  Bounds  •  mull:  likewife  of 
iieceffity  be  without  Parts.  For  nothing  can  have  more  Parts  than  it 
hath.  But  there  can  be  no  number  of  Parts  fo  great,  to  which  another 
Part,  or  number  of  Parts  may  not  be  added.  Notliing  therefore,  can 
be  Infinite,  which  hath  Parts;  except  it  hath  more  Parts,  than  it 

9.  Therefore  Time,  which  confifteth  of  Parts ;  can  be  no  Part  of  In- 
finite Duration,  or  of  Eternity.  For  then  there  would  be  Infinite  Time 
part,  to  Day,  which  to  Morrow  will  be  more  than  Infinite.  Time  is 
therefore,  one  thing ;  and  Infinite  Duration  is  another  ;  before,  in,  and 
after  Time,  a  perpetual  rh  vw.  Which  we  mean,  or  ought  to  mean, 
when  we  fpeak  of  Eternity  ;  and  of  God,  as  of  an  Eternal  Being.' 

10.  Moreover,  He  that  is  Infinite  in  Duration,  cannot  but  be  Im- 
menfe.  As  alfo.  Infinitely  Powerful,  Wife,  and  Good,  fje  may  be  fo. 
For  it  is  as  pofiTible,  for  a  Being  to  be  Immenfe,  or  Boundlefs  in  his  Ef- 
fence,  as  in  his  Duration.  And  all  pollible  Infinities  are  as  conceiva- 
ble as  any  one.  And  what  he  may  be ;  he  mud  be ;  as  hath  been 
proved.  For  otherwife,  he  were  neither  a  NecefTary,  nor  a  Perfed 

11.  As  therefore  Infinite  Duration,  hath  no  relation  unto  Motion  and 
Time  :  So  Infinite  or  Immenfe  Eflence,  hath  no  relation  unto  Body  ; 
but  is  a  thing  diftind,  from  all  Corporeal  Magnitude.  Which  we  mean, 
or  ought  to  nciean,  when  we  fpeak  of  Immenfity ;  and  of  God,  as  of  an 
Immenfe  Being. 

12.  Now,  as  Nothing  hath  no  Parts  ;  fo  neither  hath  that  which  is 
Infiriite ;  as  hath  been  proved.  When  therefore  we  fpeak,  not  of  Body, 
or  Quantity,  but  of  God,  as  Infinite  or  Immenfe,  properly  fo  called,  or 
>)v'ithout  Parts  :  the  Ratio  between  Infinite  and  Finite,  is  the  fame,  as  be- 
tween Finite  and  Nothing.  Wherefore,  this  Infinite  Being,  is  as  much 
above  any  thing,  which  hath  Parts  ;  as  Nothing  is  below  it ;  that  is,  as 
much  more,  than  the  whole  World  j  as  the  whole  World,  is  more  than 

■'  13.  The  fame  Perfed  Being,  mud  alfo  needs  be  Omnipotent  :  Both 
as  Sdf-exiftent,  and  as  Immenle.  As  Self-exiftent.  For  he  that  is  Self- 
e'Xiftent,  having  the  Power  of  Being ;  hath  therefore,  as  hath  been  pro- 
ved, the  Power  of  all  Being.  Equal  to  the  Caufe  of  all  Being  :  which 
is^  tp  be  Omnipotent. 

^  14.  Again ;  He  that  is  Self-exiftent,  exifteth  without  a  Caufe.  But  if 
if  be  pollible,  for  fome  one  Being  to  exift  without  a  Caufe  ,•  then  it  is 


Chap.   I.  Of    GOD. 

poffible,  and  much  more  conceivable,  for  all  other  Beings,  to  exifl:  with 
one.  And  therefore,  for  that  One,  to  give  Exiftence  to  all  other  Be- 
llas; that  is,  to  be  Omnipotent. 

1 5.  He  is  alfo  Omnipotent,  as  he  is  Immenle.  For  having,  as  he  is 
Jpimenfe,  the  Power  of  Infinite  Being ;  he  mull  needs  likewife  have  the 
Power  of  all  Finite  Being :  which  is,  to  be  Omnipotent. 

16.  The  fame  Being,  moreover,  which  is  Immenfe,-  cannot  but  be 
Omnifcient.  Becaufe,  as  he  is  Immenfe,  he  is  mofl:  immediately  and 
intrinfically  prefent  with  every  thing.  And  fo,  comprehends  the  E(- 
fences,  Relations,  and  Operations  of  all  Beings.  And  therefore,  all 
things  knowable  :  which  is,  to  be  Omnifcient. 

17.  Likewife,  he  that  is  Omnipotent,  cannot  but  be  Omnifcient.  For 
having  the  Power  of  Making  every  thing,  that  is  Makable :  if  he  had 
not  alfo  the  Knowledge  of  every  thing,  that  is  Knowable  :  he  would  then 
Make  or  iiave  the  Power  of  Making  he  knew  not  what. 

18.  He  likewife  that  is  Omnipotent,  or  he  that  is  Omnifcient, 
cannot  but  be  perfedly  Good  :  For  all  Goodnefs  is  founded  in  Truth,  or 
fome  kind  of  Congruity.  But  it  requireth  more  Power  and  Wifdom  al- 
ways to  Will  and  to  Do  that  which  is  Congruous,  than  that  which  is 
otherwife.'  Should  he  therefore  at  any  time  Do  or  Will  any  thing  Ihcon- 
gruous,  he  would  be  lefs  Great  and  Wile  than  he  is,  which  is  a  Contra- 

19.  Again,  the  mofl  Perfedl  Being  can  never  Do,  or  be  made  to  Do, 
any  thing  but  that  which  pleafeth  him  bed :  But  all  Evil  of  Being, 
A(3:ion,  or  Paffion,  is  fome  fort  of  Imperfecftion.  Were  it  polfible  then 
for  God  to  Do  or  Will  any  Evil,  Perfedion  would  be  pleafed  with  Imper- 
fedion,  or  that  which  is  contrary  to  Himfelf. 

zo.  And  he  that  is  perfedly  Good,  mud  needs  be  perfedlly  Jufl: :  For 
Juftice  is  a  certain  Congruity  between  the  Deed  and  the  Reward  ;  and  fo 
between  any  Evil  Deed,  and  the  Penalty  due  to  it:  Which  Congruity  he 
Wills,  but  neither  of  the  other.  If  then  he  were  not  perfedtly  Juft,  he 
could  not  be  perfedily  Good. 

zi.  His  Veracity  likewife  is  hereby  evident  :  For  could  he  be  Falfe,  it 
mud  be  becaufe  he  either  Dares  not,  or  Knows  not,  or  Wills  not,  to  be 
True,  that  is,  through  Impotence,  Ignorance,  or  Malice  j  all  which  are 
contrary  to  the  aforeiaid  Perfedions. 

zz.  And  in  all  Thefe  he  mull  needs  be  Immutable :  For  were  it  poffible 
)r  him  in  any  manner  or  degree  to  Change  or  be  Changeable,  he  would 
leither  be  a"  NecelTary  nor  an  Eternal  Being. 

z^.  Wherefore  the  Supreme  Being,  whom  we  call  GOD,  is  a  Necefla- 
y,  Self-Exident,  Eternal,  Immenfe,  Omnipotent,  Omnifcient,  and  bed 
^Being :  And  therefore  alfo  a  Being,  who  is,  and  ought  to  be  edeemed 
mod  Sacred  or  Holy. 

Z4.  God,  who  is  thus  every  way  Perfedl  in  his  Being,  cannot  be  con- 
ceived ever  to  have  been,  and  not  withal  to  Operate  :  For  the  Excel- 
lency of  every  Being  fit  to  Operate,  lieth  in  its  Operation.  The  Na- 
ture therefore  of  a  Perfedl  Bemg  implieth  not  only  an  Aptitude  unto 
Operation,  but  a  Necefllty  of  it  j  as  that  which  is  included  in  the  Effence 
of  his  Perfedion.  So  that  to  have  a  Power  to  Do  every  thing,  and  yet 
to  Do  nothing,  is  to  have  indeed  no  more  than  a  Poflibility  of  Perfedion, 
without  the  Perfedion  it  felf ;  which  is  a  Contradidlion  :  If  then  we  will 
conceive  of  God  truly,  and  as  far  as  we  can,  Adequately  ;  we  mud  look 


Of  GOD.  Book    L 

I  .III  II    I      11        I  I    I    !■  ■!    I     nnM  III  I..I  ...    .1  I  ■  ■■!  I        mmt    -HI  I  ^—  — i^M       I  ■■ii.-iiii  I  II-  - 

upon  him  not  only  as  an  Eternal  Being,  but  alfa  as  a   Being  Eternally 

-L^.  Neither  can  we  conceive  him  to  Operate  otherwife  than  in  a  man- 
ner fuitable  to  his  Perfection  :  That  is,  there  is  no  Senfc  in  his  not  Be- 
ing and  Doing,  both  alike.  We  are  moft  certain  of  the  Perfedioh  of  Ijis 
Being;  Yet  we  can  have  noPerfed,  that  is,  Adequate  or  Comprehenfive 
Conception  hereof,  in  regard  it  is  Infinitely  above  our  own,  and  all  other 
forts  of  Being.  In  like  manner  we  are  certain  that  he  cannot  but  Ope- 
rate, and  that  he  cannot  but  Operate  like  himfelf.  But  the  manner  of  his 
Operation,  we  can  by  no  means  comprehend,  as  that  which  Infinitely 
tranfcends  the  Manner  of  our  own. 

x6.  Now,  if  God  Exifteth  not  as  weExift,  and  therefore  Doth  nothing 
as  we  Do  ;  He  then  Thinketh  or  Mindeth  not  as  we  Think  or  Mind  ;  but 
in  a  manner  tranfcending  our  Imitation  or  Adequate  Conception  hereof. 
As  we  then  our  felves  do  Operate  when  \\t  Mind,  but  yet  in  a  manner 
anfwerable  to  our  own  Eflence ;  fo  God  in  Thinking  or  Minding  doth  al- 
fo  Operate,  but  in  a  manner  fuitable  to  his  own  Perfection.  As  far 
therefore  as  the  Power  of  a  Self-Exiftent  Being  exceedeth  that  of  one 
which  is  Dependent ;  fo  far  the  Operation  of  Mind  or  Thought  in 
the  Former,  tranfcendeth  that  in  the  Latter  :  So  that  we  are  to 
look  upon  God  as  one  that  thinketh  with  Operation  infinitely  Perfect  ; 
that  is,  with  an  Omnipotent,  as  well  as  an  Eternal  Energy. 

zy.  And  nothing  being  Eternal  but  Himfelf,  he  cannot  poflibly  Think 
of  any  thing ,  but  of  Himfelf  as  fuch :  and  in  Thinking  of  Himfelf, 
he  muft  of  neceflity  See  and  Like  himfelf,  juft  as  he  is  :  that  is  to  fay,  he 
mufl  in  Thinking,  beget  the  Subflantial  Ideas  or  Images  of  himfelf,  or  of 
his  Omnipotent  Underftanding  and  Will,  and  of  all  Divine  Perfedion  in 
them  both :  And  therefore  alfo  theJe  Images  muft  have  a  Necedary  and 
Eternal  Exiftence  ;  for  otherwife  they  could  not  be  Perfed  Images  of 
himfelf :  Nor  would  his  Energy  be  Infinite  and  Eternal,  and  full  of  all  Per- 
fedion,  as  it  muft  needs  be. 

18.  And  as  God's  Underftanding  and  Will  are  themfelves,  tho'  Incom- 
prehenfibly,  yet  really  DiftinCt ;  fo  the  Subftantial  Images  of  thefe  muft 
likewife  be  really  Diftind: ;  And  not  only  Diftind  one  from  the  other,  but 
alfo  from  himfelf;  for  nothing  can  be  its  own  Image. 

xy.  Yet  neither  can  they  have  a  Separate,  tho'  a  Diftind  Exiftence, 
no  more  than  the  Ideas  of  our  own  Mind  can  have  any  Separate  Exift- 
ence from  the  Mind,  but  have  a  Co-Exiftence  therein.  As  therefore  the 
Ideas  of  the  Mind  of  Man  are  One  with  the  Mind  ;  So  God^s  Ideas  or  I- 
mages  of  himfelf  are  one  with  himfelf. 

30.  Together  with  thefe  Images,  which  God  hath  of  the  Perfedions 
of  his  own  Being,  he  muft  of  neceflity,  as  he  is  Omnifcient,  have  the 
Images  likewife  of  all  other  poftible  Beings ;  that  is,  the  entire  Idea  of 
the  Univerfe,  as  the  OfF-fet  of  the  former. 

^  I.  But  becaufe  nothing  can  be  Eternal  but  what  is  Infinite ;  it  is  there- 
fore impolfible  that  God  fhould  think  of  the  Univerfe,  or  of  any  thing 
therein  as  of  a  thing  Eternal :  Nor  can  he  therefore  be  faid  Eternally  to 
Think  it  into  Being :  Nor  can  the  Univerfe,  or  any  thing  therein  be 
truly  faid,  as  are  the  Images  of  his  own  Perfedions,  to  be  one  with 
him  :  For  how  can  things  Finite  and  Infinite  be  One  ? 

3z.  The  two  Vifible  Parts  of  the  Univerfe  are  Matter  and  Moti- 
on J  botb  which,  with  all  other  Beings,    were  made  by  virtue  of  the 



Chap.  I Of  G  0  D. 

Divine  Ideas  aforefaid ;  that  is,  by   thefe  God   did  Think  them  into 

33.  That  Matter  was  thus  made,  is  moft evident :  Forotherwife  it  had 
been  Self-Exiftent :  But  that  which  is  Self-Exiftent,  having  the  Power 
of  Being  ,in*  it  felf :  and  therefore  the  Power  of  any  Being,  as  hath 
been  proved  ;  it  would  alfo  have  the  Power  of  being  Perfed: :  And  confe- 
quently,  not  only  the  whole  Corporeal  World,  but  every  fingle  Atom,  ha- 
ving the  Power  of  Being,  would  alfo  have  the  Power  of  Perfedion;  that 
is,  would  be  a  God. 

34.  Again,  Body  cannot  be  Self  exiftent  ;  becaufe  it  is  not  Self- 
movent:  For  Motion  is  not  of  the  Eflence  of  Body;  becaule  we  may 
have  a  Definitive  Conception  of  Body,  abftradled  from  that  of  Moti- 
on. Wherefore  Motion  is  fomething  elfe  befides  Body ;  and  fomething, 
without  which,  a  Body  may  be  conceiv'd  to  Exift.  If  then  Body  Could 
move  it  felf,  it  would  have  the  Power  of  Making  Something  of  Nothing. 
And  one  fmgle  Atom,  by  multiplying  its  own  Motion  Infinitely,  would 
have  been  able  in  time  to  make  all  the  Motion  in  the  World.  But,  td 
liippofe  Body  to  be  Self-Exiftent,  or  to  have  the  Power  of  Being,  is  as 
abfurd,  as  to  fuppofe  it  to  be  Self-Movent^  or  to  have  the  Power  of  Moti- 
on ;  there  being  as  great  a  diftance  between  Exiftence  and  Non-Exiftence, 
as  between  Morion  and  Reft. 

35.  Moreover  if  Matter  and  Motion  were  not  made,  then  they  are 
Eternal.  But  this  we  cannot  fuppole  ;  for  if  Motion  were  Eternal,  then 
Time,  wherein  Motion  is  made,  muft  be  Eternal  :  And  fo,  there  muft 
always  have  been  Infinite  Time  paft  :  And  therefore  Time  always  paft, 
which  was  never  prefent :  For  how  could  that  ever  be  prefent  which  was 
always  paft?  To  avoid  which Contradidion,  it  muft  be  granted,  That 
there  was  a  Beginning  of  Time;  andfoof  Motion;  and  therefore  alfo 
of  Matter.  For  to  what  end  ftiould  Matter  have  been  Eternally  without 
Motion?  And  confequently,  that  the  World  was  Made,  and  that  God  did 
Make  it,  or  Think  it  into  Being. 

36.  Andbythefaid  Divine  Ideas,  Matter,  and  Motion,  and  all  othet 
Beings  do  now  Exift  ;  in  that  nothing  Made,  Can  continue  to  Be,  by  vir- 
tue of  its  own  firft  Being  :  For,  as  the  Extenfion  of  Body  is  the  Con- 
tinuation of  Body  upon  Body  ;  fo  the  Duration  of  Being  is  the  Continu- 
ation of  Being  upon  Being,  As  therefore  a  fmall  Body  can  no  more 
Magnifie  than  Make  it  felf;  fo  a  Begun  Being,  can  no  more  continue  it 
felf,  than  of  it  felf  begin  to  Be.  If  therefore  the  World  hath  Power  to 
give  it  felf  Continuance,  it  would  be  Self-Exiljent,  or  without  Beginning  ; 
Which,  fince  it  is  not,  it  is  then  continu'd  in  its  Being,  by  that  Divine 
Power,  whereby  it  firft  began  to  Be. 

.    C  CHAP. 

Book    L 

CHAP.    II. 

Of  the  Corporeal  World 

1, 13 UT  albeit  the  World  being  Made,  cannot  be  Self-Exiftent ;  nor 
J3  therefore  Eternal,  nor  any  other  way  Infinite  :  Yet  being  made 
by  God,  we  are  to  look  upon  it  in  every  way  of  Made  Perfedion,  to 
be  Indefinite  :  For  we  can  never  define  the  utmoft  or  anfwerable  Effed: 
of  an  Infinite  Caule. 

z.  We  can  never  come  to  its  utmoft  Extent :  We  fee  enough  to  stdmire 
in  the  Vaft,  and  to  us,  Unlimited  Diftance  of  the  Fixed  Stars,  which  are 
Vifible,  The  Parallax  of  the  Pole-Star  fubtended  by  the  Diameter  of  the 
Orhis  Magnus^  is  not  above  a  Minute :  Therefore  its  Diftance  from  the 
Sun  not  lefs  than  3400  Diameters  of  the  Orhis  Magnus  ;  or  from  the 
Earth,  whenneareft,  3399.  So  that  the  Diameter  of  the  Earth  being 
near  8000  Miles ;  and  the  Diapieter  of  the  Orhu  Magnus  loooo  Diame- 
ters of  the  Earth.  The  Diftance  of  the  faid  Star  from  the  Earth,  is  about 
four  hundred  and  feventy  Millions  and  eight  hundred  and  forty  thoufand 

•  .3.  Befides  the  Vifible  Stars,  there  are  others  difcover'd  only  by  the 
Telefcope :  As  thofe  which  compofe  the  l^ia  Laflea^  the  Nehulofte  in  the 
Head  of  Orion  ;  the  Prafepe^  a  Clufter  of  above  forty  Stars ;  thofe  inter- 
■  fpers'd  among  the  Pleiades  about  as  many ;  and  thofe  adjacent  to  the 
Sword  and  Girdle  of  Orion  about  80.  Of  which,  and  all  other  Stars, 
our  Learned  Profeflbr  Mr.  Flamfled  in  a  Printed  Letter  of  his  to  Dr. 
WaHis,  faith  indeed  very  well.  That  it  is  not  neceflary  we  fliould  fup- 
pofe  all  thofe  which  feem  lefs  to  be  at  a  greater  Diftance  :  He  having 
found,  that  the  Parallax  of  tht  Pole-Star  is  greater  than  that  of  Syrius  ^ 
which  is  therefore  more  diftant  than  the  Pole-Star^  tho'  much  bigger  and 
brighter.  But,  as  .the  fore-mention'd  Stars  were  unfeen  before  the  ufe 
of  Glafles  J  fo,  no  doubt  there  are  others,  which  as  well  from  their 
greater. Diftance,  as  their  lefler  Bulk,  are  ftill  Invifible:  For  that  which 
is  Indefinite,  tho'  it  hath  Bounds,  as  not  being  Infinite,  yet  thofe  Bounds, 
to  us,  are  undefinable. 

^,4.  Neither  if  the  World  more  admirable  in  the  Whole  than  in  its 
i^arts :  And  in  thofe.  innumerable  Relations  they  have  one  to  another  j 
whether  they  are  Great,  whireof  in  this  Chapter  j  or  Small,  as  will  appear 
in  the  Chapters  following. 

5.  Thofe  Greater  Bodies  call'd  the  Planets,  are  all  of  them  regularly 
mov'd  :  For  albeit  they  move  in  Orbits,  whole  Plains  lie  oblique,  or  are 
inclin'd  to  the  Plain  of  the  Ecliptick  ;  for  which  reafon  they  are  call'd 
Planets;  yet  they  all  move  in  certain  Regular  Lines,  with  certain 
Degrees  of  Velofity,  and  at  certain  Diftances  one  from  ano- 

6.  And  their  Motion  is  regular  with  great  Variety.  All  the  Mafter 
Planets  move  about  the  Sun  at  feveral  Diltances,  as  their  common  Cen- 
tre, and  with  different  Velofities.  This  Common  Law  being  obfcrved 
in  all  of  them,  That  the  Squares  of  the  Times  of  their  Revolutions  are 
proportional  to  the  Cubes  of  their  Diftances.     And  the  Lunar  or  Sub- 


C  H  A  p.   II.       Of  the  Cor -pored  World 

Planets  obfefve   the  fame  Law   in   their  Motions  about  their  Mafter* 

r  Planets.  As  alfo  in*  this,  That  Lines  drawn  from  the  Foci  of  the  Curves 
they  move  in,  to  their  Bodies,  fweep  over  equal  Areas  in  equal  Times 
jpn  the  Plains  of  their  Orbits.  , 

r  7.  It  is  alfo  evident  from  the  Spots  fometimes  obferv'd  in  the  Sun ; 
and  from  thofe  in  the  Primary  Planets ;  that  befides  their  Circulati- 
on about  the  Sun,  the  Sun  and  fome  of  the  reft,  have  alfo  a  Rotation 
upon  their  own  Axis  \  and  always  tha  lame  way,  viz.  from  Eaft 
to  VVefl. 
8.  But  withal,  that  they  make  this  Rotation  with  very  different  Ve- 
lofities.  The  Eartii  making  one  Revolution  upon  its  Axis  in  one  Day, 
the  Sun  in  about  15  Days  and  '^i,  Mars,  tho*  lefs  than  the  Earth,  yet  re- 
quires fomewhat  more  than  a  Day;  Jupiter,  tho'  much  bigger  than 
the  Earth,  yet  makes  his  Revolution  in  about  lo  Hours,  or  two  Re- 
volutions and  }  p^rt  for  one  made  by  the  Earth. 

9.  Again ,  of  thole  Planets  which  move  upon  their  Axis  , 
they  do  not  all  make  Entire  Revolutions  :  For  the  Moon  maketh 
only  a  kind  of  Libration,  or  a  Reciprocated  Motion  on  her  own 

10.  The  Axis  likewife  of  the  Earth,  and  of  thofe  Planets  which 
revolve,  feem  to  maintain  a  perpetual  Parallelifm  to  themfelves,  but  not 
to  each  other. 

1 1 .  The  Motions  alfo  of  Comets,  tho'  formerly  fuppos'd  otherwiie  , 
yet  of  late  are  found  to  be  Regular,  as  thofe  of  the  Planets :  And  as  in 
the  Planets  Lines  drawn  from  the  Sun  to  their  Bodies,  fweep  over  e- 
qual  Areas  in  equal  Times^  on  the  Plains  of  their  Orbits;  fo  in  Co- 
mets, Lines  drawn  Irom  the  Focus  of  the  Curves  they  move  in,  to  their 
Bodies,  do  the  fame  in  the  Plain  of  their  Orbits. 

1 1.  The  Subftance  not  only  of  all  the  Dark  Planets,  but  of  the  Sun 

Hit  felf)  is  confident.  As  fitteil  for  the  Permanency  of  its  Figure,  in  the  Ro- 
tation it  makes  upon  its  Axis. 
13.  And  it  is  that  which  makes  its  Splendour  to  be  the  more  admira- 
ble ;  in  that,  among  all  other  Luminous  Bodies,  thofe  which  give  the  brigh- 
teft  Light,  are  Fluids;  as  Flaflies  of  Lightening,  and  fome  other 

14.  And  (till  the  more,  beeaufe  that  for  ought  we  know,  the  Sun 

gives  us  this  Light,  without  any  Intenfe  Heat.     Which  Heat,  it  is  pro- 

:  bable,  the  Beams  of  the  Sun  do  then  firft  conceive,  when   they  come 

m^     tQ  be  mixed  with  the  Air  or  Atmofphere :  Fot  as  fome  things  will  be 

|Hl|[ptenny  Hot   without  giving  Light :    So  Rotten  Wood,  the  Glo-worm, 

■^^^nd  fome  other  Bodies  give  a  brisk  Light  without  any   fenfible  Heat  : 

To  that  Light  and  Heat  have  no  necelfary   Conjun!dl;ion ;   at  leaft,  not 

in  any  fenfible  Proportion.     It  is  known  too,  how  necellary  the  .  Air  is 

Bfor  the  making  of  Fire,  and  even  of  Light  it  felf  in  fome  of  thofe  Bo- 
dies which  (hine  in  the  Darkj  but  lofe  that  Property  in  whole  or  in  part, 
upon  their  being  fecluded  from  the  Air  in  the  Air-Pump.  It  is  alfo  knowny 
that  the  Sun-Beams  being  colle(3:ed  into  a  Focus  by  a  very  large  Concave, 
will  melt  Gold,  or  any  other  Metal  in  a  Moment :  But  it  doth  not 
ieem,  that  the  Heat  of  the  Sun- Beams  can  by  this  CoUedion  be  fo  much 
augmented,  as  by  their  being  diflufed  in  palling  through  the  (pace  of 
tienthoufand  Diameters  of  the  Earth,  that  is,  ten  millions  of  Miles,  the 
Sun's  leall  Diftance,  it  muft  needs  be  diminilhed.    If  then  the  Sun  were 

a  burn- 

Of  the  Corporeal  World.       Book    1. 

a  burning  Body,  dnd  the  Heat  it  hath  fo  much  greater  than  that  we 
feel  of  it ;  as  to  be  in  proportion  to  its  Diftance  :  how  comes  it  to  be 
fo  little  altered  in  its  Subftance  by  fo  intenfe  a  Heat  ?  and  to  hold 
this  Heat  in  a  contrary  manner  to  what  we  fee  in  all  other  Bodies,  Fluid 
or  Confident,  with  fo  great  an  Equality  for  near  fix  thoufand  Years  ? 
Whether  therefore  it  be  or  no,  we  cannot  but  wonder,  either  in  feeing 
fo  Glorious  a  Body  as  the  Sun  without  Fire;  or,  if  it  be  a  burning  Body, 
without  any  material  Alteration  of  his  Subftance,  or  his  Heat  in  fo  long 
a  time. 

15.  Neither  is  the  Command  which  the  Sun  hath  over  all  the  Prima- 
ry Planets,  and  that  which  thefe  have  over  their  Satellites  lefs  admirable. 
1  lie  Regularity  of  their  Motion  is  Vifible,  as  hath  been  lliew'd ;  but 
the  Caufe  of  it  lies  deeper.  It  is  fuppofed  to  depend  in  a  great  meafure. 
upon  a  fort  of  Gravitating  Power  in  the  Nature  and  Motion  of  the  Sun, 
fomewhat  like  unto  that  in  the  Earth,  by  which  all  Bodies  are  made  to 
defcend.  And  that  the  Sun  is  the  better  fitted  to  command  them  at  (o 
great  a  diftance,  by  its  Bulk.  For  as  the  Diftance  of  the  Sun  from  the 
Earth,  is  fuppoled  to  be  about  ten  thoufand  of  the  Earth's  Diameters ;  fo 
the  Bulk  of  the  Sun,  with  refped:  to  the  Earth,  to  be  at  leaft  as  a  Mil- 
lion to  One  :  And  therefore  alfo  that  this  Power  ©f  the  Sun  is  greater  or 
lefs,  according  to  the  Bulk  and  Diftance  of  the  feveral  Planets.  As  all 
Bodies  gravitate  more  or  lefs,  according  to  their  Diftance  from  the 
Centre  of  the  Earth. 

16.  Yet  there  are  remaining  Difficulties  :  For  tho'  the  Sun  be  allowed 
a  Power  to  move  the  Planets,  yet  the  Co-operation  of  fome  other 
Caufe,  feemeth  necefl'ary  to  dired  this  Motion  into  a  Circle,  and  this 
Circle  always  the  fame.  For  why  elfe  fliould  not  all  Bodies  within  the 
Compafs  of  the  Gravitating  Power  of  the  Earth,  alfo  move  in  a  Circle 
about  it,  inftead  of  defcending  towards  its  Centre  ? 

1 7.  Nor  doth  it  appear  that  the  Power  by  which  the  Sun  is  fuppo- 
fed to  move  the  Planets  in  a  Circle  about  it  felf,  is  alone  fufficient  to 
give  them  a  Rotation  about  their  own  Axis.  For  if  it  were,  why  then 
Ihouldnot  the  Earth  by  the  like  Power  give  the  like  Rotation  to  the 
Moon  >. 

18.  It  therefore  feemeth  probable,  that  for  the  better  ftating  of  the 
Diftances  of  the  Planets  one  from  another,  and  from  the  Sun,  there  are 
as  many  feveral  Spheres,  and  therefore  kinds  of  /Ether ^  as  there  are  Pla- 
nets which  fwim  therein. 

1 9.  And  that  befides  the  faid  Power  of  the  Sun,  there  is  fome  other 
in  the  Planets,  which  co-operates  in  diverfifying  the  Species  of  their 

ao.  Again,  we  will  fuppofe  the  Sun,  with  refped  to  the  Planets,  to 
be  the  Primum  Mohile  ;  But  what  is  it  that  gives  the  Sun  its  Motion  * 
Whether  the  Sun  it  felf  be  mov'd  by  fome  other  Celeftial,  but  Dark, 
orotherwile  Invifible  Body,  is  more  than  we  know,  or  can  dif- 

XI.  And  wherein  the  Moving  Power  of  the  Sun  lieth,  or  of  any 
Planet,  or  other  Body,  we  are  yet  to  feek.  Thus  much  is  plain ;  That 
the  feveral  Species  of  Moving  Powers  are  all  of  kin  to  the  Magrie- 
tick.  So  is  Gravitation  it  felf.  They  difagrec  indeed  in  fome  Properties : 
The  Attradive  Power  of  the  Magnet  is  reciprocally  proportional  to  the 
Cube  of  the  Diftance  from  it,  nearly.    But  the  Gravitating  Posver  of  the 


Chap.  II.         Of  the  Corporeal  World. 

Earth,  is  exactly  as  the  Squares  of  the  Diftances  from  its  Centre,  re- 
ciprocally. The  Magnet  operates  more  remarkably,  at  or  near  its  Poles; 
the  Earth,  near  alike  in  all  Parts  of  its  Surface.  And  in  iome  Properties 
they  agree.  The  Interpofal  of  no  fort  of  Body,  hinders  the  Attradioit 
in  the  one  any  more  than  in  the  other.  Both  attrad  moft  at  the  lead 
Diftances  from  their  Surfaces.  And  it  is  fuppofed  that  the  Earth,  as  the 
Magnet,  attrads  a  little  more  ftrongly,  or  that  any  the  fame  Body  is  a 
little  heavier,  near  its  Poles  than  at  a  diftance.  Whatever  it  is,  the  ufe 
made  of  it  in  ranging  the  Celeftial  Bodies,  and  in  keeping  the  Parts  of 
each  fo  coherent,  was  a  Defign  well  worthy  of  the  Deity. 

zi.  The  Magnetick  Poles  are  alfo  a  great  Secret ;  efpecially  now  they 
are  found  to  be  diflindt  from  the  Poles  of  the  Earth  :  As  alfo  not  to  be 
fix'd,  as  the  Poles  of  the  Earth  are,  but  to  be  moveable,  varying  vi^ith 
us,  about  a  Degree  in  fix  Years,  but  with  much  Regularity.  We  are  yet 
ignorant  both  of  the  Laws  of  their  Variations,  and  the  Caufe  of  them. 
Our  Sailers  make  fome  ufe  of  them  in  their  Eafl-India  Voyages.  More 
than  we  can  yet  forefee,  may  probably  be  deduc'd  from  them  in  future 

z^.  The  /Ether  likewife  wherein  the  Planets  move  ,  befides  the  Di- 
verfity  of  its  Species  before-hinted,  is  alfo  of  confideration,  with  refpedC 
to  its  Rarity  ;  wherein  perhaps  it  exceeds  the  Aer  zo  fold  more  than  the 
Aer  doth  the  Water.  That  is,  if  Aer  exceeds  PT^/f-r  860  times,  then  the 
/Ether  \xs.-i.y  exceed  the  Aer  7x00  times.  And  it  is  very  likely,  that  if 
there  are  different  kinds  of  Mther^  they  have  all  a  different  Degree  of 
Rarity :  By  which  Rarity  it  becomes  fo  fit  a  Medium^  for  trajeding  the 
Light  and  Influence  of  all  Celeftial  Bodies  at  fo  great  a  diftance.  Compu- 
ted to  be  done  with  that  Swiftnefs,  as  to  pafs  ten  thoufand  Diameters  of 
the  Earth  in  ten  Minutes  of  time,  or  the  6th  of  an  Hour :  And  by  the 
fame  means  it  moft  readily  yieldeth  to  their  Revolutions,  and  the  making 
of  them  with  that  Evennefs  and  Celerity  as  is  requifite  in  them  all.  In 
he  Earth,  for  Inftance  which  moveth  in  its  Annual  Orb  about  zoo  of 
;s  own  Diameters  in  a  Day  ;  which  is  about  1000  Englifli  Miles  in  the 
inute  of  an  Hour. 

Z4.  Of  how  manifold  ufe  is  the  Aer^  as  it  minifters  to  the  Generation 
of  Winds,  and  of  Meteors  above,  and  of  moft  Bodies  here  below,  and 
to  the  Confer vation  of  Life  it  felf.  The  Trade- Wind  which  blows  be- 
tween the  Tropicks,  from  the  North-Eaft  and  South  Weft  all  the  Year 
round,  is  fupposM  partly  to  depend  upon  the  Diurnal  Motion  of  the 
Earth,  which  there  makes  a  greater  Circle,  and  fo  a  f  wifter  Motion.  And 
there  are  other  Winds,  efpecially  from  the  Weft,  which  will  blow  fome-- 
times  two  or  three  Days  upon  one  Point,  fo  as  to  drive  a  Ship  before 
them  1 50  Leagues,  or  450  Englilh  Miles  in  that  time  :  And  Hurricanes 
themfelves  move,  at  leaft  fometimes,  in  a  Dired  Line :  And  the  North- 
Weft  Winds,  call'd  Aquilones^  as  they  are  obferv'd  by  Pliny^  z.  47,  ufu- 
ally  to  blow  about  8  Days  before  the  Rifing  of  the  Dog-Star ;  therefore 
call'd  Prodromi :  fo  afterwards,  then  calla  Etefite^  very  conftantly  for 
40  Days. 

z-^.  To  account  for  all  which,  and  other  Regular  Winds,  ([and  perhaps 
all  Winds  are  Regular,)  we  muft  have  recourle  not  only  to  the  Earth, 
but  alfo  to  the  Phafes^  Motions  and  Portions  of  all  the  Planets,  and  to 
fome  of  the  Fix'd  Stars.  All  which  we  may  reafonably  fuppofe  to  have 
fome  Degree  of  Moving  Power  over  the  Earth,  like  that  of  the  Sun, 

D  fo 

lo  of  the  Corforeal  World         Book    I, 

fo  as  to  be  able  more  or lefs  to  alter, tl:|e  Pofition  of  the  fame.  NotoF 
its  AxiSy  which  the  Sun  lleadily  commartds,  but  with  refpeit  to  its  Di- 
flanee.  Whereby  the  Figure  of  the  Surrounding  Atmofphere,  in  prefling 
more  or  lefs  upon  the  adjacent  yEther^  will  be  cjiore  or  lefs  alter'd,  and 
therewithal  the  Motion  hereof.  .  .       . 

z6.  Nor  arc  the  Celeftial  Bodies  more  admirably  fitted  by  their  various 
Motions,  Pofitions,  and  otherwife  for  the  begetting  of  Winds,  than  Wa- 
ter is,  by  making  two  of  its  Properties,  wz.  Fluidity  and  Continuity,  to 
be  confident,  for  the  begetting  of  Clouds.  For  were  it  Incapable  of  be- 
ing expanded  into  a  Volatile  Bubble,  there  cou'd  be  no  Clouds,  nor  there- 
fore any  Rain.  For  as  a  Mill  is  a  Multitude  of  Small,  but  Solid  Glo^ 
bules,  which  therefore  defcend ;  fo  a  Vapour,  and  therefore  a  Watery 
Cloud,  is  nothing  elfe  but  a  Congeries  o^  very  Small  and  Concave  Globules, 
which  therefore  afcend,  'viz.  to  that  Heighth,  in  which  they  are  of  equal 
Weight  with  the  Air,  where  they  remain  fufpended,  till  by  fome  Mot 
tion  in  the  Air,  being  broken,  they  defcend  in  Solid  Drops  ;  either  fmall 
as  in  a  Mift,   or  bigger,  when  many  jaf  them  run  together,  as  in  Rain. 

xy.  What  too  cou'd  be  of  more  excellent  Ufe  for  Navigation,  and  o- 
ther  ways,  than  the  various  CoUedlion  of  the  Waters  into  Seas,  Lake^, 
and  Rjvers  ?  Or  more  advantagious  for  the  faid  Vie  than  the  Winding  of 
Rivers'?  Defignedand  effeded  in  the  Beginning  by  the  Inequality  of  the 
Surface  of  the  Earth. 

x8.  Nor  cou'd  any  thing  be  more  ufeful  than  the  Regular  Variety  of 
the  Motions  of  Seas  and  Rivers  in  Currents  and  Tides.  The  Diurnal  Vi- 
ciflitudes  of  the  latter,  being  effeded  by  the  Diurnal  Motions  of  the  Earth  ; 
and  the  Monthly  Revolutions  of  their  let  times,  by  thofe  of  the  Earth 
and  Moon  together  j  according  to  our  Learned  Geometry-Profeflor 
Dr.  J^'^af/is. 

29.  It  is  alfo  very  reafonably  fuppos'd  by  fome  of  late,  as  well  as  by 
the  Pythagoreans  heretofore  ;  both  from  the  Obfcure  Parts,  and  the  Ine- 
qualities of  the  Moon  ;  fome  of  them  four  times  greater  than  any  ort 
the  Earth,  and  from  fome  other  grounds ;  that  it  is  another  •  Terraque- 
^  ous  Orb,  having  its  Atmofphere,  Winds,  Seas,  and  Tides  ;  and  here- 
withal  a  fuitable,  tho'  perhaps  a  different  Furniture  of  Animals,  Plants 
and  Mines.  And  we  have  as  good  reafon  to  believe  the  fame  of  all  the 
other  Planets  ;  their  greater  and  leHer  Diftance  from  the  Sun  being  mat- 
ched with  a  fuitable  Atmofphere. 

^o.  And  further,  to  believe  that  every  Fixed  Star  is  another  Sun,  which 
by  making  conflant  Rotations  upon  its  own  Axif,  hath  alfo  the  Com- 
mand of  another  Planetary  Syfleme,  in  fome  fort  like  unto  this  we  fee, 
and  wherein  we  move.  For  the  Dillance  of  Saturn  from  the  5«w,  the  ut- 
moft  of  all  the  Planets,  which  make  up  this  Vifible  Syfleme,  is  perhaps 
not  a.fifth  part  of  the  Diflance  between  the  faid  Planet  and  any  Fix'd 
Star.  Now  there  can  be  no  manner  of  Symmetry  in  furniihing  fo  fmafl 
a  part  of  the  Univerfal  Expanfion,  with  fo  noble  an  Apparatus  as  afore- 
faid ;  and  letting  innumerable  and  far  greater  Intervals  to  lie  wafte 
and  void.  And  admitting  every  Fix'd  Star  to  be  a  Sun,  it  were  further 
Incongruous  to  give  fo  great  a  Command  to  one  fingle  Sun  ;  and  to 
make  fo  great  a  Number  befides,  of  no  anfwerable  Ufe.  If  then  there 
are  many  Thoufands  of  Vifible  and  Invifible  Fix'd  Stars,  or  of  Suns, 
there  are  alfo  as  many  Planetary  Syflems  belonging  to  them;  and 
many  more  Planetary  Worlds  :    For  we    can  have  no  fight,  nor 


Chap.  Ill,  Of  Principles.  n 

Conception  of  the  utmoft  Bounds  of  the  Univerfe  ;  no  more  than  of 
the  Omnipotent  Wifdom,  By  which  it  was  made. 

CHAP.    III. 

Of  the  Principles'  of  Bodies. 

i  -  A  S  there  is  no  Maximum  whereunto  we  can  go,  but  God  only  j 
£\  (o  there  is  no  Mmimum^  but  a  Point :  which  hath  no  Dimenfi- 
ons,  but  only  a  Whereneft,  and  is  next  to  Nothing,  For  as  far  as  the 
Whole  is  Extenfible,  To  far  the  Parts  are  alfo  Divifible,  both  Indefi- 
nitely;  or  as  Mathematicians  fpeak,  Infinitely :  that  is,  beyond  any  Hu- 
man Obfei'vation  or  Conception. 

a.  How  the  Whole  is  fo,  I  have  flievved  in  the  precedent  Chapter  : 
And  fo  likewife  are  the  Parts.  For  the  fliorteft  part  of  a  Line,  is  a  Line  : 
But  there  is  xxt  Part  of  a  Line,  or  no  Line  fo  Ihort,  but  it  may  become 
the  Bounds  of  a  Surface  ;  and  that  Surface  of  a  Body. 

/J.  Could  a  Line,  and  fo  a  Body,  be  divided  into  lead  Parts,  the  Hypo- 
themfa  of  a  Right-Angled  Triangle,  would  be  Commenfurable  with  ei- 
ther of  the  other  two  Sides.  For  could  any  one  of  the  Sides,  then 
each  of  them  would  be  divifible  into  leaft  Parts.  And  therefore 
into,  thofe  Parts,  which  being  all  Leaft,  m  ould  be  all  Equal. 

4.  Ilie  fame  \s  fhewed  from  the  nature  of  Infinite  Spirals,  and  of 
all  Afymptote  Lines  :  To  wit,  fuch  Lines  as  in  the  fame  Plain  doi 
fo  continually  apprdach  one  to  another ;  as  at  length  to  be  nearer 
than  ahy  given  Diftance  ;  yet  will  never  meet,  tho'  produced  Infinitely. 

5.  Upon  the  fame  ground  it  likewife  is,  that  tho' fome  have  very  well 
fliewn  the  Rectification  of  Curve  Lines,  and  the  Squaring  of  fome  Curve 
Figures  ',  yet  this  cannot  be  done  to  a  Point,  by  an  immediate  Comparifori 
between  a  Strait  Line,  or  Rectilinear  Figure  and  a  Curve  ;  but  requi- 
rfeth  the  mediate  Help  of  Motion  ;  from  the  Velofity  whereof,  as  I 
have  heard  the  Learned  Mr.  Ntwton  affirm,  the  Length  of  the  Curve  may 
be  calculated.  A  Strait  and  a  Curve  Line  may  perhaps  be  brought  by 
Immediate  Commenfuration,  nearer  to  Equality  than  any  given  Difference ; 
but  the  Equality  can  never  be  brought  to  a  Point.  For  as  the  fmallefl:  Part 
of  a  Line,  is  a  Line  •  fo  the  fmalleft  Part  of  a  Curve  Line,  though 
divided  Infinitely ,  is  a  Curve.  So  that  after  all  the  Immediate  Com- 
menfuration which  can  be  made  between  a  Strait  Line  and  a  Curve, 
there  will  ftill  be  a  String  to  a  Bow. 

6.  The  Confideration  ^'hereof,  will  enable  us  to  think  as  we  ought, 
of  the  Principles  of  Bodies;  which,  as  they  muft  of  neceflity  have  their 
Dimenfions,  and  therefore  their  Solid  Figures  ;  fo  withal  they  may  be 
Ihfinitely  Small,  not  only  beyond  all  naked  or  ailifted  Sthk  ;  but  be- 
yond all  Arithmetical  Operation  or  Conception. 

7.  To  thofe  who  are  not  iifed  to  a  rigid  Mathematick  Proof,  this  may 
be  illuftrated  by  the  Smallnefs  of  many  Organized  Bodies.  Ten  thou- 
fand  Seeds  of  the  Plant  called  Harts-Tongue,  hardly  make  the  Bulk  of  a 
Pepper-Corn.  Now  the  Covers  and  the  true  Body  of  each  Seed,  the 
Tarenchymom  and  Ligmns  Parts  of  both,  the  Fibres'  of  thole  Parts,  the 



12 UJ  Frinci-ples  book  1. 

Principles  of'thofe  Fibres,  and  the  Homogeneous  Particles  or  Atoms  of 
each  Principle,  being  moderately  multiplied  one  by  another  ,  afford  a 
hundred  thoufand  Millions  of  Formed  Atoms  in  the  fpace  of  a  Pepper- 
Corn  ;  but  how  many  more,  we  cannot  Define. 

8.  The  fame  is  yet  more  evident  from  the  StupendiousSmalnefs  of 
fome  Animals,  efpecially  in  the  Sperm  of  Smaller  Infedts.  Which  have 
been  obferved  by  Mr.  Leuwenhoeck^  to  be  a  hundred  Millions  of  times 
fmaller  than  a  great  Sand.  And  what  then  muft  be  the  Number  and 
Smalnefs  of  thofe  Formed  Atoms,  whereof  all  the  Organical  Parts  of  thefe 
Animals  are  compofed  > 

9.  Thefe  Inftances  may  alfo  lliew  how  very  conceivable  it  is,  That 
the  Qualities  of  Bodies,  whereby  they  Operate  one  upon  another,  may 
fo  properly  belong  to  fome  one  Corporeal  Principle,  as  not  to  fubfifl; 
primarily  in  any  other.  That  Heat,  for  Example,  tho'  communicable, 
to  any  fort  of  Bodies  ;  yet  there  is  fome  Subtile  Body,  which  is  the 
primary  Subjed:  hereof.  That  is,  when  a  Body  is  heated,  it  is  by  fome 
Subtile  Calorifick  Principle,  which  is  either  excited  within  the  Heated 
Body,  or  transferred  to  it  through  any  Medium,  from  fome  other. 
Therefore  a  Silver  Cup,  being  more  retentive  of  the  Qilorifick  Parti- 
cles it  receives  •  will  not  only  keep  hot  longer;  but  grow  hotter,  than 
the  Liquor  it  contains.  By  what  Chymerical  Motion  could  a  Burning- 
Glals  make  a  Focus  with  io  Intenfe  a  Heat,  were  not  Light  a  Body 
fit  to  produce  it  ?  Or  how  could  Water  make  thofe  vifible  Starts  upon 
Freezing,  but  by  fome  Subtile  Freezing  Principle  which  as  fuddenly 

10.  We  may  hereby  likewife  the  better  conceive  how  Gravdfation, 
and  tile  Power  of  the  Magnet,  may  depend  upon  fome  Effluvia  mini- 
ftring  thereunto  ;  although  the  Iron  Ibmetimes  may  be  more  than 
fixty-fold  the  Weight  of  the  Magnet.  For  as  one  String  of  a  Viol 
will  make  another  to  move,  when  tuned  to  an  Unifon  j  fo  the  Effluvia 
of  the  Magnet,  and  of  the  Iron,  having  a  like  Motion,  may  together 
have  a  Power  fuperiour  to  that,  which  is  proper  to  the  Principle  ot  Gra- 
vitation ,•  and  may  thus  fuffice  to  bring  them  together. 

1 1 .  There  is  a  fort  of  Magnetifm,  not  only  in  Amber,  and  Jett,  as  is 
know  n ;  but  alfo  in  Gumm  Anime^  Gumm  Elemy^  and  in  all  other,  not  Muci- 
laginous, but  Refmous  Gumms,  even  in  Common  Rofm  it  felf.  Any  of 
which  being  rubbed  till  they  are  warm,  will  make  a  fmall  piece  of  a 
Straw  to  leap  up  to  them.     And  yet  thefe  Gumms  being  warmed  to 

.  ,  the  fame,  or  a  greater  Degree,  by  holding  them  to  the  Fire,  or  a 
Candle  ;  the  fame  Piece  of  Straw  will  take  no  notice  of  them.  And 
many  other  Phccnomem  relating  to  Corporeal  Qualities,  when  they 
come  throughly  to  be  examined,  lie  in  the  fame  Obfcurity.  Sodeep- 
ly  and  far  out  of  fight,  have  the  Divine  Power  and  Wifdom,  laid  the 
Foundation  of  the  Generations  and  Operations  of  Bodies,  in  the  unfcarcha- 
ble  Subtility  of  their  Principles. 

It.  Nor  is  the  Workmanfliip  of  the  Deity,  more  apparent  in 
the  Smalnefs  of  Principles,  than  in  their  being  made  Unalterable. 
There  are  fome  Minerals  wherein,  not  only  the  Principles,  but  the  Com- 
pofitions,  are  Unalterable.  Every  Alchymift  knows,  that  Gold  will  en- 
dure a  Vehement  Fire  for  a  long  time,  without  any  Change ;  and  that 
after  it  has  been  divided  by  Corrofive  Liquors  ,  into  InvililDle  Parts; 
yet  may  prefently  be  precipitated,  lo  as  to   appear  again  in   its  own 



Chap.  II.  Of  Principles  1:5 

Form.  And  the  fame  Immutability  which  belongs  to  the  Compofition 
of  Gold,  doth  much  more  to  the  Principles  both  of  Gold,  and  of  all 
other  Bodies,  when  their  Compofition  is  deftroy'd. 

I :}.  It  is  plain  that  the  Atoms  of  Water,  are  Hard,  and  Unalterable  in 
their  Figure.  For  othervvife  all  kinds  of  Salts,  as  of  Tartar^  Sal  Armo- 
tiiac^  Common  Salt.,  Copperas.,  Nitre,  and  others,  might  be  diflblved  in  an 
equal  Quantity  in  the  fame  Quantity  of  Water.  And  they  would  all 
likewife  therein  take  up  the  fame  Space.  For  be  the  Figyr^s  of  the  Salts 
never  fo  various ;  yet  if  the  Atoms  of  Water  were  El^id  and  Alterable, 
they  wou'd  always  fo  conform  to  thofe  Figures,  as  to  fill  up  all  Va- 
cuities :  And  confequently  the  Water  would  be  Saturable  with  the  fame 
Quantity  of  any  Salt,  which  it  is  not  ;  and  would  always  g^in  the 
lame  Quantity  of  Space,  which  it  doth  not  j  as  I  have  defnonftrated  in  a 
Difcourfe  read  before  the  Royal  Society,  Of  the  Solution  of  Salts  in 
Water.  And  if  the  Atoms  of  Water,  then  of  all  other  Fluids  j  and 
mucli  more  thofe  of  Confident  Bodies,  are  Unalterable. 

14.  And  that  they  fhou'd  be  fo,  is  both  Congruous  and  Neceflary. 
It  is  Congruous,  that  as  Motion  is  ftinted  to  certain  Primitive  and 
Unalterable  Laws,  fo  that  each  Principle  fliou'd  be  limited  to  fome  Un- 
alterable Cize  and  Figure.  And  it  is  neceffary.  For  Ihou'd  we  fuppofe 
them  to  be  Alterable,  by  fome  one  or  more  Motions :  unlefs  then  there 
were  fome  other  Motions ,  which  upon  the  Innumerable  Viciffitudes  of 
Generation  and  Corruption,  cou'd  always  give  Security  for  their  Refti- 
tution  unto  the  fame  Cize  and  Figure ;  what  wou'd  become  of  them 
upon  every  Alteration  ?  Wc  iliou  a  then  have  New  Principles  every 
Day  ;  New  kinds  of  Generation  j  a  New  State  of  Bodies ;  and  a  New 

15-.  Now  if  there  be  no  Motion  which  can  alter  the  Principles 
of  Bodies,  that  is,  reduce  them  to  fome  other  Cize  or  Figure ;  then 
is  there  none,  of  it  felf  fufficient  to  give  them  the  Cize  and  Figure 
which  they  have.  That  is  to  fay,  if  the  Principles  of  Bodies  are  Unal- 
terable, they  are  alfo  Unmakable,  by  any  but  a  Divine  Powei; 

16.  The  Regularity  moreover  of  Corporeal  Principles,  fliewcththem 
^to  come  at  firll  from  a  Divine  Regulator;     Which  Regularity  is  certain, 

where  it  is  not  fo  apparent,  as  in  all  Fluids.  For  Regularity  is  a  Simi- 
litude continued.  Now  though  we  cannot  fee  the  Atoms,  fuppofe  of 
Water ;  yet  it  is  certain,  that  they  are  all  qua.  Watery,  of  that  One  Con- 
tinued or  Repeated  Figure,  which  is  neceflary  to  make  it  a  Liquid 
Body.  And  fo  likewife  that  the  Atoms  of  Air,  qua  Airy,  are  of  that 
One  Figure,  which  is  neceflary  to  make  it  an  Elaftick  Body, 

17.  So  far  too  as  there  is  any  Senfe  in  fpeaking  of  the  Occult  Qua- 
lities of  Bodies,  they  are  to  be  underftood,  the  Effeds  of  their  Occult 
Principles  ;  which  are  alfo  to  be  reckoned  among  Fluids  :  That  is  to 
fay,  luch  Principles,  whofe  Atoms  are  ti  that  Disjundiive  Nature,  as 
not  to  be  united  in  a  fufficient  Number,  to  make  a  Vifible  Mafs.  In 
all  which,  there  mull  of  neceliity,  though  we  fee  it  not ,  be  fome 
one  Identity  of  Parts,  adapted  to  one  certain  and  conftant  Effed; ;  and 
therefore  a  Regularity. 

18.  The  Figure  of  the  Atoms  of  all  Vifible  Fluids,  qua  Fluids,  feemeth 
to  be  Globular  ;  there  being  no  other  Figure  fo  well  fitted,  either  to  the 
making  of  Fluidity,  or  of  that  Vifible  Rotundity,  to  which  the  Drops  of 
Water  and  other  Liquors  do  conltantly  conform. 

E  19.  Yet 

14  Of  Princifles.  Book   I. 

19.  Yet  together  with  this  Rotundity,  common  to  the  Atoms  of  all 
Fluids,  there  is  fome  difference  in  Bulk,  or  otherwife,  by  which  the 
Atoms  -of  one  Fluid  are  diftinguiftied  from  thofe  of  another :  For 
elfe,  all  Fluids  wou'd  be  alike  in  Weight,  Expanfibility,  and  all  other 

ao.  If  Common  Water  and  Quick-filver  be  put  a-part  into  two  Bolt- 
heads  of  the  fame  Cize,  fo  as  in  the  Neck  of  each  to  rife  up  to  the  fame 
Heigth  ;  and  the  Bolt-heads  then  let  at  the  fame  time  and  heigth  in 
one  Veflel  of  Hot  Water:  the  Water  and  the  Quick-filver  in  the  Bolt- 
heads  will  both  of  them  alcend  j  but  in  a  very  different  Proportion. 
For  whereas  Water  is  near  14  times  lighter  than  Quick-filver ;  yet  the 
Afcent  of  the  Quick-filver,  is  at  lead  two  Thirds  of  the  Afcent  of  the 
Water.  So  that  Bodies  are.  not  Expanfible,  in  proportion  to  their 
Weight ,  or  to  the  Quantity  of  Matter  to  be  expanded.  But 
according  to  fome  Diverfity  in  their  Atoms,  whereby  they  are  more 
or  lefs  crowded,  or  otherwife  affedled ,  with  thofe  w  hich  are  Ca- 

XI.  But  the  Regularity  of  Principles  difcovers  it  felf  more  appa- 
rently in  Confident  Bodies ;  and  that  in  all  the  Kingdoms  of  Corporeal 
Nature.  Diamonds  are  often  fexangularly  pointed  in  their  Native 
Beds.  Chryflal  is  in  its  natural  Growth  a  Sexangular  Prifme,.  Sexan- 
gularly  pointed.  Granates  arc  Multangularly  Round.  And  befides 
Gemms,  many  other  forts  of  Stones  are  regularly  figured  ,•  the  Ajieria 
in  form  of  a  Star ;  the  lud'tack  Stone,  of  a  Pear ;  the  Amianthus^  of 
Parallel  Threads,  as  in  the  Pile  of  Velvet ; ,  the  Selenites,  of  Parallel 
Plates,  as  in  a  Deck  of  Cards;  and  they  ane  of  a  Rhombick  Figure,- 
Talk,  of  fuch  as  are  Rhomboid  ;  with  many  other  Diverfities. 

XI.  Many  of  thefe  Stones  abound  with  Salt.  From  the  different  Spe- 
cies, and  Mixture  of  which  Principle,  they  receive  their  different  Figures. 
And  fome  of  them,  as  the  Diamond,  Amianthus,  Talk^  either  for  their 
Hardnefs,  or  Immutability  in  the  Fire,  feemto  have  little  or  no  Salt  in 
them  ;  but  to  confift  chiefly  of  Terreftrial  Parts,  or  Stony,  (Iridly 
fo  called.  Arguing,  that  the  Atoms  of  the  Lapidifick,  as  well  as  of  the 
Saline  Principle,  being  Regular,  do  therefore  concur  in  producing  Re- 
gular Stones.  * 

13.  Befides  Stones,  all  the  forts  of  Mundick,  and  fometimes  Metals 
themfelves,  both  Gold  and  others,  are  naturally  figured.  And  the 
Ores  both  of  Silver  and  Lead,  have  the  Sides  of  all  their  Flakes  re- 
duced unto  Equal  Angles.  Neither  can  we  doubt  but  that  all  Stones, 
and  Metals,  yea,  and  all  other  Confident  Bodies,  had  they  always 
room  enough,  with  a  Bed,  and  all  things  elfe  favourable  to  their 
Generation,  wou'd  be  always  Perfed:  in  their  kind,  and  always  Fi- 

z4.  And  we  find,  that  witU«thefc  Circumftanccs,  their  Salts  are  always 
fo  :  and  always  conformable  to  themfelves.  The  Figures  whereof  are 
very  Numerous  ;  but  all  agree  in  being  Redilinear,  and  compofed  of 
Proportional  Sides  and  Angles. 

X5-.  The  Salt  of  the  Lake  Afphaltites^  fliooteth  into  Pcrfedl  Cubes. 
Common  Salt  ufually  into  little  Chryftals  coming  near  to  a  Cube. 
Sometimes  into  Square  Plates.  Sometimes  into  ihort  Q.uadrangular 
Prifmes.  Sometimes  they  are  Pyramidal  and  Plain,  without  and  with- 
in, like  the  Hopper  of  a  Mill.    And  fometimes  they  narrow  Step  by 


Chap*  HI.  Of  Vriuctfles.  i  j 

Step,  from  the  Top,  to  the  Centre  of  the  Bottom*     Yet  all  thefe.^Ei- 
gures  thus  far  agree  in  being  Redangular.  ,,  .|J,^ 

1.6.  A  good  Strong  Solution  of  Sal  Armoniack  carefully  ordered,  j]ioc^ 
teth  as  it  were  into  tour  Combs  fet  Back  to  Back,  in  a  Redangular 
Crofs :  From  the  Teeth  of  which,  other  Teeth  Ihoot  again  at  Right 
Angles,  or  very  near.  On  the  Sides  of  the  VelTel  containing  this  So- 
lution ;  Sometimes  only  a  Pair  of  Stria;  (o  decuflate,  as  to  make  .s^ 
Redtanguiar  Crofs  ;  And  fometimes  more  of  them,  fo  as  to  make  upon 
one  larger,  feveral  lefler  Crodes  ;  like  thofe'in  fome  Coats  of  Arms: 
But  in  all  thefe  Varieties  they  ulually  keep  to.a  Right  Angle  j  partly  by 
means  of  the  Common  Salt  mixed  here^^(itlL 

27.  The  known  Figure  of  Nitre,  is  a  5exangular  Prifme.  And  a 
flrong  Solution  hereof  in  Water  willflioot  upon  the  Sides  of  the  Vef- 
fel,  fometimes  with  three  Stria^  which  decufTate,  or  interfed:  one  ano-, 
ther,  Starwife,  at  6  Equal  and  Acute  Angles.  Which  Stria,  were  they 
all  joined  at  the  Circumference,  would  alfo  make  a  Sexangular  Figure. 
And  fometimes  they  are  like  a  Quill,  with  the  Plumy  Part  only  upon 
one  fide  ;  but  flill  keep  to  the  fame  Acute  Angle. 

x8.  The  Chryftals  which  flioot  at  the  Bpttom  of  a  Solution  of  Green 
Vitriol,  are  Rhomboid.  And  the  Strix  on  the  Sides  of  the  Glafs, 
either  ftand  like  the  Plumy  Parts  on  both  the  fides  of  a  Quill  j  or  many 
Lefler  Stri<e  interfedt  a  Greater  with  the  fame  Sloap,  To  as  to  make  A- 
cute  and  Obtufe  Angles  alternately.  In  both  which  Cafes  the  Stria  are 
produced  in  the  fame  manner,  as  are  the  Sides  of  a  Rhomboid  Fi- 
gure. In  the  Latter,  as  the  Sides  of  a  Single  one.  In  the  Former, 
as  of  two  fuch  Figures  joined  together,  but  one  of  them  inverted  to 
the  other. 

29.  The  Chryflals  of  Vegetahle  Salts,  are  alfo  very  fine.    The  Muri- 
atick,  which  I  have  defcribed  in  a  Difcourfe  of  the  Effential  Salts  of 
Plants,  have  many  Varieties.    But  all  of  them,  as  thofe  of  Common 
Salt,  are  Rectangular,  and  mofl  of  them  come  near  to  a  Cube.     The 
Effential,  made  together  with  the  Muriatick,  are  mofl  of  them  Sexan- 
gularly  pointed,  as  are  the  Chryflals  of  Nitre.    The  Lixivial,  of  which 
the  two  former  are  produced,  fometimes  fhoot  on  the  Sides  of  the  Glafs, 
Jike  the  Brulhy  End  of  the  Plant  called  Equifetum.     Thofe  of  the  Volatile 
Salt  of  Wood-Soot  have  generally  the  exad:  Form  of  a  Little  Shrub. 
And  feveral  Little  Shrubs  will  grow  up  from  one  Horziontal  Bed  of  Salt. 
And  I  have  fliewed  in  the  Anatomy  of  Plant s,m  what  manner  the  feveral 
Parts  of  Plants  themfelves  are  figured  by  their  Salts  :    That  is  to  fay. 
That  the  Atoms  of  thofe  Salts,  having  fuch  certain  Sides  and  Angles ; 
upon  their  various  Application  one  to  another,  and  thereby  commanding 
the  other  Principles,  as  a  Ruler  doth  the  Pencil ;  mufl  of  neceflity  produce 
a  fuitable  Variety  of  Vifible  Figures.     And  fome   Mineral  Salts   them- 
felves, when  very  pure  and  fine,  by  means  of  their  pointed  or  floaped 
Ends,  will  fometimes  be  applied  one  to  another,  at  Acute  Angles,  fo 
as  to  be  branched  into  Vegetable  Figures.  , 

30.  A  flrong  Solution  of  the  Volatile  Salt  of  Harts-Horn,  or  of 
Blood,  made  with  their  own  Phlegm  or  Spirit,  aftejj  .fome  time  exhibits 
certain  fhortf^at  Prilrnes;  that  is,  with  two  broad,,  and  other  two  nar- 
row Sides,  ffoaped  at  their  Ends,  to,  as  I  take  jt,  an  Acute  Angle.  On 
the  Sides  of  the  Glafs  it  fometimes  Chryftallizes'into  perfed:  Rhombs, 
like  the  Spots  in  the  Diamond  Card.    A  Figure  which  is  compofed  of  a 


1 6  Of  Frinciflef,  Book    I. 

Pair  of  Points  of  the  faid  Prifmes,  fet  Bafe  to  Bale.  In  Diftillation, 
that  of  Harts-Horn  is  often  Branched  hke  the  Horn  it  felf.  And  that 
of  Blood,  formed  like  Nitre,  Star-wife.  In  both  which,  the  Stria  are 
produced  at  the  fame  Acute'  Angles. 

^i.  The  Salts  of  the  Air,  befides  the  Native,  are  a  Mixture  of  all 
the  kinds  here  below,  which  are  Volatile.  But  there  is  fcarce  any  of 
•them,  except  one,  viz.  the  Freezing  Principle,  which  feemeth  to  be  next 
of  kin  to  Nitre,  that  exhibits  it  felf.  And  this  it  doth,  under  Various 
and  Exadt  Figures. 

3x.  It  hath  been  obferved  by  others,  That  in  Snow  there  are  many 
Parts  curioufly  Figur'd,  comnlionly  into  little  Starry  Icicles  of  Six 
Points.  But  in  a  Difcourfe  prefented  to  the  Royal  Society,  and  pub- 
iiihed  in  the  Philofophical  Tranfa^liom^  N",  I  have  demonflrated.  That  the 
whole  Body  of  a  Snowy  Cloud,  confifteth  of  fuch,  and  other-like  Ici# 
des  regularly  Figured.  That  is,  that  the  very  Small  Drops  of  a  Mifling 
Rain,  defcending  through  a  Freezing  Air,  do  each  of  them  flioot  into  one 
of  thofe  Figured  Icicles.  Which  Icicles,  being  ruffled  with  the  Wind,  in 
their  Fall,  are  moft  of  them  broken,  and  cluflered  together  intofmall 
iParcels,  which  we  call  Flakes  of  Snow. 

•  3:^.  The  Agency  of  the  fame  Freezing  Principle,  is  alfo  very  fine 
here  below.  In  a  Hoar-Froft,  that  which  we  call  a  Rime^  is  a  Multi- 
tude of  Quadrangular  Prifmes,  exadly  figured,  but  piled  without  any 
Order,  one  over  another.  In  the  firft  Froft,  upon  a  Snow,  I  have  Teen 
the  like  Prifmes,  fo  piled  one  upon  another,  and  joined  End  to  fend, 
and  equally  encreafed  in  their  Length,  as  to  compofe  a  Sexangular  and 
Inverted  Pyramid,  fomewhat  like  the  Bowl  of  a  Funnel.  And 
fometimes  a  Company  of  Little  Icy  Clohules  ^  that  is,  Mifly  Drops, 
which  have  been  fuddenly  frozen  by  the  Snow :  will  be  fo  piled  one  upon 
another^  as  to  compofe  a  Little  Pyramid,  terminating  in  one  fingle 
Globule  at  the  Top  j  not  much  unlike  t6  a  Lavender  Spike,  And 
fometimes  feveral  flat  Icicles,  will  be  fo  compofed,  as  to  refemble  a  Mal-^ 
low  Flower. 

J4.  The  Dew  upon  Windows,  and  Water  upon  flat,  fmooth,  and  broad 
Stones,  will  fometimes  be  elegantly  flourilhed  into  a  Vegetable  Form. 
The  Congealing  Principle  being  aflilled  herein,  by  the  Volatile  farts  of 
Plants,  which  continually  perfpire,  and  hover  in  this  Lower  Region  6f 
the  Air  in  greater  Plenty. 

35.  In  a  freezing  Seafon,  if  a  Glafs-Plate,  or  a  Window-Square,  be 
made  all  over  wet  with  warm  Water,  that  it  may  not  freeze  too  fudden- 
ly J  it  will,  upon  freezing,  always  (hoot  regularly  :  one  Parcel  of  Strice 
running  Parallel,  being  Obliquely,  and  always  at  the  fame  Angles,  in- 
terfeded  by  another  Parcel,  viz.  the  fame  Angles  as  there  wou'd  be  in 
Snow,  if  the  feveral  Icicles  thereof,  confifted  only  of  a  Pair  of  Stricc. 
Whereby  it  is  plain,  that  not  only  in  all  the  former  Examples,  but 
Wherefoever  VVater  is  divided  into  fmaller  Parcels,  or  lies  in  a  very 
thin  Body,  iti  proportion  to  its  Surface,  fo  as  the  Congealing  Princi- 
ple hath  Power  enough  to  command  it ;  and  the  freezing  Stria  have 
room  enough  to  ihoot  forth,  and  are  not  over-numerous,  fo  as  to  be 
confounded  ;  it  will  ftill  be  regularly  figured.  And  that  if  enough  of 
thefe  Circumftances  cou'd  meet  in  Rivers  and  Seas  ,•  we  fliou'd  have  Ri- 
vers and  Seas,  as  well  as  Clouds,  of  figured  Icicles.  That  is,  in  fumm, 
Whatfoever  cou'd  te  generated  with  all  due  Advantages,  in  the  Air, 
•  or 

HAP.  IV,  Of  Compomidf.  ly 

or  in  the   Water,  upon,  or  within  the  Earth,   would  be  Regularly 

^6.  Itisalfo  obfervable,  that  although  fome  of  the  Figures  of  Stones, 
vSalts,  and  other  Bodies  aforemention'd,  are  made  with  Right  Angles : 
Yet  the  moft  ufual,  is  that  Acute  Angle,  whereby  a  Circle  is  divided  in- 
to Six  Equal  Parts.  Which  Angle,  is  hereby  the  better  adapted,  either 
of  it  felf,  or  bv  Addition  and  Subllradtion,  for  the  Generation  of  all 
manner  of  Figures  in  compounded  Bodies. 

37.  From  all  which  Inftances,  it  is  evident,  that  the  Principles  of  Bo- 
dies, are  Regularly  Figur'd.  True  it  is,  that  Principles,  flridly  fo  cal- 
led, are  exhibited  in  none  of  the  Bodies  aforefaid.  No,  not  in  the  Salts 
themfelves  ;  as  being  only  the  firft  Vifible  Mafles  of  Bodies.  And  may 
therefore  poflibly,  have  a  different  Figure^  from  that  of  the  Atomes 
whereof  they  confift.  For  a  Rhomboid,  maybe  refolved  into  Wedges 
and  Cubes.  And  a  Cube,  may  be  refolved  into  Tables  and  Prifmes : 
And  both  thefe  again,  into  Cubes :  And  fo  of  other  Figures.  But  not- 
withflanding  that  we  are  not  certain,  of  the  precife  Figures  of  Atomes  : 
Yet  the  faid  vifible  Mades,  and  other  Bodies,  being  Regular;  we  are 
from  hence  certain,  tliat  the  Atomes  which  produce  them,  arealfo  Re- 
gular. For  as  two  Incommenfurable  Lines,  though  divided,  or  multi- 
ply'd,  Infinitely ;  are  ftilllncommenfurable  :  So  if  the  Figures  of  Atomes, 
were  themfelves  Irregular;  they  would  produce  Irregularity  in  all  their 
Mixtures.  Wherefore,  by  the  Regularity  of  Compounded  Bodies,  which 
we  fee ;  we  are  fure  of  it  in  their  Principles,  which  we  fee  not. 

38.  Now  Regularity,  which  is  certain ;  cannot  depend  upon  Chance, 
which  is  Uncertain.  For  that  were  to  make  Uncertainty,  the  Caufe  of 
Certainty.  Suppofe  we  then,  that  any  Figures  may  be  made  by  Moti- 
on, upon  Matter.  Yet  Regular  Figures,  can  never  come,  but  from 
Motion  Regulated.  And  therefore,  not  Cafually  made.  For  then,  it 
would  be  Cafually  Regular,  or  by  Rule  by  Chance,  which  is  Nonfenfe. 
It  is  therefore  evident,  That  as  Matter  and  Motion-;  fothe  Cizes  and  Fi- 
gures, of  the  Parts  of  Matter,  have  their  Original  from  a  Divine  Regu- 
lator. The  curious  and  manifold  Varieties  of  which,  could  we  fee  j 
they  would  doubtlefs  make  as  fine  a  fliow,  as  all  the  Beauties  of  Nature 

fhxch  lye  before  us. 

CHAP.     IV. 

of  Comfounded  Bodies. 

JF  we  look  upon  the  Effedsof  Regularity,  in  th^  Compofition  of 
Principles;  they  are  every  where  extraordinary. 
2.  In  tiie Woody  Parts  of  Plants,  which  are  their  Bones;  the  Princi- 
ples are  fo  compounded,  as  to  make  them  Flexible  without  Joy  nts,  and 
alfo  Elaftick,  That  fo  their  Roots  may  yield  to  Stones,  and  their 
Trunks  to  the  Wind,  or  other  force,  with  a  power  of  Rellitution.  Where- 
as the  Bones  of  Animals,  being  joynted,  are  made  Inflexible.  That 
the  Motion  may  be  made  exadly  true. 

F  ^  What 

iS  Of  Compounds-  Book  I. 

^.  What  can  be  more  admirable,  than  for  the  Principles  of  the  Fi- 
bers of  a  Tendon,  to  be  fo  Mixed ;  as  to  make  it  a  foft  Body,  fit  to  re- 
ceive, and  to  communicate,  the  Species  of  Senfc,  and  to  be  eafily  Nou- 
riftied,  and  moved  :  And  yet  with  this  foftnefs,  to  have  the  Strength  of 
Iron  ?  As  appears  it  hath,  by  the  Weight  which  the  Tendon  lying  on  a 
Horfe's  Gambrel,  doth  then  command,  when  he  rears  up  with  a  Man 
upon  his  Back. 

4,  What  more  wonderful,  than  to  fee  the  feveral  f^ifcera,  obtain  their 
feveral  kinds  of  Subftance,  as  well  as  of  Organifm.  To  fee  every  vifi- 
ble  Part  in  each,  compofed  of  the  fame  Materials,  and  by  the  fame 
Rule,  exadly  repeated  many  Thoufands  of  Times,  till  the  (aid  Part  be 
fitted  for  its  defigned  Ufe  ?  The  Liver,  and  Papps,  to  exclude  the  majo- 
rity of  the  Saline  parts  of  the  Blood,  and  to  receive  the  majority  of  the 
Oily.  The  Kidneys,  to  exclude  the  greater  part  of  the  Oily,  and  to 
receive  the  Saline :  And  foof  the  reft. 

J.  Or  to  fee,  two  Humors  of  equal  ufe  to  true  Vifion,  bred  fo  near 
together;  as  to  be  conteined  within  one  Common  Coat,*  yet  one  of 
them,  as  clear  as  Cryftal,  the  other  as  black  as  Ink. 

6.  How  great  a  comprehenfion  of  the  Nature  of  things,  did  it  re- 
quire, to  make  a  Menftruum,  that  fliould  corrode  all  forts  of  Flelli  com- 
ing into  the  Stomach  ;  and  yet  not  the  Stomach  it  felf,  which  is  alfo 
f  lefli  >  And  in  doing  of  this,  not,  as  Corrofives  ufe  to  do,  to  make  any 
Wind  or  Flatus.  •  All  Erudtation,  being  the  effed  of  a  faulty,  and  not  a 
true  Concodion. 

7.  How  admirable  alfo  is  the  natural  Strudure  or  Organifm  of  Bo- 
dies? The  whole  Body  of  a  Plant,  whether  Herb,  Shrup,  or  Tree,  is 
compofed  of  two  Species  of  Fibers,  fo  artificially  managed  ;  that  all  the 
farts,  from  the  Root  to  the  Seed,  are  diftinguiihed  one  from  another, 
only  by  the  different  Pofition  ,  Proportion  ,  and  other  Relations  and 
Properties,  of  thofe  two  forts  of  Fibers :  As  I  have  made  to  appear,  in 
the  Anatomy  of  Plants.  Whereunto  I  alfo  refer  the  Reader,  for  his 
better  underllanding,  both  the  Geometry  of  Nature  in  the  Strudure 
of  their  Parts ;  and  Tier  Chymiflry,  in  the  Preparation  of  their  Li- 

^ .  And  herewith  there  is  a  great  agreement  in  the  Strudure  of  the 
Organs  of  an  Animal.  That  the  Mufculcs,  Membranes,  and  Skin,  are 
compofed  of  Fibers,  is  well  known  to  Anatomifts.  And  I  add,  here,  as 
I  have  done  in  the  Anatomy  of  Roots,  That  Cartilages,  and  Bones 
themfelves  ,  originally,  and  all  the  Fifcera ,  are  compofed  of  Fibers, 
And  it  is  probable,  that  thefe  Fibers  are  or  once  were  alfo  Hollow  ; 
for^the  conveyance  either  of  a  Liquor,  or  an  Aerial  Spirit. 

9.  It  is  alfo  obfervable,  that  the  Fibres  of  an  Animal,  as  of  a  Plant, 
are  of  two  general  Kinds,  In  the  Bones,  and  Mufculcs  ;  they  are  Hard, 
and  Tough  :  As  in  the  Hard,  and  in  the  fappy  Wood  of  a  Tree.  In  the 
Glands,  and  Glandulous  Parts ;  they  are  Soft,  and  Triable,  as  in  the  Pith, 
Fruit,  ^c.  And  as  in  every  Mufcule,  the  Tendinous  Fibers  are  Tough  j 
fo  the.  Upright  Fibers,  in  the  Wood  of  a  Tree.  But  the  Carneous  are 
more  i3rittle;  as  are  the  Tranfverfe  Fibers,  which  in  a  Tree,  run  to  the 
Pith;  And  as  in  Trees,  there  is  a  new  Ring  added  every  year,  out  of 
the  Barque,  to  the  Wood :  So  too,  in  Animals,  while  they  grow,  there 
is  a  new  Periofteum^  added  from  rime  to  time,  out  of  the  Mufcular 
Membranes,  to  the  Bones.  So  agreeable  are  all  the  Works  of  Nature  ; 
■asfar  as  is  agreeable  to  their  Ufe.  10.  To 

Chap.  IV.  Of  Compounds.  lo 

10.  In  the  Hard  and  Tough  Parts  of  Animals,  there  is  a  great  Pro- 
portion of  Salt,  with  refped  to  the  other  Principles.    But  in  the  Soft 

nd  Friable    Parts,   a  greater  Proportion  of  Oyl:   as  by  diftilljng  the 
lones  ,  Mufcules ,  Brains,  and  Liver,  feverally,  and  by  other  ways, 

doth  plainly  appear.     By  which  means,  the  parts  are  all  dillinguiflied  in 

their  Subllance,  one  from  another. 

1 1 .  By  the  Pofition  of  either  of  thefe  Two  Kinds  of  Fibers,  or  the 
Compofition  of  botli  together,  theStrudlure  of  the  feveral  Parts  is  va- 
•  y'd. 

IX.  In  the  Cartilages  which  unite  the  Vertebra,  they  are  Parallel  and 
almoil  Circular,  lying  in  Rings  one  over  another.  They  are  alfo  Paral- 
lel in  all  Bones  ;  as  may  befl:  be  feen  in  a  very  young  Pectus.  Afterwards, 
they  are  lefs  diftioguiiliable,  when  loaded  with  the  Saline  and  Earthy 
parts  of  the  Blood,  which  in  its  Circulation,  it  throws  off  upon  them  :  . 
As  Waters  do  their  Earthy  parts,  on  the  fides  of  the  Pipes  through 
which  they  run.  The  better  performance  whereof,  is  contrived ;  by 
feparating  the  Oily  parts  at  the  fame  time,  into  the  Marrow.  In  like 
manner  as  in  Fruits,  the  Tartareous  parts  of  the  Sap,  are  thrown  upon 
the  Fibers  defigned  for  the  Stone ;  and  the  Oily,  upon  the  Seed  with- 
in it. 

13.  TheViiiblc  Fibers,  are  alfo  Parallel  in  all  Mufcules.  Which  Por- 
tion, as  well  as  the  Toughnefs  of  the  Fibers,  is  oneCaufe  of  the  Strength 
of  a  Mufcule.  As  hereby  they  are  equally  contracted,  in  the  A<3:ion  of 
the  Mufcule  ;  which,  in  any  other  Pofition,  they  could  not  be. 

14.  Yet  are  they  Parallel,  two  ways.  The  Tendinous,  are  Parallel 
and  Dired,  between  the  two  ends  of  a  Mufcule.  And  upon  thefe,  the 
far  greater  ftrefs  of  the  Mufcular  Adion  doth  depend.  The  Carneous, 
are  Parallel  and  Tranfverfe.  Yet  every  where  mixed  with  the  Tendi- 
nous :  As  by  cutting  a  Tendon  tranfverfly,  may  be  feen.  Hereby  bra- 
cing all  the  Tendinous,  into  one  coherent  Body.  In  the  fame  manner, 
as  the  Pithy  Fibers,  brace  and  flitch  together  the  Lignous,  in  a  Plant. 
And  where  the  Tendon  opens  it  felf,  and  makes  a  Belly ;  'tis  fill'd  up 
with  the  Carneous  Fibers,  making  the  Flefh  of  a  Mufcule  :  As  in  a  Plant, 
the  Fibers  which  brace  the  Wood,  meeting  in  the  Centre,  do  there  make 
the  Pith. 

15.  Yet  are  the  Carneous  Fibers,  not  Diredly,  but  Obliquely  Tranf- 
verfe. Whereby  it  is  evident,  that  they  mufl  needs  be  contracted  toge- 
ther with  the  Tendinous.  And  therefore,  though  the  Learned  Stem 
thought  otherwiib,  that  they  give  fome  affiflance  in  the  Attion  of  a 

16.  Both  the  Skin  which  covers  the  whole  Body,  and  all  other  Skiny, 
Parts  and  Membranes,  whether  of  the  Veflels,  Guts,  or  Vtfcera,  are 
more  or  lefs  Mufcular.  As  having,  upon  Extenfion,  a  Motion  of  Re- 
ftitution,  or  a  Tendency  to  it.  Which  I  take  to  be  the  Property  of  all 
^ufcular  Fibers,  and  of  no  others. 

17.  But  their  Motion  is  Stronger  or  Weaker,  according  to  the  various 
•Pofition  of  their  Fibers.  For  where  they  are  Parallel,  the  Motion  is  all 
diredtbd  unto  one  certain  Term ;  as  in  the  Membranes  of  the  Guts.  But 
where  they  arc  not  Parallel,  the  Motion  is  much  weaker,  as  being  di- 
redcd  unto  feveral  Terms,  in  feveral  Parcels,  interferring  one  with  ano- 
ther.; as  in  the  Skin.  Wherein  the  Fibers  are  Matted,  as  WooU  is  in  a 
Hat;  which  is  a  kind  of  Artificial  Skin.  And  where  the  Skin  is  defign- 

20  Of  Compounds,  Book    1. 

fed  to  be  more  movable,  as  in  Brutes  ;  it  is  fo  made,  by  the  affiftance  of 
fome  Parallel  Fibers,  or  True,  tho'  very  Thin  Mufcules,  underneath. 

i8.  All  Glands,  and Glandulous  Parts,  do  likewife  confift  of  Fibers, 
but  of  the  fofter  Kind  ;  which  Fibers,  are  their  Proper  Veflels.  Neither 
exadly  Parallel,  as  in  a  Mufcule,  nor  Matted,  as  in  the  Skin;  but  ra- 
ther Convolv'd  :  Somewhat  after  the  manner,  of  divers  Threds  together 
in  a  Ball ;  as  may  be  feen  in  any  Male  Tefticle.  More  confpicuouny, 
in  that  of  a  Rat.  Efpecially,  if  it  be  laid  for  fome  time,  in  a  llrong 
Solution  of  Alum :  Whereby  the  Fibers  or  Veflels,  becoming  harder,  are 
more  eafily  feparated.  Which  leads  us  to  obferve  the  Convolution  of 
the  faid  Fibers  ,  in  all  other  Glands ,  in  the  fame,  or  fome  other 

19.  It  is  obferved  by  Anatomifls,  that  there  are  two  forts  of  Glands ; 
Conglobated  and  Conglomerated,  as  they  are  called.  Of  the  former 
kind,  the  whole  Body  maketh  one  fingle  Gland :  Of  which  kind ,  are  the 
Teilicles,  and  fome  other  Glands.  Of  the  latter,  each  greater  Gland,  as 
by  the  Learned  Malpighius  is  obferved,  is  compofed  of  innumerable  Lef- 
fer  ones ;  fo  very  fmall,  as  to  be  hardly  diltinguifliable  by  the  naked 
Eye  J  as  in  the  Pancreas,  Liver,  and  fome  other  Glandulous  Parts. 

20.  But  what  I  have  many  years  fince  faid  in  the  Anatomy  of  Roots ; 
I  here  alfo  affirm.  That  all  Conglomerated  Glands,  are  made  up  of  Fi- 
bers. That  is,  that  like  as  the  Tefticle,  fo  each  of  thefe  Leaft,  and  al- 
mofl:  Invifible  Glands,  confifl;eth  of  the  fame  fort  of  Convolved  Fibers  or 
Veflels.  Their  Convolution  being  contrived,  for  the  better  feparation  of 
the  feveral  Parts  of  the  Blood,  whereof  the  Humors  are  made,  one 
from  another :  Viz.  by  this  Convolution,  Stemming  the  Rapid  Motion, 

.  which  the  Blood  hath  in  the  Circulating  Veflels.  As  a  Winding  River, 
runs  the  Slowefl:,  and  the  Cleereft :  When  one  that  is  flrait  and  fwifter, 
carries  Mudd  and  all  before  it. 

XI.  So  then,  the  Malerials  and  Structure  of  the  Vifcera^  areas  fol- 
lows. The  Ttflicle,  as  is  faid,  is  one  large  Conglobated  Gland,  con- 
*  filling  of  foft  Fibers  or  Vefl'els,  all  in  one  Convolution.    The  Liver,  is 

one  great  Conglomerated  Gland,  compofed  of  innumerable  fmall  Glands, 
each  of  which  confifleth  of  foft  Fibers,  in  a  diilindt  or  feparate  Convo- 
lution ;  and  fo  all  of  them,  making  a  Congeries  of  little  Balls  of  Fibers, 
or  of  Fibrous  Glands. 

7.x.  The  Fieart,  Stomach,  Guts,  Sanguineous,  and  other  Membrane- 
ous Vefl^els;  are  now,  all  acknowledged  to  be  Mufcular.  The  Lungs 
too,  conlifl:  of  Mufcular  Fibers.  Not  Parallel,  as  in  a  Mufcule  ;  and  in 
the  Lignous  parts  of  a  Plant:  But  compofed  into  Bladders;  as  the  Fi- 
bers are  in  the  Pith.  Which  Bladders,  by  their  Contraction,  a  Motion 
proper  to  all  Mufcular  Parts,  prefs  the  ufeful  portion  of  the  Air,  into 
the  Capillary  Sprigs  of  the  Arteria  Fenofa^  ready  to  receive  it,  As  the 
Bladders  of  the  Pith,  and  Pithy  Infertions,  prefs  lome  part  of  the  Air 
they  contein,  into  the  Liquor  of  the  adjacent  Sap- Veflels. 

23.  The  Spleen  confifl.eth  partly  of  Glands:  Very  vifible  in  the  Spleen 
of  a  Moufe.  But  chiefly,  ol  Mufcular  Fibers  :  All  of  them  Matted,  as 
in  the  Skin ;  but  in  more  open  Work.  With  this  defign,  that  fome  of 
the  Acid  parts  of  the  Blood,  being  depoflted  into  thefe  Glands;  may 
herein  become  a  Juice,  fit  to  acuate  fome  fort  of  Ferment ;  or  to  aflilt 
in  the  Separation  of  fome  Humor.  Which  Acid,  fo  foon  as  ready,  it 
then  irritates  the  Mufcular  Fibers  to  contrad  themfelves,  and  fquceze  it 
thence.  2^.  The 

Chat.   V.  Of  Comfowidf.  71 

14.  The  Kidney  is  obferved  to  be  a  Conglomerated  Gland.     Which 

ri^s  to  be  underftood  only  of  the  Outer  parr.  For  the  Inner  parr,  where- 
of the  Pcipi//:S  arecompofed,  is  undoubtedly  Mufcubr.  This  Igatlier, 
partly  from  t!ie  Toughnefs  of  its  Subllancc.  But  efpecially,  from  its 
continuity  with  the  Ureters,  which  are  acknowledged  to  be  Mulcular. 
The  Middle  Part  of  the  Kidney,  is  compofed  of  the  Glandulous  and  the 
Mufcular,  curiouHy  Indented  one  into  another ;  very  confpicuoully,  in 
the  Kidney  of  a  Cat.  The  Urinous  parts  of  the  Blood,  being  by  this 
means  feparated  by  the  Glandulous  Body ;  and  carryed  off,  by  a  Peri-^ 
ftaltick  Motion  in  all  Fibers  of  the  Mufcular.  Which  is  likewife  the  true 
reafon,  v\hy  Urine  and  Sweat,  are  fo  near  of  kin.  This  Latter,  being 
leparatcd  in  the  fame  manner,  by  the  Cuticular  Glands,  and  difcharged 
by  the  Mufcular  Fibers,  of  the  Skin.  For  which,  all  the  Pores,  efpe- 
cially thofe  which  are  vifibJy  Organized  in  the  Palms  of  the  Hands,  and 
the  Soles  of  the  Feet,  are  as  fo  many  little  ftiort  Ureters. 

z^.  The  Pancreas,  confifteth  wholly,  excepting  the  open  Veffels,  of 
loft  Fibers.   The  outer  Part,  confifteth  of  fuch  as  are  Convolved  into  innu- 
merable Glands,  \\  hich  are  Conglomerated :  And  ferve  to  make  its  £x-     - 
crementitious  Liquor.     The  Inner,  of  fuch  as  feem  to  be  Parallel  and 
Diredt,  foritsdifcharge. 

z6.  Much  after  the  fame  manner,  as  they  have  been  obferved,  in  the 
Cortical  and  Medullary  Parts  of  the  Brain.  Wherein,  it  may  feem,  that 
the  former,  ferves  to  make  the  Animal  Spirits,  that  is,  to  feparate  them 
from  the  Blood.  The  latter,  to  receive  them,  and  as  there  is  occafion, 
to  convey  them  thence  into  the  Nerves.  That  the  Thalami  Optici, 
Nates,  Tejlicu/i,  and  the  other  Tuberous  Parts,  are  fo  many  diftindt 
Harbours,  of  the  faid  Spirits,  miniftring  to  the  feveral  Species  of  Senfe 
and  Phancy.  And  laftly,  that  the  Bafis  of  the  Medullary  Part,  wherein 
the  Fibers  have  a  more  dired:  production,  ferves  as  a  Common  PalTage 
to  the  Animal  Spirits;  either  in  their  Ebb,  whereby  to  Irradiate  all  the 
Organs  of  Senfe;  or  in  their  Flood,  to  convey  the  Species  of  Senfe  to 
their  feveral  Harbours.  ,      .    ^ 

x".  All  the  Organs  now  defcribed,  are  involved  in  one  or  more  Coats ; 
confiding,  as  all  others,  of  Tough  or  Mufcular  Fibers.  Intended,  not 
only  to  protedthem,  as  hath  hitherto  been  thought :  Butalfo,  by  a  due 
Conftri6tion,  to  affift  them,  in  draining  off  their  ieveral  Contents.  And 
therefore  the  Pancreas,  Liver,  and  Spleen,  which  make  but  a  fmall  Dif- 
charge;  have  each  of  them,  only  a  Single,  and  very  thin  Coat.  Where- 
as the  Kidneys,  which  make  a  plentiful  Difcharge,  have  Two  Coats, 
and  bodi  of  them  very  Thick  and  Strong.  And  the  Tefticles,  which 
^  oftentimes  perform  a  fuddain  Excretion,  and  fliould  at  no  time  be  Irapo- 
B    tent,  have  Three  like  Coats. 

M  x8.  It  is  alfo  reafonable  to  believe,  that  the  Inner /W^w/wx,  which  e- 
H  very  where  very  clofely  furrounds  the  Brain,  performs  the  fame  Office. 
B  That  is,  by  its  Conftridion,  upon  Occafion,  caufeth  a  more  vigorous 
Efflux  of  the  Spirits,  and  thereby  the  better  Irradiation!  of  the  Organs 
of  Motion  and  Senfe.  By  the  frequent  Repetition  of  which  Conftri-  - 
(ifion,  all  the  Day,  being  tired,  as  by  Continual  Action,  all  other  Ahff-' 
cities  ufe  to  be  ;  it  is  at  laft,  relaxed,  that  is,  fufpended  from  its  Adtion. 
Whereupon,  the  ElTlux  of  tlte  Spirits  into  the  faid  Orgaiis,  being  nntade 
more  fiowly,  we  fall  afleep.  .  .  01  lo 

GR  29.  The 

2  2  Of  ComfOHnds.  Book    !• 

^9.  The  Regularity,  we  have  hitherto  obferved  in  the  Structure  of 
the  Parts ;  is  alfo  remarkable  in  their  Figures.  There  is  a  Regularity, 
inconfiftent  with  Cafualty,  in  the  fimpleft  Figures  ;  as  in  a  Circle, 
wherein  the  Line  is  Regularly  continued ;  Much  more  in  thofe  Figures 
which  are  Compounded ;  as  in  the  f/elix,  wherein  the  Line  is  Regu* 
larly  Varied.  For  tho*  it  confifteth  of  different  Semicircles ;  yet  they 
all  differ  one  from  another  Proportionally. 

^o.  But  the  Certainty  of  Nature's  Operation,  is  mofl:  apparent  in  thofe 
Figures,  which  are  neither  regularly  Continued,  nor  Regularly  Varied ; 
but  are  Regularly  Irregular.  Being  fo  very  Compounded,  as  to  be 
reducible  to  no  one  particular  Figure  ;  as  in  the  Heads  of  feme  Bones. 
Wherein  neither  the  fame  Line,  or  Figure,  nor  the  fame  Proportion, 
is  continued  ;  but  both  of  them  varied  throughout  the  whole.  Yet, 
with  refped  to  the  Species,  thefe  Figures  are  admirably  Regular ;  as 
being  exadly  the  fame  in  all  the  Individuals.  And  made  with  that 
Intent  or  End,  to  which  no  other  Figure,  tho"  the  moft  Regular,  would 
have  ferved.  So  that  the  moft  unfightly  or  mif-fliapen  Parts  of  the  Bo- 
dy, do  more  confpicuoufly  than  many  of  the  reft,  demonftrate  a 
Certainty,  that  is,  a  Regularity  of  Intent. 

3  r.  There  is  alfo  an  exadt  Proportion,  in  the  Dimenfions  of  the  Bones, 
and  other  Parts.  The  Top  of  the  Forehead,  the  Nape  of  the  Neck,  and 
the  Tips  of  the  Ears ;  defcribe  a  Circle,  whereof  the  Vertex  is  the 
Centre.  In  the  Hand,  the  Triangle  at  the  bottom  of  the  Middle  Fin- 
ger, being  the  Centre ;  and  the  Fingers  and  Thumb  all  extended,  and 
wide  open  ;  a  pair  of  Compafles  will  defcribe  a  Semicircle,  taking  in 
the  Ends  of  them  all.  The  Pofition  and  Length  of  the  Fingers,  being 
fo  adapted  one  to  another  j  as  to  ferve  both  their  feparate  Ufes,  and  thofe 
they  perform,  altogether. 

3x.  This  Proportion,  is  moft  eminently  feen,  in  the  'Qonts  zni  Muf- 
cules  of  the  Face :  both  joining  together,  thofe  as  the  Bafis,  thefe  the 
Raifed  Work,  to  make  a  beautiful  Figure.  In  which,  all  the  Parts,  in 
Heighth,  Length,  and  Breadth,  bear  either  a  Duplicate  or  a  Triplicate 
Proportion,  one  to  another.  The  Dimple  of  the  Upper-Lip,  being  the 
Common  Meafilre  of  them  all. 

33.  Among  all  the  Bones,  none  more  deferves  to  be  confidered,  than 
the  Labyrinth  of  the  Ear.  Not  for  the  Decency  of  its  Figure,  but  the 
Caft  of  its  Strudiure  :  by  which  it  becomes  a  moft  apt  Conductor  of  all 
Mufical  Concords  to  the  Brain.  A  Sixth,  may  be  as  Mufical  a  Sound, 
as  a  Fourth  ;  but  is  not  fo  Mufical  a  Concord  :  nor  a  Fourth  as  a  Fifth ; 
nor  a  Fifth  as  an  Eighth.  .  And  the  Seventh  between  the  two  greateft 
Concords,  is  the  greateft  Difcord.  Which  depends  ah  extra ,  on  the 
diff"erent  Proportions,  between  the  Motions  by  which  thefe  Notes  are 
made.  But  fo  far,  as  we  are  Judges  hereof,  on  the  Strudure  of  this 
Bone.  For  the  feveral  winding  Canales,  wherewith  it  is  bored,  as  with 
fo  many  Pipes,  to  convey  the  Sound,  being  probed  with  a  fmall  VVyer 
or  Briille  :  it  appears,  that  they  are  not  diftindly  continued  from  End 
to  End;  but  that  at  certain  Diftances,  they  run  one  into  another. 
Nor  are  they  all  of  one  Bore  :  nor  any  of  them  of  the  fame  Bore 
throughout.  By  which  means,  they  are  fitted  to  anfwer  the  moft  Va- 
riable Harmony :  two  or  three  Pipes,  to  all'  thofe  of  a  Church  Organ  ; 
or  to  all  the  Strings  and  Fretts  of  a  Lute. 

or  J  44.1 

C  H  A  P.  V,        Of  the  Vfe  of  Tbingr  2^ 

44.  I  fliall  mention  one  Part  more,  the  Chryflal  of  the  Eye,  The 
Figure  whereof,  is  very  curious,  as  Anatomifts  and  Mathematicians 
have  obferved.  That  which  I  now  further  add,  to  what  has  been 
obferved  by  others ;  is  the  Contrivance  of  the  Variation  of  its  Pofition  and 
Figure,  upon  occafion,  in  the  fame  Eye.  'Tis  evidently  of  a  double 
Subllance.  The  ou  ter  fomewhat  like  a  Gelly  ;  but  much  more  con- 
fiftent,  than  the  GlaiTy  Humour.  That  in  the  Centre  as  confident  as 
Suet  or  foft  Wax  a  little  Warm,  By  which  means  it  is  poffible  for 
it  to  keep  of  the  fame  Thicknefs,  at  and  near  its  Centre  ;  while  upon 
occafion  the  Figure  hereof  is  capable  of  fome  Variation,  towards, 
and  on  the  Rimm.  And  this  Variation  may  be  adually  made,  by  the  Mem- 
brane wherewith  it  is  cncompafled  ,•  to  wit,  the  Ligamentum  Ciltare^ 
which  hath  a  confiderable  Strength.  Upon  which  account,  I  doubt 
not  to  afcribe  to  the  faid  Membrane  the  Office  of  a  Mufcule.  The 
Confiridion  of  its  Fibers ,  about  the  Rimm  of  the  Chryftal,  ma- 
king it  more  Convex;  or  retracing  it  a  little  towards  the  bottome  of 
the  Eye  as  the  Bulk ,  or  Dillance  of  the  Objed:,  requireth  a  Left, 
o  r  Greater  Refradiion. 

■^5.  So  many  Arts,  hath  the  Divine  Wifdom  put  together  j  only  for 
the  Hull  and  Tackle,  of  a  Senfible  and  Thinking  Creature. 

C  H  A  P.    V. 

Of  the  Vfe  of  Organised  Bodies, 

I  .'I  'HE  Ufe  of  Things,  already  touched  in  the  Account   I   have 
\_    before  given  of  them  ;  is  further  obfervable  in  fundry  Re- 

z.  And  firfl:,  it  is  feen  every  where  through  the  World.  The  Wa- 
ter flows,  the  Wind  blows  ,  the  Rain  falls,  the  Sun  fliines.  Heaven 
and  Eartii  zSi  and  move,  and  all  Plants  live,  and  grow,  for  the  Ufe 
and  Benefit  of  Senfible  Creatures.  And  all  inferiour  Creatures,  for 
the  Service  of  thofe  above  them.  Nor  is  there  any  one  of  fo  ma- 
ny Parts,  which  compofe  every  Creature  j  but  what  is  either  ne- 
ceflTary  for  its  Being,  or  convenient  for  its  better  Being.  As  it  hath 
nothing  Hurtful  or  Redundant ;  fo  no  agreeable  Part  is  wanting  to 
it.  As  it  were  eafie  to  fliew  as  in  all  Plants,  from  the  Cedar  ,  to  a 
Mufliroom  ;  fo  in  all  Animals,  from  a  Man  to  an  Oyfter  ;  and  in 
all  the  Parts,  from  the  Heart,  to  the  Hair,  which  grows  upon  the 

3.  And  it  is  ftill  better  feen  in  the  agreeable  Variation  of  every 
Part.  There  is  no  one  Species  of  Bones,  Mufcules,  or  Bowels,  but  it  is 
fo  diverfified,  as  to  be  moft  ufeful  to  the  Creature  whereunto  it  be- 
longs. All  Skins  are  made  for  Safeguard  and  Senfe.  But  thole  of 
Beafts  alfo  for  Motion  ;  and  in  them  are  alfo  Mufcular.  And  in  an 
Urchan  the  Skin  is  ailiflied  with  a  ftrong  Mufcule  clofdy  ad- 
hering to  it  all  along  the  Back ,  for  the  better  Advance  of  its 

4;  Not 

'?4        Of  the  Lfe  of   Thinz^.  Book  I. 

4.  Not  only  the  Finns  of  Fillies,  but  their  Swim-Bladders  ,  are 
very  diverdy  fitted  to  the  Variety  of  their  Motions,  and  Stations  in 
the  Water.  In  a  Jack  it  is  Single ;  in  a  Tench  Double.  From  the  hin- 
dermoft:  of  which,  a  flender  Pipe  is  produced  forward,  towards  the 
Throat,  v\'hereinto  it  is  at  lad  inferred  ;  and  is  there  divaricated  , 
after  the  fame  manner,  as  the  Spernriatick  Veffels,  the  better  to  flint 
the  Difcharge  of  the  Air.  In  a  Roche  'tis  furniflied  with  a  double  Brace, 
one  on  each  Side  ;  but  that  of  a  Gudgeon  hath  none.  In  a  Bream^ 
the  Braces  are  llrait ;  but  in  a  Bleak  they  are  produced,  in  a  Spiral 
Line,  from  the  Bafe,  to  the  Cone  of  the  Bladder.  In  a  Rochet^  there 
are  Mufculcs  in  the  room  of  Braces.  Which  Ihews,  that  the  faid  Bra- 
ces have  every  where,  the  Nature  and  Ufe  of  Tendons,  in  contra- 
(Sting  the  Swimm  ;  and  thereby  transfufing  the  Air  out  of  one  Blad- 
der into  another,  or  difcharging  it  from  them  both,  as  there,  is  oc- 

5.  The  Chryftalof  the  Eye,  which  in  a  Fifli,  is  a  Ball  ;  in  any 
Land-Animal,  is  a  Diflk  or  Bowie.  Being  hereby  fitted,  for  the  clear- 
er Sight  of  the  Objedt ;  either  in  the  Air,  a  thinner  Medium^  at  a 
greater  diflance,  by  a  lefs  RelVadion  ;  or  in  the  Water,  a  thicker  Medi- 
um^ at  a  lefs  diflance,  and  by  a  greater  Refradion. 

6.  Among  many  Varieties  both  in  the  Inner,  and  the  Outer  Far; 
thoTe  which  appear  in  the  Paffage  into  tlfe  Rock-Bone,  are  remarkable. 
For  in  an  Owle^  that  pearches  on  a  Tree  or  Beam,  and  hearkens  after 
the  Prey  beneath  her ;  it  is  produced  further  out,  above,  than  it  is 
below ;  for  the  better  Reception  of  the  leafl:  Sound.  But  in  a  Fox^ 
that  fcouts  underneath  the  Prey  at  Roofl: ;  it  is,  for  the  fame  reafon 
produced  i'urther  out,  below.  In  a  Polecat,  which  hearkens  flrait 
forward,  it  is  produced  behind,  for  the  taking  of  a  forward  Sound. 
Whereas  in  a  Hare,  which  is  very  quick  of  hearing,  and  thinks  of  no- 
thing but  being  purfued  ;  it  is  fupplied  with  a  Bony  Tube ;  which, 
as  a  natural  Otocouftkk  ;  is  fo  direded  backward,  as  to  receive  the  fmal- 
Jeft,  and  moll  diflant  Sound  that  comes  behind  her.  And  in  a  Horfe, 
which  is  alfo  quick  of  hearing,  and  receives  the  Sound  of  the^  Driver's 
Voice  or  Whip,  behind ;  the  Pafiage  into  his  Ear  is  not  unlike  to  that  in 
a  F3are.  ■ 

7.  Both  Beads  and  Birds,  having  one  common  Ufe  of  Spittle ;  are 
therefore  furnilhed  with  the  Parotid  Glands,  which  help  to  i'upply  the 
Mouth  with  it.  But  of  the  Woodpecker  and  other  Birds  of  this  kind,  it 
is  obfervable,  that  becaufe  they  prey  upon  1  lies  which  they  catch  with 
their  I'ongue  :  Therefore,  in  the  room  of  the  faid  Glands,  they  have  a 
couple  of  Bags  filled  with  a  vifcous  Humour,  as  it  were  a  Natural 
Bird-lime,  or  Liquid  Glew.  Which,  by  fmall  Canals,  hke  the  Sali- 
val,  being  brought  into  their  Mouths ;  they  dip  their  Tongues  herein  : 
and  -•  foj  -with  the  Help  of  this  Natural  Bird-lime ,  attaque  the 
Prey.',-'  -• 

8J  Among  the  Varieties  of  Teeth,  in  the  Rahhit  and  Hare,  this  is 
fmgular,-  That  within,  or  behind  the  Fore-Teeth  of  the  Upper  Jaw  ; 
there  (land  two  other  Teeth,  which  may  be  called  Incudes.  1  hefe,  by 
receiving  the  AppuKe  of  the  two  Incijors  or  Chizels  in  the  nether 
Jaw  ;  do  thereby  lecure,  both  the  Gooms  of  the  Upper  from  being  con- 
tufed ;  and  the  Mufcules  of  the  Nether,  from  being  drained  by  over- 

9.  The 

Chap.   V,  Of  the  Ofe  of  Tbinof.  2% 

9.  The  Variation  of  the  Wind  Pipe,  is  obferv^able  in  every  Crea- 
ture, according  as  it  is  necefTary  for  that  of  the  Voice.  In  an  C/r- 
chart,  which  hath  d  very  fmall  Voice,  'tis  hardly  more  than  Mem- 
branous. And  in  z  Pic/geoft,  which  hath  a  low  and  (oA:  Note,  'tis  part- 
ly Cartilaginous,  and  partly  Membranous,  wz.  where  the  Rings  meet. 
In  an  Owle,  which  hath  a  good  audible  Note,  'tis  more  Cartilaginous. 
But  that  of  a  Jayes,  hath  hard  Bones,  inftead  of  Cartilages  :  and  fo,  of  a- 
Litset.  Whereby  they  have  both  of  them,  a  Lowder  and  Stronger  Note,  - 
than  other  Birds  of  the  fame  Bignefs,  which  have  only  a  Griflly  Windpipe. 

10.  The  Rings  of  the  Wind-pipe,  are  fitted  for  the  Modulation 
of  the  Voice,  For  in  Dogs  and  Cats,  which  in  the  Expreflion  of  di- 
vers Pallions,  ufe  a  great  many  Notes,  as  Men  do :  they  are  open  and 
flexible,  as  in  a  Man.  Whereby  all  or  any  of  them,  are  dilated  or  con- 
tradted,  more  or  lefs,  as  is  convenient  for  a  higher  or  deeper  Note  ; 
which  they  ferve  to  make  as  the  Finger  on  the  Fretts  of  a  Viol. 
Whereas  in  fome  other  Animals,  as  in  the  Japan  Peacock,  which  ufeth 
hardly  more  than  one  fingle  Note ;  they  are  entire  :  and  fo  the  Wind- 
pipe is  always,  and  in  every  Part,  of  one  Bore. 

11.  The  Lungs  of  fome  Birds  have  certain  Apertures,  for  the  Air  jo 
pafs  out  of  each  Lobe  into  the  Belly.  Either  for  the  fpinning  out  of 
a  longer  Chatter,  as  in  the  Linet  and  J  ayes  ■  or  a'more  eafie  Flight, 
as  in  the  Cuckow.  In  which  Bird  there  is  alfo  a  fort  of  Valve,  which 
Ihuts  againft  the  (aid  Apertures,  the  better  to  keep  the  Air  from  return- 
ing back  again.  But  many  other  Birds  have  the  Surface  of  their  Lungs 
every  where  whole,  as  having  no  occafion  for  a  great  Stock  of  Air,  for 
either  of  the  faid  Purpofes. 

iz.  Befides  the  Figure  and  Number  of  Organical  Parts  in  the  Brain 
of  a  Man  ;  how  much  fuperiour  is  it,  with  refped  to  its  Bulk  alone,  com- 
pared with  his  Body,  to  that  of  any  other  Creature  ?  And  hereby,  how 
much  more  capacious  a  Treafury  of  the  Images*  of  Things  ?  And  the 
like  Regular  and  Ufeful  Variations,  may  be  obferved,  in  all  the  other  both 
Inward  and  Outward  Parts  of  Animals.  Whereby  it  is  evident,  that  the 
Spring  of  all,  is  a  Steady,  Immutable,  and  Unbounded  Realon ;  which 
can  never  be  fruftrated  of  its  End  or  Intent. 

1:5.  Moreover,  as  the  manifold  Variation  of  the  Parts,  fo  the  Multi- 
plicity of  the  Ufe  of  each  Part,  is  very  wonderful.  The  Nofe  ferves  , 
not  only  to  ennoble  the  Figure  of  the  Face,  but  alfo  for  the  Safeguard 
of  the  Eyes,  for  the  Conveyance  of  Scents,  and  the  Lodging  of  them 
for  fometime ;  for  Refpiration,  when  we  fliut  our  Mouths,  and  for 
Speech,  in  the  forming  of  fevcral  Letters.  In  Brutes,  it  is  as  much 
more  nice  and  critical,  than  in  a  Man ;  as  the  Diftance  from  their  Noftrils 
to  the  Brain,  is  greater.  Whereby,  inftead  of  Reafon,  they  judge  exadly, 
of  whatfoever  they  hunt  after,  eat  or  refufe. 

14.  What  a  Stupendious  Machine,  is  the  Eye,  if  we  furvey  the  Mu(- 
cules.  Membranes,  and  Humours,  whereof  it  is  compofed  ?  And  fliall 
then  confider,  how  aptly  it  is  by  the  Mufcules,  either  Moved  or  Fixed: 
How  purely,  by  the  Perfpicuity  of  the  Humours,  the  Rays  of  Light 
are  tranfmitted  :  How  Regularly,  by  their  Figures,  the  fame  Rays  are 
Refraded  :  And  how  effedually,  by  the  Black  Lining  of  the  Sclero- 
tes.,  their  being  confounded  by  Refledion,  is  prevented.  How  many 
Objeds  it  is  fitted  to  take  in  at  once,  or  fucceflTively,  in  an  Inftant.  *  And  at 
the  fame  time,  to  make  a  Judgment  of  their  Pofition,  Figure,  and  Colour, 

H  And 

26  ^/  the  Vfe  of  ^I hings  Book  L 

And  fo  far  alfo,  of  their  Diftance,  and  Magnitude,  as  in  fome  fort,  to  be  a 
Micro/cope  and  a  Telefcope  both  in  one, 

15.  By  thefe  means,  'tis  a  watchful  Sentinel,  againfl:  all  Dangers; 
in  Ad:ion  and  Bufinefs,  a  faithful  Guide  :  And  in  the  mean  time,  enter- 
tains us,  with  all  the  pleafing  Variety  of  Vifible  Things,  Nor  is  it  only 
a  Window,  whereby  a  Man  lets  all  the  World  about  him,  into  hira- 
felf :  But  alio  a  Door,  whereby  one  Man  lets  himfelf  into  another.  Love 
and  Hatred,  Courage  and  Fear,  and  all  other  Paflions,  by  fome  certain 
Motion,  or  Pofition  of  the  Eye,  or  the  Eye-Lid,  may  be  difcovered. 
And  in  all  manner  of  Converfation,  what  ever  is  faid,  or  done,  the  Eye 
is  every  where  Mafter  of  the  Ceremonies, 

16.  What  a  Catalogue  of  Ufes,  hath  one  fmall  Part,  the  Tongue  ? 
Sundry  whereof,  Anatomifts  take  no  notice  of.  It  is  fo  neceflary  unto 
Speech,  as  toalliflin  the  making  at  leall  18,  of  the  X4.  Letters.  And 
in  all  Vocal  Mufick,  helpeth  the  Windpipe  to  modulate  the  Sounds. 
Tis  the  Tailing  Teft,of  all  the  kinds  of  Meats,  Drinks,  and  Medicines.  No 
fort  of  Teeth,  would  ferve  us  to  Eat,  without  a  Tongue :  Which  rowls 
the  Meat  from  one  fide  of  the  Mouth  to  the  other,  and  puts  it  between 
tlie  Grinders,  as  it  needs  them.  Children,  and  others,  could  not  Suck, 
without  it:  For  in  drawing  any  Liquid  into  the  Mouth,  it  doth  the  fame, 
as  the  Sucker  of  a'Syring  or  Pump,  Nor  therefore  could  we  Supp,  or 
Swallow,  without  it :  While  it  helps  us,  with  the  Tip  end,  to  take 
what  we  eat  and  drink,  into  our  Mouths :  And  by  the  middle  or  Verti- 
cal Part,  and  the  Root,  to  convey  it  down  the  1  hroat.  As  alfo  it  doth, 
to  cleanfe  our  Lipps  and  Teeth,  when  we  have  done.  No  Man  could  Spit 
from  him,  without  it ;  but  would  be  forced  to  Drivle,  like  fome  Para- 
liticks  or  a  Fool :  The  Tongue  being  as  a  Stopcock  to  the  Air,  till  upon 
its  fuddain  Removal,  the  Spittle  is  thereby  driven  away  before  it.  Nor 
would  any  one  be  able  to  fnite  his  Nofe,  or  to  Sneeze :  In  both  which 
Adions,  the  Pallage  of  the  Breath  through  the  Mouth,  being  intercepted 
by  the  1  ongue ;  'tis  forc'd,  as  it  then  ought  to  do,  to  go  through  the 
Nofe.  Belides  the  Ufes  it  hath  in  other  Creatures :  As  in  the  Wood- 
pecker, to  catch  the  Prey,  as  is  before  defcribed.  In  Dogs,  to  Lick, 
and  to  Lap,  which  is  their  Drinking,  And  in  Catts,  for  fcratching,  and 
combing  their  Hair.  The  Tongue  of  a  Cat,  being  furniflied  with  crook- 
ed Prickles,  like  the  VVyres  of  a  Card,  for  that  purpole. 

17.  Never  was  there  made  an  Inilrument,  fo  curious,  as  is  a  Man's 
Hand.  That  is,  fo  well  fliaped,  and  fitted,  together  with  the  Senfe  of 
Feeling,  for  fo  many  forts  of  Ufeful  Motions.  The  Motions  of  the 
whole  Hand,  as  Anatomills  ule  to  mean  by  the  Hand  and  Arm  together, 
are,  as  I  would  diflinguilli  them,  either  Strait  or  Circular.  The  Strait, 
are  Simple,  and  Compounded.  The  Simple,  are  Six ;  Upward  and 
Downward ;  Backward  and  Foreward,  and  to  the  Right  and  Left,  Thofe 
which  are  compounded  of  the  4  lall,  anfwer  to  all  the  Points  of  the 
Compais :  Of  the  %  firft  and  x  lail,  to  all  the  Degrees  of  Altitude  or  De- 
clination :  Of  the  4  firft,  to  all  Meridians,  The  Circular  Motions  are  all 
Compounded,  and  are  alfo  Six,  That  compounded  of  the  4  lall,  an- 
fwers  to  the  Horijon :  Of  the  2  firft  and  x  lall,  to  the  Equator  :  Of  the 
4  firft:,  to  the  firlt  Meridian.  The  ^th,  to  the  Ecliftick  :  The  5//?,  to 
an  Imaginary  Line  Tranfverfe  to  the  Ecliptick.  Both  thefe  two  laft, 
compounded  of  all  the  Six  Simple  Motions,  The  6th ^  is  that  Motion, 
wliich  the  Hand  makes  upon  its  own  Asu.    And  befides  the  Motions  of 


Chap.  V.  Of  the  Vfe  of  Things.  27 

the  whole  Hand  together,  the  feveral  Parts  of  it,  viz.  tht  Arm,  Cubit, 
Hand  and  Fingers,  have  all  their  proper  Motions.  Now  as  Letters  are 
the  Elements  of  Speech  ,•  fo  thefe  Motions,  are  the  Elements  of  Opera- 
tion. In  which,  as  Letters  in  VVbrds,  they  are  variouHy  mixed :  As 
in  Lifting,  Hammering,  Sawing,  Shooting,  Weaving,  Spinning,  and 
other  innumerable  ways.  And  in  fome  of  them,  exad;ly  true  to  a  hairs 
breadth ;  as  in  Fencing,  and  Grinding  of  Optique-Glafles,  the  Motions  of 
the  whole  Arm ;  and  in  Writing,  thofe  of  the  Hand  and  Fingers. 

18.  To  give  one  more  Inllance.  Tho'  Galen^  and  with  him,  other  A- 
natomifts,  have  named  4  or  f ,  yet  who  ever  mention'd  all,  or  half  the 
ules  of  thofe  Parts,  which  feem,  in  comparifon,  to  be  very  contempti- 
ble, the  Mukules  of  the  Belly?  Without  the  help  whereof,  as  we  could 
not  continually  Breath,  with  that  eafmefs,  as  we  do:  So  neither  could 
we  Blow  with  that  force,  as  is  neceflary  on  fome  occafions.  In  both 
which  Adions,  as  the  Windpipe,  and  Cheft,  are  aililled  with  the  Dia- 
phragm :  So  this,  by  a  continuation  of  Preilure,  with  the  Mufcules  of 
the  Belly.  Nor  therefore,  could  we  fpeak,  without  the  joynt  help  of 
thefe,  with  the  fame  freedom,  as  we  do ;  efpecially,  not  long  together, 
nor  Lowd.  Nor  do  we  ever  Groan,  without  their  help :  Nor  Laugh 
with  a  Noife :  Nor  Sing  any  Long,  or  Deep  Notes.  Neither  could  we 
Hough  or  Spit  from  us:  Much  lefs  could  we  Sneeze,  or  Cough,  or  Blow 
ourNofes,  to  any  purpofe,  and  with  that  force,  as  is  often  requifite.  We 
could  not  fo  eafily  Belch ;  but  it  were  impoilible  to  Vomit  without  them. 
Or  to  break  Wind  downward:  Or  to  go  to  Stool,  efpecially  when  we 
are  Coftive.  Or  well  to  make  Water,  fo  as  to  empty  the  Bladder.  Nor 
would  one  Labouring  Woman  of  a  Thoufand,  if  any,  be  ever  delivered 
of  a  Child.  Without  thefe,  no  Man  that  lies  upon  his  Back,  with 
his  Hands  upon  his  Bread,  can  raife  up  himfelf.  No  Man  could  At,  or 
fland  uprightly,  one  Moment :  Much  lefs  walk  in  an  eredt  podure,  for 
the  fpace  of  one  Yard.  For  as  the  Trunk  of  the  Body,  is  kept  from 
tilting  iorward  by  the  Mufcules  of  the  Back :  So,  from  falling  backward, 
by  thefe  of  the  Belly.  An  eafie  proof  of  all  which,  may  be  rnade  by 
any  one.  For  if  in  the  performance  of  any  of  the  forementioned  Adi? 
ons,  we  hold  our  Hand  upon  our  own  Belly;  we  (hall  hereupon  feel,  the 
contemporary  Adtion  of  thefe  Mufcules. 

19.  Nor  is  the  Manifold  Ufe  of  one  Part,  more  admirable;  than  to 
fee,  how  many  Parts  con fpire  and  ferve  together  unto  one  Vk.     ASy  fpr 
Example,  to  the  Bufinefs  of  Animal  Nutrition.    For  fir fl:,  the  fubacid  or 
feculent  part  of  the  Animal  Spirits,  like  the  Lees  of  VVine,  which  fall 
to  the  bottom  of  the  VefTel ;  being  caft  off  by  the  Lower  Nerves,   upon 
the  Coats  of  the  Stomach  :  For  want  of  Food  to  work  upon,  do  velli- 
cate  the  Fibers,  and  thereby  produce  the  Senfe,  we  call  Hunger.     This 
tempts  us  to  eat  at  convenient  times,  and  fo,  to  ufe  our  Hands  to  bring 
the  Meat  to  our  Mouths.     Where,  the  Lipps,  Tongue,  and  Teeth,  all 
ferve  to  grind  it .-  And  the  Salivary  Glands,  to  imbue  it  with  a  ferment- 
ing Spittle.     By  the  Tongue,  and  Gulet,  'tis  tlien  conveyed  down  into 
the  Stomach.     In  which,  the  fuitable  part  of  it,  being  converted   into 
Chyle ;  it  is  thence  difcharged,  by  the  Conilridion  of  its  Mufcular  Fi- 
bers, into  the  Guts.     Wherein  the  Chyle  receives  a  double  Seafoning,  in 
the  proportion  of  Salt  to  ones  Meat,  from  the  Liquor  of  the  Pancreas^ 
and  from  the  Gall.     Being  thus  qualified,  'tis  next  {trained  through  the 
Guts,  into  the  Milk- Veins :  And  by  thefe,  is  carry 'd  iflto  the  Common 

58  of  the  Vfe  of  7  hings.  Book    1. 

Lake ;  into  whicli  the  Lympha^  brought  thither  by  its  own  Veflels,  alfo 
runs.  The  Chyle  being  mixed  herewith,  partly,  for  its  better  convcrfi- 
on  into  Blood,  by  a  Liquor  of  a  middle  Nature  between  them  both;  and 
partly,  for  its  more  ready  adhefion  to  all  the  nourifiiable  Parts.  In  this 
condition,  it  is  transferred  through  the  Thoracick  Canal,  into  the  Great 
Vein,  the  Right  Belly  of  the  Heart,  and  the  Lungs.  Wherein  it  is  invi- 
gorated, with  certain  Etherial  or  other  Volatile  parts  of  the  Air.  And 
in  this  eflate,  is  conveyed  into  the  Left  Belly  of  the  Heart,  and  thence 
into  the  Arteries,  and  fo  to  all  the  Parts  of  the  Body. 

20.  How  many  contrivances  meet  together,  for  the  performance  but 
of  one  fingle  Ad:  ?  The  eafie  expanfion  of  the  Wing  of  a  Bird ;  the 
Lightnels,  Strength,  and  Shape  of  the  Feathers,  (o  as  to  make  a  Fi- 
gure Concave  beneath ;  and  its  oblique  Motion,  partly  downward,  for 
her  fupport,  and  partly  backward,  to  row  her  forward  at  the  fame  time  j 
are  all  fitted  for  her  better  Flight.  Her  iharp  Bill,  ferves  as  a  Keel,  to 
cut  the  Air  before  her.  Her  Tail,  when  flie  gathers  it  up,  fo  as  to  fland 
Vertically,  flie  ufeth  as  her  Rudder.  But  if  Horizontally ,  flie  fpreads 
it  more  or  lefs,  according  as  flie  w  ould  raife  her  Head  in  Soaring,  or  de- 
prefs  it,  in  {looping  at  the  Prey.  Her  Vifcera  likewife,  are  very  exactly 
poys'd.  For  as  the  Heart,  as  in  other  Animals,  is  plac'd  in  the  middle 
of  the  Cheft :  So  the  Gizard,  being  faften'd  by  a  (Irong  Membrane  to 
the  PeritoncBum^  Hands  fixed  in  the  middle  of  the  Belly.  Nor  doth  the 
Liver  lye  on  one  fide  the  Belly,  as  in  Beafis;  but  with  one  Lobe  on 
each  fide  the  Gizard,  as  its  Saddle.  And  fia  the  Pancreas^  on  each  fide 
the  Guts.  By  which  Equilibration,  her  Flight  is  made  much  more  cafie. 
Her  Legs  too,  for  the  greater  Lightnefs,  are  furniflied  only  with  finall 
Tendons,  inftead  of  Mufcules.  And  her  Bones,  for  the'  fame  purpofe, 
are  all  very  Spungy :  And  more  remarquably  thofe  of  a  Wild  Bird,  which 
flies  much,  and  long  together:  As  by  comparing  them  with  thofe  of  a 
Domeflick  Fowl,  is  apparent.  In  many  Wild  Birds,  as  the  Japan  Pea- 
cock, the  Diaphragm  is  extended  almoit  to  the  Rump.  And  may  eafi- 
ly  be  huffed  up  with  Air,  blown  in  at  the  Wind-pipe.  And  as  eafily, 
by  the  Bird  her  felf,  in  fetching  her  Breath.  By  which  means,  the  Dia- 
phragm performs  the  (ame  lervice  to  Tome  Birds ;  as  the  Swimm  Blad- 
der to  a  Fifli. 

XI.  VVe  cannot  fo  much  as  Talk,  without  the  concurrent  Ufe,  of  iz 
or  I"?  feveral  Parts ;  viz.  the  Nole,  Lips,  Teeth,  Palate,  Jaw, Tongue, 
VVeafan,  Lungs,  Mufcules,  of  the  Cheft,  Diaphragm^  and  Mufcules  of 
the  Belly.  Which  are  likewife  fo  many  Syftemes  of  other  Organical 
Parts:  All  ferving  to  make,  or  to  modulate  the  Sound.  Befides  the 
Ears,  which  by  CommiHTion  from  the  Chamber  of  Audience  in  the 
Brain,  fet  all  the  reft  on  work. 

zi.  No  lefs  than  40  or  50  Mufcules,  befides  all  other  fubfervient  Parts, 
go  to  execute  that  one  Ad  of  Laughter.  Divers  of  thofe  in  the  Nofe, 
Lips,  Cheeks,  and  Chin,  for  figuring  the  Face.  Of  thofe  in  the  Wea- 
fon,  Cheft,  Diaphragm^  and  Belly,  for  making  the  Noife,  by  the  Explofi- 
on  of  the  Air. 

z3.  We  cannot,  in  fome  Cafes,  execute  a  fingle  Thought,  without 
this  Retinue.  Forfuppofe  one  fitting  in  a  Room,  has  only  a  mind  to 
look  at  fomething  out  of  a  Window.  Befides  the  Nerves,  by  which  the 
Order  is  lent  to  all  the  officiating  Parts ;  the  Bones,  as  Under-Servants, 
with  the  Mufcules  of  the  Belly  and  Legs,  are  employed  to  r^aife  him  up. 

.   ,  Thofe 

Chap.   V.  Of  the  Vfe  of  Things,  29 

Tbofe  of  the  Legs,  Belly,  and  Back,  to  keep  him  upright.     Thofe  df 
the  Bread,  Arms,   and  Hand,  to  open  the  Cafement,    Thofe  of  the 
Neck,  to  turn  his  Head :  And  thofe  of  the  Eyes,  to  pitch  them  on  the 
Objed:  In  all,  70  or  80,  waiting  upon  that  one  Thought  or  Intent.     So 
that  there  is  not  a  Monarch  upon  the  Earth,  who  is  ferved  with  that  Ma- 
jefty,  as  every  Man  is,  within  the  Territory  of  his  own  Body, 
'    Z4.  In  the  Ufe  of  Things,  is  feen  that  Relation,  \Vhich  anfwers  iil 
fome  fort,  unto  Geometrick  Proportion.     So,  thofe  Creatures,  whole 
Motion  is  flow,  are  Blind :  But  thofe  which  have  a  quick  Motion,  havfe 
Eyes  to  govern  or  determine  it :  That  is,  as  Blindnefs,  is  to  a  flow  Moti^- 
on  ;  fo  is  Sight,  to  a  Quick.     So  thofe  Animals,  which  have  Ears  j  have 
alfo  Lungs :  And,  Vice  verfa,  thofe  *hich  have  no  Ears ;  have  no  Lungs. 
For  as  Eyes,  are  to  Motion ;  To  are  Ears,  to  Speech.     So  likewife  thofe 
Animals  which  have  Teeth,  on  both  Jaws  ;  have  but  one  Stomach :  But 
mofl:  of  thofe  which  have  no  upper  Teeth,  or  none  at  all  ,•  have  Three 
Stomachs :  As  in  Beads,  the  Panch,  the  Read,  and  the  Feck ;  and  in  all 
Granivorous  Birds,  the  Crop  ,  the  Echinus^  and   the  Gizard.     For   a5 
Chewing  is  to  an  eafie  Digeftion ;  fo  is  fwallowing  whole,  to  that  which  is 
more  Laborious.     A  Man,  who  hathiaoigger  Brain,  in  proportion  to  his 
Body,  than  any  other  Creature ;  hath  alfo  a  better  Hand.     A  Monkey 
hath  a  Hand,  but  with  an  Arm,  not  fo  well  fitted  to  a  Hand,  as  to  a 
Foot.    Nor  can  he  put  his  Hands  and  Feet  to  their  diflindt  Ufes,  at  the 
fame  time  j  as  a  Man,  whole  pofture  is  erecSt.    As  therefore  Ears,  are  to 
Speech ;  or  Eyes,  to  Motion ;  fo  is  Keafon,  to  Operation. 

25.  Tliis  Relation  is  likewife  feen,  in  the  agreeablenefs  between  Man, 
and  other  Parts  of  the  Univerfe :  And  that  in  fundry  refpedts.    With 
refpedl  to* his  Generation,  being  a  fenfible  and  fociable  Creature,  he  is 
not  made  productive  of  his  kind,  as  a  Plant,  within  himfelf;  but  by 
Coition  with  a  Female.     A  way  of  Generation,  which  requires  a  great 
deal  more  of  Art  and  Contrivance,  in  order  to  it.     With  refpect  alfo 
to  his  Senlcs :  Which  are  all  gratify'd  with  their  proper  Objedts,  Tafta- 
ble,  Vifible,  and  other  fenfible  Things.     With  refpedt  to  his  Figure.  For 
he  might  as  eafily  have  been  made,  a  Reafonable  Beafl:,  or  a  Reafonable 
Bird.     But  had  he  been  a  Quadruped  ,  his  Figure   would  have  wanted 
that  Majelly,  which  is  (uitable  to  his  Dominion  over  all  other  Creatures. 
His  Forefeet  would  alfo  have  hinder 'd  his  Amicable,  and  his  Conjugal  Em- 
braces.   Had  he  been  a  Bird,  he  had  been  lefs  Sociable.    For  upon  every, 
true  or  falfe  ground  of  fear,  or  difcontent,  and  other  occafions,  he  would 
have  been  fluttering  away  to  fome  other  place :  And  Mankind,  indead 
of  cohabiting  in  Cities,  would  like  the  Eagle,  have  built  their  Neds  up- 
on Rocks.     And  in  both  Cafes,  he  mud  have  wanted  Hands.     As  alfo 
with  refped  to  his  Bulk.    For  had  he  been  a  Dwarf,  he  had  fcarce  been  a 
Reafonable  Creature,     For  he  mud  then,  have  either  had  a  Jolt-Head  j 
and  fo  there  would  not  have  been  Body  and  Blood  enough  to  fupply  his 
Brain  with  Spirits;  Or  he  mud  have  had  a  Small  Head,  anfwerable  to 
his  Body;  and  fo  there  would  not  have  been  Brain  enough  for  his  Bufi- 
neft.     Certain  it  is,  that  no  Man,  Mondroufly  Great  or  Little,  was  e-. 
ver  known  to  be  very  Wife,     Or  had  the  Species  of  Mankind,  been  Gi- 
gantick,  he  couki  not  have  been  fo  commodioufly  fupply'd  with  Food.- 
For  there  Would  not  have  been  f  ledi  enough  of  the  bed  edible  Beads,- 
to  ferve  his  turn.     And  if  Beads  had  been  made  anfwerably  bigger,  there 
would  not. have  been  Grafs  enough.     Boats  and  Shipping  likewife,   mud 

I  haVe 

^o  Of  the  'Ofe  of  Things,  Book    1. 

have  been  anfwerably  bigger :  And  fo,  too  big,  for  mofl  Rivers  and  Sea- 
Coafts.  Nor  would  there  have  been  the  fame  Ufe  and  Difcovery  of  his 
Reafon.  In  that  he  would  have  done  many  things  by  meer  Strength, 
for  which  he  is  now  put  to  Invent  innumerable  Engines :  And  fo  far,  he 
had  been  Reafonable  in  vain.  Neither  could  he  fo  conveniently  have 
ufed  a  Horfe,  the  Noblefl:  of  all  Beafts ;  nor  divers  other  Creatures ;  had 
he  been  much  lefs,  or  bigger,  than  he  is.  But  being  of  a  middle  Bulk, 
between  the  Largeftand  the  Leaft;  he  is  the  better  fitted  to  manage  and 
ufe  them  all.  For  no  other  Caufe  can  be  adigned,  Why  a  Man  was  not 
made  Five  or  Ten  times  bigger  than  he  is ;  as  well  as  Ten  times  bigger 
than  a  Fox,  or  a  Monkey  ;  but  his  Relation  to  the  reft  of  the  Univerle. 

26.  Now  for  every  thing  to  have  its  own  diftind:  Eflence ,  and  to 
have  this  Eftence  projected  or  defigned  ;  are  two  things.  Should  any 
Man  then,  that  knows  not  the  Admirable  Stru(3:ure  of  an  Eye,  or  of 
an  Ear  ;  be  fo  very  weak,  as  to  think  it  podible,  for  Matter  fortui- 
toufly  moved,  or  mixed,  to  hit  upon  the  making  of  an  Eye ,  or  an 
Ear  ;  yet  did  Wings  defign  the  Making  of  an  Eye  >  Or  did  Lungs 
defign  the  making  of  an  Ear  ?^  Did  no  Teeth,  that  is,  Nothing,  de- 
fign the  making  of  Three  Stomachs?  Did  the  Eye  take  care,  there 
fliouldbe  Light  for  it  to  fee  by?  or  the  Light  forecaft,  to  match  it  felf 
with  an  Eye  ?  Or  the  Male  Parts,  which  ferve  unto  Generation,  to  fit 
themfelves  with  a  Female  ?  Or  Man,  to  be  furnifhed  with  the  World 
about  him  ^  Nothing  can  be  more  vain,  than  fb  to  fpeak  or  think.  We 
muft  therefore  conclude,  that  there  is  a  moft  Perfed  Reafon  or  Mind, 
Infinitely  above  the  Operation  of  Matter  and  Chance,  which  is  ap- 
parent, both  in  the  Make  or  Structure,  and  in  the  Ufe  and  Relation  of 

■Lj.  And  as  the  Eflence,  and  the  Relation  of  every  Thing,  in  being  fit- 
ted, beyond  any  Emendation,  for  its  Adion  and  Ufe ;  fhews  it  to  pro- 
ceed from  a  Mind  of  the  FJigheft  Underftanding  :  So  the  Nature  of  this 
Adion  and  Ufe,  in  not  being  any  way  Deftrudive,  or  Troublefome ; 
I  but  tending  in  each  thing  a-part,  and  confpiring   in  many  together,  to 

Conferve  and  Gratifie  :  is  an'  Evidence  of  their  proceeding  from  the 
Greateft  Goodnefs.  For  there  be  many  who  are  very  cunning  and  fub- 
tile  in  the  Invention  of  Evil.  And  Engines  have  been  fitted,  with  a 
great  deal  of  Art  and  Contrivance,  for  the  Tormenting  of  Men.  In 
like  manner,  it  had  been  altogether  as  eafie  for  the  Maker  of  the  World, 
to  have  flocked  it  with  all  forts  of  Creatures,  had  he  fo  pleafed,  which 
fhould  never  have  moved  fo  much  as  one  Limb  without  Pain  :  which 
fliould  never  have  Seen,  Heard,  Smelt,  Tafted,  or  Felt,  any  one  thing, 
but  tc^ether  with  the  greateft  Torment :  Nor  have  conceived  any  one 
Phancy,  but  with  Melancholy  and  £3orror.  And  the  Greatnefs  of  his 
Uhdcf'ftanding,  would  have  been  demonftratcd  in  the  Contrivance, 
though  of  fuch  Creatures  as  theie.  But  in  that  he  hath  made,  fo  many 
kinds  of  Creatures,  and  beftowed  among  them,fo  many  forts  of  Motion, 
and  of  Senfe,  and  Cogitation  j  all  of  them,  fo  far,  as  Natural,  A- 
greeable,  and  Delightful :  He  hath  herein  given  a  moft  Noble  Inftance, 
That  his  Goodnefs  is  equal  to  his  Underftanding.  That  he  hath  employ- 
ed his  Tranfcendent  Wifdom  and  Power  ;  that  by  theie,  he  might  make 
way  for  his  Benignity ;  as  the  End,  wherein  they  ultimately  acqui- 
^feij  ^T^jBS  fajr  of  die  Corporeal  World, 

fiHrn    .:•..."  t:lii  ""^r;;;.:  « 

?vci5  THE 



J    .1^    ■;-■■   I 

Wherein  is  ihewed ,  That  there  is 
•     a  Vital  World,  which  God  hath 
made  :  And  what  it  is. 



C  H  A  P     I, 
Of  LIFE. 

[HE  Univerfe  confifteth,  of  the  Corporeal 
and  the  Vital  World :  the  Latter  of  which, 
is  next  to  be  confidered.  And  firft,!  fhall 
prove,  That  there  is  a  Vital  Subftance  in 
Nature,  diftincSt  from  a  Body. 

X.  The  being  hereof,  is  Poffible,  Rea- 
fonable  and  NecefTary.  It  is  Poflible.  That 
is,  the  fuppofing  of  an  Incorporeal  Sub- 
ftance ,  inferreth  no  Contradidlion ;  Be- 
caufeGod,  who  as  he  is  the  Caufe  of  all 
other  BeingSjis  the  moft  Subftantial  Being : 
is  Himfelf  a  Subftance  Vital  and  Incorporeal.  For  to  make  God,  and 
with  him  all  other  Things,  to  be  Corporeal :  is  to  make  him  no  more, 
than  a  Limb  of  the  Whole.  And  is  as  much  as  to  fay,  that  this  Limb,  or 
Part  of  the  Whole,  made  the  Whole.  And  in  other  refpeds,  is  the 
sreateft  Nonfenfe  that  can  be  fpoken. 

■\.  Neither  is  it  impoffible,  but  that  this  Incorporeal  Subftance  may 
have  ibme  fort  of  Exiftence,  analogous  to  Corporeal  Extenfion :  tho' 
we  have  no  adequate  Conception  hereof ;  nor  therefore  any  proper 
Word,  whereby  to  exprefs  it.  For  every  Motion,  is  in  lome  fort  co- 
extended  with  the  Body  moved.  Yet  we  cannot  fay,  that  Motion  is 
Thick  or  Thin,  or  otherwife  Great  or  Small ,  as  is  a  Body.  For  if  it 
were,  then  the  fame  Quantity  of  Motion,  muft  always  have  the 
fame  Extenl'ion ;  which  it  hath  not.  For  all  the  Motion  in  a  Great  Bo- 
dy, may  be  given  at  once  to  a  lefs.  Nor  can  Motion  be  laid,  to  be  Long 
or  Short,  as  a  Body.  For  then  it  would  have  a  Permanent,  and  not  a  Suc- 
cellive  Length.     And  Time  and  Place  would  be  riie  fame  thing. 

4.  But  whatfoevcr  fort  of  Exiftence  it  is,  which  belongeth  to  a  Vital 
Subftance  :  our  not  having  an  Adequate  Conception  of  it,  is  no  Argu- 
ment againft  the  Poikbility  of  its  Being.    For  a  Worm  or  a  Man  born 


:^2         Of  Life. Book  I. 

Blind,  can  have  no  true  conception  of  Light.  Is  there  therefore  no 
fuch  thing,  as  Light  or  Colour  ?  A  Fifli,  that  hath  no  Ears,  can  have  no 
true  Conception  of  Sound,  Doth  it  therefore  follo\i^  that  there  is  no 
fuch  thing  as  i>f«/?c^  ? 

.  5.  It  rnay  be  faid,  :That  were  there  any  fuch  Incorporeal  Subflance  ; 
then,  being  one  part  of  our  felves,  we  fhould  know  it  better,  v  But  this 
doth  not  follow.  All  that  we  can  infer  from-  hence,  is  only  thus  much ; 
That  as  he  who  hath  an  Eye,  knows  what  it  is,  to  fee :  So  a  Man  too, 
if  pofltfled  of  a  Thinking  Subflance  ;  fliould  know,  what  it  is,  to  Think. 
And  fo  he  doth.  But  there  are  Millions,  who  can  fee  very  well,  and 
yet  know  not  the  Strudure  of  an  Eye :  That  is,  in  Truth,  they  know 
not  what  an  Eye  is.  As  therefore  Men  may  fee,  without  a  true  and  ade- 
quate Conception  of  an  Eye  :  So  may  we  think,  without  a  true  and  a- 
dequate  Conception  of  the  Subftance  by  which  we  Think.  So  abfur'd  it 
is,  to  argue,  from  our  not  Comprehending,  to  the  Non-being  of 

6.  And  if  the  Exiftence  of  an  Incorporeal  Subftance  be  Poffible  :  It  is 
alfo  Reafonable,  that  it  fliould  Exift.  Becaufe  the  being  of  fuch  a  Sub- 
ftance, implyeth  the  being  of  a  more  Excellent  Thing,  than  any  Cor- 
poreal. Since  then,  God  was  pleafed  to  Make,  that  which  is  lefs  Excel- 
lent:  It  is  reafonable  to  believe.  He  hath  alfo  Made,  that  which  is  more, 
and  nearer  in  Likenefs  to  Himfelf. 

7.  And  it  is  Neceflary,  that  it  fliould  Exift.  That  is  to  fay,  without 
a  Subftantial  Principle,  as  the  proper  Subjed:  of  Life,  diftind  from  Bo- 
dy :  There  could  be  no  Living,  much  lefs  any  Senfible,  Thinking,  or 
Reafonable  Thing :  Whereof  I  fliall  make  proof,  in  the  Defcription  of  the 
feveral  Species  of  Life. 

8.  And  firft,  if  we  will  not  look  confufedly,  butdiftindly  on  Things, 
it  is  evident.  That  Body  cannot  be  Vital.  For  if  it  be,  then  is  it  lo, 
either  as  Subtilized,  or  as  Organized,  or  as  moved,  or  as  Endowed  with 
Life,  a  proper  and  immediate  Adjundi  hereof,  as  well  as  Motion.  But 
Body,  can  in  none  of  thefe  ways  be  Vital :  And  therefore,  no  way. 

9.  Not  as  Subtilized.  Some  indeed,  as  the  Acute  Defcartes^  and  after 
him,  Dr.  Willis,  and  others,  have  fuppofed,  That  a  very  Subtile,  Aerial, 
Etherial,  or  Igneous  Fluid,  conteined  in  the  Blood,  Brain,  or  Nerves,  or 
in  them  "all;  is  the  Life  of  an  Animal.  But  if  we  go  to  the  bottom  of 
this  Conceit,  how  vain  is  it  ?  For  though  the  faid  Hqid  be  attenuated  or 
fubtilized,  as  far  as  we  can  conceive ,  or  beyond  Conceit ,  infinitely : 
Yet  the  Atonies  uhereof  it  confifts,  are  ftill  no  more,  than  Parts  of  the 
Common  Stock  of  Body.  That  is.  Body,  by  being  fubtilized,  can  loofe 
nothing,  of  its  Corporeity. 

:  10.  Neither  can  it  hereby  gain  any  thing,  but  Exility.  For  all  degrees 
of  Subtility,  are  Eftentially,  the  fame  Thing.    The  greateft  degree,  as 

well  as  any  lefler,  depending  folely  upon  the  Divifion  of  the  Subtilized 
Body.  And  doth  the  dividing  of  a  Dead  Whole,  give  Life  to  the  Two 
Halvs?  Or  doth  Life  confift  in  Numjjer,  arifing  trom  Infinite  Divifion 
and  Subdivifion? 

II.  Again,  the  Corporeity  of  all  Bodies,  being  the  fame,*  and  Sub- 
tility, pi  all  degrees,  and  in  all  Bodies,  being  Eftentially  the  fame  thing : 
could  any  Body,  by  Subtility,  become  Vital;  then  any  degree  of  Subti- 
lity, would  produce  fome  degree  of  Life.  As  a  greater  degree,  would 
produce  more  Life,-  fo  any  lels  degree,  would  produce  fome.    That  is, 

»  as 


C  H  A  p.  L  Of  Life.  ^55 

as  a  parcel  of  Ether  ^  or  fuppofe  of  Animal  Fir  e^  being;  very  fubdie,  uill 
have  more  Life  :  So  the  Steams  of  Animals,  the  Drops  of  a  Mifl,  a  Heap 
of  Sand,  or  a  Sack  of  Corn,  will  all  have  iome  Life;  but  being  lefs  and 
lefs  fubtile,  will  have  lefs :  Which  is  all  Subtile  Nonfenfe. 

11.  Neither  can  Body  be  Vital,  as  it  is  Organized.  For  to  the  Orga- 
nizing of  a  Body,  tliefe  Three  Things  are  required,  and  no  more  ;  viz. 
Bulk,  Figure,  and  Mixture :  Or,  that  the  Parts  of  the  Organ,  be  fitly 
Cized,  Sliaped,  and  fet  together. 

i^.  That  Cize  can  never  make  a  Body  to  be  Vital,  is  already  proved. 
Neither  can  Figure  do  it.  For  if  it  could,  then  Bodies,  qu^  Figur'd,  would 
have  Life.  And  confequently,  not  only  all  Bodies,  having  fome  Figure, 
would  have  fome  Life  :  But  thofe  Bodies,  which  are  of  a  more  Com- 
plex Figure,  would  be  more  Vital,  A  Square  Body,  for  inftance,  would 
by  virtue  of  its  Figure,  be  more  Vital  than  a  Triangular :  Becaufe  every 
Square,  conteineth  two  or  more  Triangles. 

[4.  Nor  can  any  poifiblc  Mixture  of  Cize  and  Figure.  For  as  the 
Mixture  of  Numbers,  can  beget  nothing  but  Number  :  So  the  Mixture 
of  Cize  and  Figure,  can  beget  nothing  but  Cize  and  Figure.  For  all 
manner  of  Mixture,  is  Eilentially  the  fame  thing ;  Ais  in  a  Difcourfe  of 
Mixture,  I  have  formerly  proved.  If  thereiore  it  were  in  the  Power 
of  Mixture,  to  produce  Life;  then  every  thing  that  is  Mixed,  y/w  Mix- 
ed, would  be  Vital. 

15.  The  Variety  of  the  Mixture,  will  not  fufSce  to  produce  Life.  If 
it  would,  tho'  a  pot  of  Honey  be  a  dull  thing,  is  there  any  more  in  a 
pot  of  Mithridate  ?  Nor  will  its  being  mechanically  Artificial.  Unlefs 
the  Parts  of  a  Watch,  fet,  as  they  ought  to  be,  together ;  may  be  faid 
to  be  more  Vital,  than  when  they  lye  in  a  confuted  Heap.  Nor  its 
being  Natural.  There  being  no  difference,  between  the  Organs  of  Art 
and  Nature;  faving,  that  thofe  of  Nature,  are  moft  of  all  Artificial. 
So  that  an  Ear,  can  no  more  hear,  by  being  an  Organ ;  than  an  Artifi- 
cial Ear  would  do,  had  we  Materials,  and  Skill,  to  make  one  Ike  the 
Natural.  And  although  we  add  the  Auditory  Nerves  to  the  Ear,  the 
Brain  to  the  Nerves,  and  the  Spirits  to  the  Brain ;  yet  is  it  Hill,  but 
adding  Body  to  Body,  Art  to  Subtility,  and  Engine  or  Art  to  Art: 
Which,  howfoever  Curious,  and  Many  ;  can  never  bring  Life  out  of 
themfelves,  nor  make  one  another  to  be  Vital. 

1 6.  Neither  can  Body  become  Vital,  in  being  Moved.  For  what  theri 
could  have  more  Life,  than  Light,  the  moft  moveable  of  Vifible  Bo- 
dies ?  And  any  the  felf  fame  Body,  having  a  Qiaick  Motion,  would  for 
that  very  realon,  have  more  Life  ;  and  having  a  flow  Motion,  would 
have  lefs.  Nor  can  the  fined  Engine  made  by  Humane  Art,  or  by  Na- 
ture, become  Vital,  in  being  moved,  any  more  than  a  Paper  Kite.  Nor  »^. 
in  being  Regularly  Moved;  that  is,  in  a  manner  fuitable  to  itsCompo- 

fure  :  No  more  than  a  pair  of  Organs,  in  being  dexteroufiy  play 'd  upon. 
For  all  Motion,  Regular  or  Irregular,  Simple  or  Compounded,  Quick 
or  Slow,  is  Eflentially  the  fame  thing.  Were  then,  a  Man,  or  other  .A- 
nimal,  nothing  elfe  but  an  Organized  Body ;  let  his  feveral  Organs  be 
never  fo  artificially  made,  jind  Varioufly  and  Regularly  moved  :  i  et  af- 
ter all,  he  would  be  no  more,  than  a  finer  fort  of  Bartholrneiv  Baby. 

i-j.  Neither  can  Body  be  endowed  with  Life,  as  another  proper  and 
immediate  Adjund  thereof,  fuperadded  unto  Motion.  For  body,  is  nei- 
ther Produdive,  nor  immediately  Receptive,  of  fuch  an  Adjund.   Not 

K  Pro- 

5 4  "^'  '  Oj  life  Book  a 

ProducStive.  That  is.  Body  is  not  Vital,  as  it  is  Subftantial :  Or,  it  is 
not  Produd:ive  of  Life  in  it  felf,  by  virtue  of  its  being  a  Subflantial 
thing.  For  if  Body  cannot  produce  Motion,  which  is  the  lefs;  and 
which,  in  the  firft:  Chapter  of  the  firfl  Book,  concerning  God,  I  have  pro- 
ved ,  it  cannot  do  :  Much  lefs ,  can  it  produce  Life,  which  is  the 

1 8.  Nor  is  it  Receptive  of  Life,  as  its  proper  and  immediate  Ad- 
junct. For  if  Life  be  a  Thing,  diflindi  from,  and  more  excellent  than 
Motion ;  as  I  have  a  little  before  fiiewed,  it  is :  It  then  requires  a  more 
Excellent,-  and  fo  a  diflindt  Subjedt,  to  which  it  belongs.  And  there- 
fore fomething,  which  is  Subftantial,  yet  Incorporeal. 

19.  Again,  the  Modification  of  Body,  having  nothing  to  do,  in  the 
Produdion  of  Life  j  as  I  have  even  now  alfo  fliewed :  Were  Life,  an 
immediate  Adjund:  of  Body,  as  Motion  is;  then,  as  all  forts  of  Bodies, 
are  capable  of  all  forts  of  Motion ;  fo  they  would  be  capable  of  all 
forts  of  Life ;  even  of  Intelledion  it  felf.  That  is,  every  Atome,  as 
an  Atome,  would  be  capable  of  being  Intelledual.  To  avoid  which 
Abfurdity,we  muft  allow  the  being  of  a  Subftantial  Principle,  diftind  from 
Body,  as  the  proper  and  immediate  Subjedt  of  Life.  Or,  that  as  Body, 
is  the  proper  and  immediate  Subjed;  of  any  Species  of  Motion :  So  there 
ought  to  be  fuch  a  Subftantial  Principle,  as  may  be  the  proper  and  im- 
mediate Subjed,  not  of  one  only,  but  of  any  Species  of  Life. 

ao.  What  therefore  Motion  is,  to  all  Bodies ;  that  Life  is,  Suo  modo^  to 
all  the  Species  of  Vital  Subftance.  By  mediation  of  which  Two  Adjunds, 
there  is  an  eafie  Commerce  between  Things  Corporeal  and  Incorporeal. 
That  is  to  fay,  as  all  Corporeal  ImprelTions,  are  tranfmitted  by  Motion 
unto  Life,  and  by  Bife  to  Vital  Subftance :  So,  vice  "verf^^  all  Vital 
Impreflions,  are  tranfmitted,  by  Motion,  unto  Body. 

XI.  And  from  hence  arifes  the  Conformity,  between  the  Impreffions 
of  the  Mind,  and  the  Motions  of  the  Body.  In  an  Argument,  we  Think 
orderly ;  and  fo,  we  Ad  and  Speak.  But  in  a  Paflion,  we  throw  eve- 
ry Thought,  Word,  and  Thing,  out  of  its  place.  And  all  other  Simi- 
litudes, whether  in  Conceipt,  or  Speech,  between  Things  Mental  and 
Corporeal,  are  grounded  hereupon. 

zx.  Wherefore,  theOrganifm  of  a  Body,  although  it  hath  nothing 
to  do,  in  the  produdion  of  Life,  as  hath  beenlhewed:  Yet  is  itnecefta- 
ry,  that  every  Body  lliould  have  its  Organifm,  agreeable  to  the  Speci- 
es of  Life,  in  the  Vital  Principle,  wherewith  it  is  endowed.  So  as 
hereby  to  befitted  to  receive  from,"  and  transfer  unto  Life,  all  manner 
of  proper  Motions  and  Impreffions.  Life  and  Motion,  being,  as  is  faid, 
the  Two  Inftruments  of  Commerce,  between  the  Vital  and  the  Corpore- 
al Worlds. 

13.  Whence  alfo  the  Union  of  Soul  and  Body,  and  of  all  Things  Vi- 
tal and  Corporeal  ,•  is  nothing  elfe,  but  the  Congruity  between  the  Life 
and  the  Motion,  which  they  either  have,  or  are  capable  of. 

X4.  Now  the  feveral  Species  of  Life,  feem  to  be  reducible  unto  thefe 
Three  ;  viz.  Vegetable  Life,  Senfe,  and  Thought. 

x$.  The  Loweft  Species  of  Life,  whereof  we  can  have  any  Concep- 
tion, is  fuch  a  fort  of  Life,  as  is  without  Senfe.  The  being  whereof, 
is  not  impoffible.  For  Intelledion,  v\  hich  is  one  Species  of  Life,  is  ab- 
folutely  diftind  from  Senfe ;  as  fliall  be  proved.  But  a  Diftindion,  on 
any  one  hand,  fuppofeth  a  pofhbility  on  either.    And  it  feems  as  eafie, 



Chap.  L  Of  Life.  55 

to  conceive  the  being  of  fome  fort  of  Life,  without  Senfe :  As  the  be- 
ing of  any  one  Senfe,  without  another. 

x6.  Yet  neither  by  this  Life,  nor  the  Subjeft  of  it,  do  I  mean,  a 
Principle  of  Motion.  The  Univerfal  Stock  of  Motion,  as  that  of  Mat- 
ter, being  neither  encreafed,  nor  diminilhed,  but  only  transfer 'd.  But 
I  mean,  a  certain  Power  to  determine  the  manner  of  its  being  transfer 'd  j 
or  of  returning  an  Imprelfion  upon  Bodies ,  fuitable  unto  that  which  it 
receives :  And  more  efpecially,  upon  the  "Principles  of  Bodies,  where- 
with it  feemeth  chiefly  to  correfpond. 

xj.  By  virtue  of  this  Power,  1  fuppofe  it  is,  That  all  Bodies  have  their 
Sphere  of  Adivity,  whereby  they  operate  one  upon  another,  more  or 
lefs.  That  there  are  Dark  Rays,  as  well  as  Light  ones.  That  the  O- 
dors  and  other  like  Effluvia  of  Bodies,  which  waft,  and  tend  to  diP 
Iblve  them;  depend  upon  an  External  force,  viz.  the  Air.  But  that 
the  Radiations,  by  m  hich  Bodies  are  United ;  depend  upon  a  force  In- 
ternal, And  therefore,  that  as  the  Congruity  between  Life  and  Moti- 
on, maketh  the  Union  between  the  Soul  and  Body :  So  the  Congruity 
between  Motion  and  Motion,  maketh  or  promoteth  the  Union,  or  In- 
clination, of  one  Body  to  another. 

x8.  This  aforefaid  Power,  from  whence  arifeth  the  Speer  of  Adtivi- 
ty ;  is  more  conlpicuous,  in  all  the  forts  of  Magneiick  Inclination , 
jlnd  in  the  Gravitation  of  all  Bodies.  But  is  that  alfo,  wherewith  eve- 
ry Corporeal  Principle  may  probably  be  Endow'd :  Or,  to  fpeak  proper- 
ly, may  be  Animated.  For  fmce  the  mod  /Implc  Bodies,  having  a 
certain  Regular  and  Immutable  Cize  and  Figure;  are  hereby  made  Or- 
gans or  Inftrum.ents,  truly  and  properly  fo  call'd :  It  is  as  congruous,  to 
aflign  fuch  a  Vital  Principle,  to  each  of  thefe,  as  is  fuitable  to  its  Sim- 
ple Organifm;  as  another  fuitable  one,  to  any  Organ  more  Compoun- 
ded. That  is  to  fay,  to  allow  like  to  like,  as  well  to  an  Atome,  as  to 
a.  Man. 

x9.  Neither  can  we  fo  reafonably  afcribe  unto  Atomes,  any  Innate 
Motion,  as  lome  do ;  as  a  certain  Principle  of  Life.  For  although  it 
be  true.  That  all  Bodies  are  fome  way  or  other  in  Motion,  or  that  there 
is  no  State  of  AbfoIuteRefl; :  Yet  a  Relative  Reft,  there  is,  and  muft 
be ;  without  which,  there  could  be  no  Union  of  Bodies.  So  that  any 
one  Atome,  having  loft  its  proper  Motion,  by  its  Union  with  another : 
Whatever  Motion  it  receives  afterwards,  from  without ;  is  4iive»tious 
and  cannot  be  called  Innate.  Much  lefs,  can  it  be  fuppofed  to  be  Suitable 
and  Regular ;  without  fuch  a  Vital  Principle,  as  aforefaid,  to  determine 
it.  Of  which  Principles,  we  muft  then  allow  a  Stock,  anfwerable  to  the 
Corporeal ,  as  one  Moiety  of  the  Univerfe. 

50.  On  the  Diredive  Power  of  the  former,  and  the  Regularity  of 
the  latter,  whereby  it  is  capable  of  Direction;  depends  the  Generation 
of  all  Bodies.  The  faid  Power,  being  one  and  the  fame  Vegetable  Life, 
infufed  into  all  the  Parts  of  Corporeal  Nature ;  but  more  remarquably 
into  Plants  and  Animals. 

31.  In  the  confi deration  of  Plants,  I  have  fet  down  the  Metliod  of 
Generation,  ftep  by  ftep,  as  far  as  the  Regularity  of  Principles  will 
go.  But  for  the  performance  of  this  Work,  a  Vital  or  Diredive  Princi- 
ple, feemeth  of  ncceility  to  be  aluftant  to  the  Corporeal.  For  as  no  Ge- 
neration can  be  made,  without  Principles  regularly  figur'd :  So  ,  it 
feemetli,  that  no  Principles,  without  being  alfilted  to  a  determinate  Mo- 

'z6  Of Senje.  Book   II. 

tion,  can  be  Regularly,  that  is,  in  due  Order  and  Proportion,  bronghtartd 
united  together. 

^z.  Nor  are  the  Works  of  Nature,  ever  the  lefs  Artificial,  becaufe 
of  the  Cooperation  of  the  Vital  Principle,  with  the  Corporeal.  For  as 
the  Corporeal,  cannot  meafure  their  own  Motion  and  Mixture:  So 
neither  could  the  Vital  do  it,  were  not  the  Corporeal  thereunto  fitted, 
by  the  Artifice  of  their  Figure. 

tjV  •'^nd  the  like  Method,  is  alfo  necefTary  ,    unto    Augmentation 
and  Nutrition.      Thefe  being  only  the  primitive  Generation,  multiply'd, 
or  continu'd. 
'  34.  And  it  is  the  fame  Vegetable  Life,  whereby  thefe  Operations  are 

performed  in  Animals,  as  well  as  in  Plants,  And  which  are  dill  going 
on,  while  we  are  afleep,  and  all  our  Senfes  locked  up.  And  is  alio  the 
reafon,  that  while  we  are  awake,  we  feel  none  of  all  thofe  Motions, 
which  are  continually  made,  in  the  difpofal  of  the  Corporeal  Princi- 
ples Subfervient  herein. 

3f.  There  are  Sundry  Motions,  both  in  Plants  and  Animals,  depend- 
ing upon  this  Vegetable  Life.  The  Motion  of  Rellitution,  in  the  Blad- 
ders of  the  Barque  and  Pith,  for  the  exprefflng  of  their  Liquors,  may 
hereby  be  promoted.  And  may  alfo  be  allowed  to  the  Air-Veffels.  Tlie 
better  to  affift,  at  fome  Seafons,  in  the  advance  and  diftribution  of  the 
Sap.  And  in  all  thefe  Parts,  may  have  fome  refemblance,  to  the  Perf- 
l^alrick  Motion  of  the  Gutts :  Wherein  it  is  of  like  Ufe,  for  the  diftri- 
bution of  the  Aliment.  A  Motion,  wliereof  we  have  no  perception,  as 
depending  on  the  Vegetable  Life  in  an  Animal.  As  alfo  doth,  the  Pe- 
riftaltick  Motion  of  the  Arteries.  And  inftill  a  higher  degree  of  Vi- 
vacity, the  Syftole  of  the  Heart.  From  which  Vegetable  Lile,  it  like- 
>A'ife  is,  that  the  faid  Mtitiort  of  the  Heart,  often  continues,  a  great 
while  after  the  Animal  is  dead.  As  doth  alfo  that  of  the  Gutts,  or  of  any 
Mufcule,  if  excited  therein  by  cutting,  or  other  hard  Touch.  And  is 
imitated  in  a  fainter  degree,  in  thofe  Plants,  which  are  commonly, 
tho'  unaptly,  called  Senfitive.  As  then.  Hairs  and  Feathers,  are  Plants 
growing  upon  an  Animal  j  So  thefe,  are  Vegetable  Motions,  in  an 
Animal.  And  therefore,  though  Vital,  yet  have  nothing  to  do  with 

36.  In  all  which,  a  mofl  Wife  and  Benevolent  Forecaft,  is  apparent : 
whereby  the  Vegetable  Life,  is  made  fo  far  independent  on  the  Senfible: 
<  That  notwithftanding  the  perpetual    Motion  and  Clutter   in  all  the 

Rooms  of  the  Houfe,  viz.  our  Bodies ;  yet  we  take  no  notice  at  all 
of  it,  nor  are  in  the  leaft,  hinder'd  or  diverted,  from  any  thing  we  have 
to  do,  as  Animals,  or  as  Men. 

C  H  A  P.     II. 

,  Of  Senfe. 

»•    I    H  E  next  Species  of  Life,  above  the  Vegetable,  is  that  of  Senfe- 
J_     Wherewith  fome  of  thofe  Produdions,  which  we  call  Plant- 
Animals,  as  the  l/rfka   Marina^  and  the  like,  are  endowed,  as  their 


Chap.  1L  Of  Senfe,  37 

their  higheft  Species  of  Life.     In  uhicfi  rank,  we  may  alfo  place  the 

Aurelias  of  all  Creeping  Infed's.     And    thofe   invifible  Aurelias,  into 

ttiwhich  all  forts  of  Sperme  Infcits,  are  probably  converted,  upon   their 

Hbeing  transformed  from  one  Species  to  anotlier ;  as  from  a  Canine  or 

Humane  Tadpole^  to  a  Canine  or  Humane  Foctiis, 

z.  In  all  thefe,  Senfe  feemeth  to  be  a  Species  of  Life,  diftind:  from 
^ny  above,  or  below  it.  And  fo,  to  be  the  Adjund:  of  a  diftindl  Prin- 
R:iple.  That  it  is  diflind  from  any  above,  is  plain.  In  that  the  Parti- 
culars aforefaid,  are  all  of  them  Senfible,  without  Thought.  And 
therefore,  it  is  alfo  diftinft  from  that  below.  That  is,  it  is  fuch  a  Me^ 
dification  of  Life,  as  renders  it .  a  dilVind  Species  from  the  Vegetable, 
and  mud  alfo  depend,  upon  a  diltindt  Principle.  Nor  do  I  fee  any  rea- 
fon  at  all,  why  the  Vital  Principles  of  Things,  as  well  as  the  Corpo- 
real, may  not  be  compounded.  Provided,  that  as  the  Mixture  of  the 
Corporeal,  is  fuitable  ro  the  Nature  of  every  Part  :  So  the  Union  of  the 
Vital,  to  that  of  the  whole. 

3.  All  Senfe,  is  a  certain  Mode  of  Life,  in  a  Vital  Subftancej  an* 
fwerable  to  a  certain  Mode  of  Motion  in  a  Body.  The  difference  be- 
tween Vegetable  and  Senfible  Life,  feemeth  to  be  this;  that  in  the 
former ,  the  Imprcflion  arifing  from  the  Motion,  is  entirely  re* 
fleded  ,  and  loll  in  an  Inllant.  In  the  latter,  it  is  Immerfed  and 
retein'd.  • 

4.  The  Modes  of  Motion,  on  which  the  Modes  of  Senfe  depend ; 
are  Simple  or  Compounded.  The  Simple,  are  Two  Generals ;  Magni- 
tude, and  Celerity :  That  is,  as  any  one  Motion,  is  made  in  more  or 
lets  fpace,  or  in  more  or  lefs  Time.  The  Compounded,  are  likewife 
Two  in  general ;  either  as  one  Mode  of  Motion,  is  repeated  over  a- 
gain ;  or  as  (everal  Modes,  of  Magnitude,  Celerity,  or  both,  are  mixed 
together.  Which  are  all  the  Varieties ,  that  Motion  is  capable  of;  and 
are  the  grounds,  of  all  the'Varieties  of  Senfe. 

5.  Every  Motion  llrong  enough  to  afTed  the  Organ,  produceth  fome 
Senfe.  But  all  6tnk^  fo  far  as  Grateful,  dependeth  upon  the  Equali- 
ty, or  the  Proportionality,  of  the  Motion  or  Impreflion  which  is 
made.*  ' 

6.  To  inllance,  firft,  in  Hearing  or  Sound.  The  Magnitude  of  the 
Motion,  maketh  a  fuller  or  a  broader  Sound.  For  albeit^  the  Bafe  and 
Treble  firings  df  a  Viol,  be  tuned  to  an  Unifon :  Yet  the  former 
will  flill  make  a  bigger  or  broader  found,  than  the  latter,  as  making  a 
broader  beat  upon  the  Aer. 

7.  The  Celerity  of  the  Motion,  makes  a  Stronger  or  Lowder  Sound  j 
and  withal,  a  Sharper  or  Higher  Tone  or  Note:  As  is  obvious  in  tune- 
ing  any  flringed  Inflrument. 

8.  But  it  is  the  Equality  of  the  Motion,  that  is,  the  repetition  of 
the  pulfesof  the  String  upon  the  Aer,  at  Equal  diflancesof  Time,  whe- 

t  ther  the  Motion  be  great  or  fmall,  quicker  or  flower,   which  maketh 
the  Sound  to  be  Mufical. 

9.  And  it  is  this  Synchronifm  in  the  Vibrations  of  a  String,  which 
continues  the  famenefs  of  the  Tone  or  Note  which  it  makes,  lo  long  as 
it  makes  any  Sound.  For  though  the  Sound  grows  weaker  and  weak- 
er, till  it  ceafeth:  Yet  ft:  keeps  to  the  fame  Tone,  from  firfl  to  laft. 
Which  is  alfo  a  plain  and  fufficient  demonflration,  of  the  Synchronifm 
in  the  V^ibrations  of  a  Pendulum.  And  the  lame  is  to  be  underflood,  of  thofe 
in  the  fides  of  a  Pipe  or  Bell.  L  lo.  And 

^8  OfSenfe.  Book    11. 

n-      - I  ■     <>-,•  ■    -  .— ; : — _ . — — — 

lo.  And  as  the  Equality  in  the  Motion  of  the  fame  firing,  niaketh 
the  Sound  to  be  Mufical :  So  is  it  either  an  equal,  ot  a  certain  Pro- 
portional Meafure,  between  the  Motions  of  Two  Strings,  which  maketh 
a  Mufical  Concord.  So,  if  Two  Strings,  are  tuned  to  an  Unifon ;  the 
Celerity  of  the  Vibration,  will  be  the  fame  in  both.  If  to  an  Eighth, 
the  Celerity  will  be  double  in  the  one,  to  that  in  the  other.  If  to  a 
Diapafon  and  a  Diapente^  or  an  Eighth  and  Fifth  together,  that  is  a 
Twelfth  ,   it  will  be  treble :  As  may  be  obferved  by  a  Momchord. 

11.  Whence  italfo  feems,  That  a  Mufical  Difcord,  as  a  Seventh,  is 
made  by  fuch  Motions,  as  are  neither  Equal,  nor  Proportional,  but  In- 

12.  Upon  the  fame  ground,  the  Sound  of  a  Drum,  tho'  lefs  Mufical, 
as  to  every  fingle  Beat :  Yet  is  fo  far  acceptable,  as  in  making  the  feve- 
ral  Beats,  is  kept  a  proportional  Time.   , 

i:}.  The  Objeds  like  wife  of  the  Eye,  -viz.  the  Figures  of  Things,  are 
fo  far  Beautiful,  as  they  are  Uniform ;  that  is.  Equal,  or  Proportional. 
Or  as  the  fame  Line,  or  Surface,  is  Equally,  or  Proportionally  repeat- 
ed j  and  fo,  a  hke  ImprelTion  made  upon  the  Eye. 

14.  And  it  is  therefore  reafonable  to  believe,  That  fome  certain  Equal 
Motion,  is  the  Caufe  of  all  Beautiful  Colours,  as  well  as  of  Beautiful 
Figures,  and  of  Mufical  Sounds.  I  do  aflent,  That  Colours,  as  our 
Learned  Mathematick  ProfefTor  Mr.  Newton^  hath  well  ihewed,  are  not 
Qualifications  of  Light,  depending  meerly  upon  Refradtions,  or  Re- 
flexions :  But  that  there  are  feveral  forts  of  Rays,  adapted  to  produce 
feveral  forts  of  Colours.  But  to  what  Mr.  Newton  hath  faid,  I  add. 
That  there  is  a  certain  Equal  Motion,  in  the  Atomes  of  each  Ray,  or 
in  the  Rays  of  each  Colour,  by  which  it  is  exhibited  a  Beautiful  Co- 
lour. And  a  certain  Proportional  difference,  between  the  degrees  of 
Celerity,  in  their  Motions,  by  which  the  faid  Colours  are  diftinguilh- 
ed  one  from  another.  I  fay  then.  That  while  the  feveral  Species  of 
Rays,  as  the  Ruhifick ,  Qerd'ifick,  and  others,  are  by  Refradtion  fepa- 
rated  one  from  another ;  they  retein  thofe  Motions,  which  are  proper 
to  each  of  them.  But  when  they  are  made  to  Converge,  and  ,fo  are 
mixed  together ;  though  their  Lucifick  Motion  be  continu'd ,  yet  by 
interfering  one  with  another,  that  Equal  Motion  which  is  the  CoUri- 
fck^  is  interrupted.  And  that,  as  a  Higher  Note  is  produced,  by  more 
Celerity  in  the  Motion;  and  a  Lower  Note,  with  lefs:  So  a  Red,  the 
Higheft  and  Strongeft  of  all  Beautiful  Colours,  is  made  by  Rays  leaft 
Refrangible,  becaufe  leaft  Refiftable,  or  the  Quickeft  and  the  Strongeft : 
But  Blew,  which  is  the  Loweft  or  Fainteft  ;  by  Rays,  though  alfo  E- 
qually  moved,  yet  of  a  fainter  Motion.  Or,  in  Ihort,  as  Sound  and 
Light,  fo  a  Mufical  Sound  and  a  Beautiful  Colour,  the  Key  of  a  Note, 
and  the  Refra^ion  of  a  Colour,  have  all  the  fame  Ratio. 

15.  What  the  Vifible  Figures  of  Bodies  are  to  Sight;  that  the  Fi- 
gures of  their  Principles  are  toTafte.  Wherein,  as  it  is  the  Similarity 
or  Equality  of  the  Atomes  of  each  Principle,  and  of  their  Mixture , 
which  determines  every  leaft  Molecula  of  Principles,  in  the  fame  Bo- 
dy, to  the  producing  of  one  and  the  fame  Tafte :  So  it  is  the  Mixtiire 
of  the  faid  Principles,  in  different  Proportion  ^n  divers  Bodies,  which 
produceth  the  feveral  Species  of  Tafte  :  Whereof,  in  a  Difcourie  of  the 
Taftes  of  Plants,  I  have  given  Inftances  at  large. 

16.  And 

Chap-  II.  Of  Senfe.  ^g 

16.  And  hereunto  anfwerable,  are  the  Caufes  of  Scent,  which  is  a- 
nother  way  of  Tafling  Bodies,  by  their  Effluvia.  All  the  Folds  in  the 
Griftle  of  the  No(e,  being  cover'd  with  a  Lining  made  of  a  Stuff, 
which  differs  from  the  Facing  of  the  Tongue, 

1 7.  The  Pleafure  likewife  or  Pain,  arifing  from  all  forts  of  Touch, 
depends  upon  the  Equality  or  Inequality  of  the  Motion,  which  is  made 
in  the  Touched  Parts.  For  the  Lining  of  the  Pudenda^  both  in  Male 
and  Female,  is  compofed  of  Mufcular  Fibers,  which  fland  Parallel  one 
to  another.  By  which  means,  the  foft  Touches,  which  are  given  theni 
in  the  Adt  of  Coition,  produceth  not  only  a  gentle  Vibration,  and 
therefore  an  Equal  Motion,  in  each  Fiber ;  but  alfo  an  Uniform  Moti- 
on in  all  the  Fibers,  in  relation  one  to  another. 

1 8.  On  the  contrary, Tickling,  thougli  it  cometh  alfo  from  a  foft  Touch, 
yet  is  very  Troubiefom  and  Difpleafing.  For  that  the  faid  Touch,  pro- 
duceth a  Deformed  Motion,  anfwerable  to  the  Pofition  of  the  Fibers  in 
the  Skin.  Which  is  not  Uniform,  as  in  the  Parts  aforefaid,  but  Con- 
founded and  Irregular ;  almofl:  like  to  that  of  Wool  in  a  Hat,  as  in  the 
Chapter  of  Compounded  Bodies,  is  obferved.  Wherefore  alfo  a  Hard 
Touch ,  tickleth  lefs,  than  a  Softer.  The  former  being  of  force  e- 
nough,  to  carry  the  Motion  of  the  Fibers  more  one  way,  that  is,  to 
make  one  Motion,  fomething  Uniform  in  the  Skin.  Whereas  a  Softer 
Touch,  being  only  fufficient,  to  put  every  Fiber  into  its  own  proper 
Motion :  There  is  made,  a  Multitude,  though  of  foft,  yet  very  Irregu- 
lar and  Interfering  Motions,  anfwerable  to  the  Texture  or  Pohtion  of 
the  Fibers  of  the  Skin,  wherein  they  are  made.  Which  is  alfo  one  rea- 
fon,  why  the  Lips  are  turned  outward,  fb  as  not  to  be  cover'd  with  the 
Common  Skin.  Lead  the  Soft  Touch,  often  ufed  in  a  Kifs,  fliould 
tickle  the  Lipps,  as  it  will  the  Forehead,  and  thereby  take  away  theac- 
ceptablenefs  of  that  Conjundtion. 

19.  But  in  all  Pain,  there  is  a  Deformity,  not  only  in  the  Motion 
of  the  Fibers,  but  alfo  of  the  Principles  whereof  they  confill.  Either 
by  a  Solution  of  their  Continuity,  as  in  Burning,  Cutting,  Contufi- 
ons;  or  by  any  great  Tendency  to  that  Solution,  as  in  Convulfions,  or 
Strains.  For  neither  of  thele  can  be,  but  by  the  Deformed  Motions 
of  the  faid  Principles.  And  as  a  Solution  or  Difunion  of  the  faid  Prin- 
ciples, or  a  Tendency  to  it,  caufeth  Pain :  So  a  Difunion  of  the  Corpo- 
real Principles  and  the  Vital,  caufeth  Death  ,•  and  a  Tendency  to 
it ,  caufeth  that  we  call  Heart  Sicknefs ,  which  is  a  Tendency  to 

20.  By  what  hath  been  faid,  it  appears,  how  aptly,  not  only  the  Do- 
meftick  Inllruments  or  the  Organs  of  the  Body ;  but  alfo  the  Forreign, 
viz.  the  Aer,  Light,  and  other  Principles,  are  all  contrived,  to  alFift  in 
the  Variation  of  Senfe.  Particularly,  it  may  here  be  obferved,  That 
as  thofe  confident  Bodies,  which  by  means  of  their  Subflance  or  Figures- 
are  the  mod  capable  of  Vibration,  make  the  mod  Mufical  Sounds :  So 
the  Air  it  (elf,  which  by  its  Eladicity,  is  capable  of  the  like  Vibration  j 
is  the  mod  proper  of  all  other  Fluids,  for  conveying  of  fuch  Sounds ; 
that  is,  of  fuch  Motions,  as  are  fit  to  produce  them.  Which  diews, 
that  the  Keys,  as  well  as  the  Locks,  were  all  of  them  fitted  Ward  to 
Ward,  by  the  fame  Wifdom,  and  comprehended  in  one  entire  Scheme 

•of  the  Univerfe. 

Til.  \i 

40  Of  Senfe.  Book  1F- 

' — ' : ^ : .^ 

xr.  Itfeemeth  alfo,  that  if  the  Divine  Architedt  had  made  more  Or- 
gans i  there  would  have  been  more  Species  of  Senfe.  But  thofe  we 
have,  are  as  many,  and  of  thatfort,  as  lie  thought  fit  for  the  Condition 
he  hath  here  fet  us  in,   with  relation  to  the  World  about  us. 

^z.  And  the  Excellency  of  thofe  we  have,  doth  herein  further  appear. 
That  though,  for  reafons  hereafter  to  be  mention'd,  they  are  made  ca- 
pable of  Painful,  as  well  as  Pleafing  Impreflions:  Yet  whether  Plea- 
ding or  Painful,  Grateful  or  Ungrateful ;  the  Notices  which  they  give  us 
of  Senfible  Things,  are  not  Deceitful,  but  True  and  Juft. 

x:}.  Toinftance  in  Sight,  I  fay,  that  though  the  Images  of  Things 
made  in  the  Eye,  are  not  Equal  to  the  Things  themfelves:  Yet  in  that  they 
are  always  made  by  a  Regular  Refradtion ;  their  Figure  and  Colour,  are 
always  Similar,  and  they  are  always  Proportional  in  their  Bulk.  And 
are  therefore  alfo  Proportional,  to  the  Ufe  we  make  of  Vifible  Things. 

24.  True  it  is,  that  the  Apparent  Bulk,  may  be  divers  by  means  of 
different  Refradions.  The  fame  Body  through  a  Glafs ,  may  appear 
a  thoufand  times  bigger,  than  through  the  Eye.  And  being  the  Eye 
it  felf  reprefents  every  thing  by  Refrad:ion ;  tlie  fame  Body,  .or  Part 
of  a-Body,  may  alfo '  appear  a  thoufand  times  bigger,  through  the  Eye 
-  of  one  Animal,  than  through  the  Eye  of  another.  Or  than  it  would 
appear,  through  an  Optique  Glafs,  which  fliould  make  the  Rays  of 
Light  as  much  to  Converge,  as  by  a  Mkrofcope,  they  are  diffufed.  Of 
which  diverfities,  though  we  know  not  the  nearefl:  unto  the  Real  Quan- 
tity of  Things :  Yet  the  Images  the  Eye  receives,  are  always  proporti- 
onal to  the  Things  themfelves,  and  one  to  another.  And  therefore,  to 
the  ordinary  and  common  ufe  we  make  of  them. 

X5-.  Now  as  that  which  is  Similar,  Co  whatfoever  is  Proportional,  as 
well  as  that  which  is  Equal,  is  True.  And  God  hath  made  Senle,  not 
to  deceive  US;  but  to  be  a  faithful  and  fufficient  Guide,  fo  far  as  be- 
longs to  its  own  Province,  in  the  Judgment  whicli  we  make  of  Sen- 
fjble  Things. 

26.  But  atbeit  the  Inftruments  of- Senfe,  both  the  Foreign,  and  the 
Domellick,  or  thofe  which  are  corapofed  together  in  out  own  Bodies 
are  admirably  hereunto  fitted :  Yet  are  they  net  fufficient  of  themfelves' 
to  produce  Senfe.  For  if  fuch  a  certain  Motion  or  Impreffon,  on  the 
Organ,  were  it  felf  the  Senfe  :  Then  any  Body,  having  the  fame  Moti- 
on or  Impreflion,  as  the  Organ  hath ;  would  alio  have  the  fame  Senfe, 
A  Bell,  which  by  the  Air  gives  its  own  Motion  to  the  Ear;  would  it 
felf  alfo  hear  :  And  a  Wall  in  a  dark  Room,  \^hich  receives  a  Land- 
skip,  as  the  Eye  doth ;  would  alfo  fee.  Which  to  fay,  if  it  be  very  ab- 
furd  ;  then  is  it  as  abiurd,  to  fuppofe  any  Domeftick,  as  well  as  For- 
reign  Inflrumenr,  Iclf  fiifiicient  to  the  production  of  Senfe.  The  Ufe 
hereof,  being  only  to  minifler  to  the  Modification  of  Life  in  the  Viral 
Principle,  u  herein  the  Eflcnce  of  Senfe  doth  confifl ;  as  in  the  forego- 
ing Definition  of  Senfe,  hath  been  faid. 


Chap.  Ill,  4' 

CHAP.    III. 

Of  Mind.     And  fir fi,   ofPhancy, 
or  Thantafiic\Mmd, 

j.'Tn'HE   Vital  Principle,  which  we  call  Mind,  is  that  'Ji'hich  hath 
j[^       the  power  of  Thought.      Diftind  from  Senle,  and    above 

it.     'Tis  true,   a   Thinking  Creature,  cannot  Feel,  without  Thinking. 

But  to  Feel,  and  to  Think,  are  Two  things.     For  tho'  a  Man's  Finger 

Feels ;  yet  it  doth  not  Think  it  Feels. 

X.  The  Two  general  Species  of  Mind,  are  Phantaftick  and  Intelledtu- 

al.    Of  Phancy,  we  mufl;  diftinguifli,  The  Organ,  the  Images,  and  the 

Vital  Ads. 

3.  The  Organ  of  I'hancy,  is  the  Brain.  And  therefore,  as  the  Ima- 
ges of  S'enfe,  are  model'd  according  to  the  Nature  of  the  Senfbries  : 
So  the  Images  of  Phancy,  according  to  that  of  the  Organical  Parts  of 
the  Brain :  The  feveral  Prominences  whereof,  being  the  Shops  or  Store- 
Houfes  for  that  purpofe. 

4.  The  Images  of  Phancy,' are  either  a  fort  of  Copies  of  thofe  of  Senfe  ; 
or  certain  Signatures,  or  other  items,  whereby  they  are  repreferrted. 

5.  The  Ads  of  Phancy  are  Vital.  And  therefore  altogether  diftind, 
from  the  Figure,  Pofition,  or  Motion  of  the  faid  Images,  or  any  thing 
elfe  hereunto  belonging.  But  imply  a  Power,  both  of  Ufeing,  and 
Making  thefe  Images ;  as  will  hereafter  appear. 

6.  The  Power  and  Ufe  of  Phancy,  is  great,  even  in  Brute-Animals ; 
in  which,  it  is  the  chief  Faculty.  Mod  of  them,  have  a  good  Memo- 
ry. And  withal.  Tome  kind  of  Forefight.  For  a  Dog  will  run,  when 
he  fees  a  Cudgel  ;  that  is,  Forefees,  Beating.  They  are  not  without 
their  Hope  and  Fear,  Love,  Anger,  and  other  Paffions.'  A  Cock  Threa- 
tens, when  he  fets  up  nis  Crefl; ;  and  Triumphs,  when  he  Crows-  Their 
•Works are  alio  very  Curious;  as  the  Bags  of  Silkworms,  the  Honey- 
Cooms  of  Bees,  the  Nefts  of  Birds ;  in  which  there  is  much  Variety  of 
Artifice,  for  the  Conveniency  of  the  Dam,  and  the  Safety  of  lier  Brood. 
Principally  in  thofe  Countries,  where  Noxious  Creatures  abound.  All 
which,  and  other  likeAdions,  Pa(fions,  and  Operations,  are  under  the 

iovernment  of  Phancy,  as  their  Supream  Faculty.    V  ' 

7.  For  firfl:,  thfey  are  not  Improvable  beyond  their  own  proper  Ge- 
iius.     A  Dog,  will  never  learn  to  Mew;  nor  a  Cat,  to  Bark:  Altho' 

their  Voc^l  Organs,  are  made  well  enough  for  either  of  thofe  Notes. 
So  a  Singing  Bird,  will  not  learn  to  Talk;  nor  a  Talking  Bird,  to 
Sing.    Nor  will  flie  be  taught,  to  make  any  other  Neft,  but  her  own. 

8.  Again,  they  work  not  Eledtively,  or  upon  propofing  to  thern- 
felvcs  an  End  of  their  Operations.  A  Bee,  doth  n6t  deiign  to  lay 
up  Honey  for  a  Winter  Stock:  But  fuelling  her  delicious  Food  to  a  Sur- 
charge, is  forced  to  vomit  up  the  greater  part  of  it  in  the  Hive.  Nor 
is  t\\t  Silk-worm  concerned  for  the  Silk-Trade:  But  talces,  it  may  be, 
as  much  pleafure  in  drawing  out  her  Silk ;  or  a  Spider,  her  Web ;  as 
another  Animal,  in  ejeding  his  Sperme.  A  Cow,  confults  not  the 
better  Concodion  Qf  her  Food,  by  chewing  the  Cudd :  But  lies  dowrv 

M  quietly;* 

42  Of  Mind '^    and  Book  il. 

quietly,  only  to  enjoy  the  Tafte  of  it.  And  Men  thcmfelves,  do  many 
things,  which  though  materially,  the  means  to  a  certain  End  ;  yet  for- 
mally, that  is,  in  the  Intent  of  the  Doer,  they  are  not.  Who  almofl:, 
in  Eating,  thinks  of  any  thing  further,  than  to  fatisfie  his  Hunger  ? 
Whereas  the  chief  End  of  Eating,  is  the  maintaining  of  Life,  for  which, 
Hunger,  is  but  a  Bait.  So  Coition,  is  the  way  to  get  Children  :  But 
how  feldom  is  the  getting  of  Children  thereby  intended  ?  Which  fhews, 
that  Men,  much  more  other  Creatures,  may  do  many  things,  which 
very  aptly  ferve  to  fome  certain  End,  whereof  they  have  no  confide- 

9.  Their  Operations  likewife,  in  fome  refpeds,  are  fuperior  to  thofe 
of  Men.  For  they  perform  them,  without  Teaching  or  Imitation.  A 
Silk-Worm  makes  her  own  Monument,  which  fhe  never  faw  done. 
And  without  Difquifition.  A  Bird  never  tryes,  by  way  of  Eflay,  to 
make  or  mend  her  Neft ;  nor  a  Bee,  her  Cell :  But  ufeth  one  and  the 
fame  certain  Method,  from  the  beginning,  and  that  the  beft.  If  then 
their  Operations  proceeded  from  Reafon ;  the  Reafon  of  Brutes,  would 
be  Superior  to  that  of  Man  :  Who  maketh  nothing  perfect  at  the  firfl:  j 
but  Tentando^  learns  to  do  that  which  is  well  and  fit. 

10.  We  fee  alfo  Mad  People,  in  whom  Phancy  reigns,  to  run  upon 
lome  one  Adion,  as  Reading,  or  Knitting  of  Straws,  without  variati- 
on. And  that  which  depends  upon  a  difeafed  Phancy  in  Menj  may 
be  the  effed  of  a  Natural  one,  in  othet  Creatures. 

11.  I  fay  then,  xkm.  Silk-Worms  va2!&s.  their  Bags,  Bees  their  Cooms, 
and  Birds  their  Nefts ;  not  from  any  Forecaft,  or  regard  to  their  being 
commodious  for  the  Ends,  to  which  they  ferve:  But  as  they  are  di- 
reded  and  conflrained  to  it,  by  a  Strong  and  Immutable  Phancy,  which 
they  have  of  thofe  Works,  and  the  Adions  thereunto  belonging.  So 
a  Silk-Worm^  though,  having  no  Eyes,  (lie  can  have  no  conceit  of 
Light  and  Colours :  Yet  by  Feeling,  may  have  the  true  Senfe  and  Con- 
ceipt  of  any  Figure.  So  a  Bee's  Eye,  being  made  like  a  Multiplying 
Glafs ,  may  multiply  to  her  Senfe  and  Phancy ,  every  thing  Ihe 
fees ;  and  thereby  difpofe  her,  as  to  a  numerous  Society,  fo  to  her  work- 
ing upon  a  Coorti,  which  confifleth  of  a  numerous  pile  of  Cells.  So 
the  Phancy  of  a  Bird,  may  be  fo  difpofed,  as  to  conceive  a  Cleer  and  Per- 
fed:  Draught  of  her  Ned :  Which,  from  fome  hint  of  Senfe,  or  of  Senfe 
and  Phancy  combin'd,  flie  is  irrefiftably  moved  to  make.  For  which 
purpofe,  thofe  Protuberant  Parts  of  the  Brain,  called  the  Chambers  of 
the  Optique  Nerves ;  are  in  all  Birds,  made  very  large.  Not  to  give 
them  a  Quicker  Sight,  as  fome  Learned  Anatomifts  have  thought :  For 
it  is  the  advantagious  Organifm  of  the  Eye,  by  which  that  is  procu- 
red; But  to  be  the  means,  of  their  conceiving  a  Stronger  Phancy  of 
Vifible  Things,  By  which  Strength  of  Phancy,  the  Specifick  Colours 
of  Wild  Birds,  are  likewife  preferved  conftantunto  every  Species.  As 
are  alfo  the  Specifick  Colours  of  Fifties :  In  which  the  Bulk  of  the  faid 
Chambers,  is  very  Confpicuous,  as  well  as  in  Birds. 

IX.  The  Genius  of  Birds  and  other  Animals,  as  aforefaid,  is  a  great 
demonftration,  of  that  Supream  Wifdom,  by  which  they  were  made. 
■  Where,  the  Modification  of  Phancy,  and  its  Combination  with  Senfe 
and  Senfible  Things,  is  with  fo  much  Art  contrived ;  as  in  very  great 
variety  ,  to  imitate  the  Intelledual  Operations  of  Mankind.  The 
Divine  Reafon,  running  like  a  Golden  Vein,  through  the  whole  Leaden 
Mine  of  Brutal  Nature.  i  ? ,  But 

Chap.  llf.  firft^  of  Phancy,  ao 

13.  But  Human  Phancy,  as  it  is  much  more  Copious;  fo  for  the 
moft  part,  ennobled  with  a  Mixture  of  Reafon :  Upon  both  which  ac- 
counts, it  challenges  a  particular  Defcription. 

14.  Phancy,  ftridly  taken,  is  Mind  immediately  occupy 'd  about  Sgo." 
fible  Things,  and  its  own  Ideas  of  thofe  Things. 

15-.  The  Ads  of  Phancy,  in  general,  are  Two,  Perception,  and  Vo- 
lition. Firft,  we  Perceive  theObjed:;  and  then,  we  are  fome  way  or 
other  Affeded  with  it. 

16.  With  refped  to  the  former,  Phancy  hath  its  Species,  Modes,  and 
Schemes.  The  Species  of  Phancy,  are  jufl:  as  many,  as  thofe  of  Senfe, 
For  tho'  the  Faculty  be  one ;  yet  the  Ad  or  Conceit,  is  divers.  And  there- 
fore there  can  be  no  Senfm  Communh,  which  fome  talk  of.  For  we  can- 
not Phancy,  that  we  fee  a  Sound,  or  Hear  a  Colour, 

17.  Every  Species  of  Phancy,  hath  its  Modes.  In  general,  Three, 
viz.  Recognition,  of  a  Thing,  as  Prefent;  Memory,  of  a  Thing,  as 
Part ;  and  Forefight,  of  a  Thing,   as  to  Come. 

18.  Recognition,  is  the  Internal  Senfe  or  Phancy  of  Things,  as  Pre- 
fent. Or  a  Power  of  Making  or  Conceiving  fuch  Images,  or  Tokens, 
of  Senfible  Things,  as  are  fome  way  or  other  anfwerable  to  the  Origi- 
nafs.  Whereby  we  are  able  to  Phancy,  that  we  See,  and  Hear  thofe 
things,  which  we  do  not,  as  if  we  did.  More  evidently  in  Dreams : 
When  the  Phancy  hath  full  Power  to  create  them  in  the  Senfories  them- 
felves,  then  unoccupy'd  by  External  Imprefllons.  But  as  truly,  when 
we  are  awake.  The  Thought  of  a  Triangle,  is  a  Triangle.  Its  ordina- 
ry, to  make  a  Ring  of  Bells,  to  fay  what  we  will.  No  Man  could  draw 
a  Pidure,  or  compofe  a  Tune  ;  if  he  had  not  every  Stroak  of  his  Pen- 
cil, and  every  Note,  drawn  and  fung  in  his  Phancy  beforehand.  It  is 
the  Phancy  of  Sweetnefs  in  a  Flower,  or  Apple,  which  tempts  us  to 
Smell  or  Eat.  And  the  Phancy  of  Pain,  is  Pain  :  For  fome  have  fwoon- 
ed,  only  at  the  Sight  of  a  Wound. 

19.  Memory,  is  the  Conceit  of  a  Thing,  as  Paft.  By  Recognition 
we  Phancy,  that  we  Do  See  :  By  Memory,  that  we  Did.  Recognition, 
eminently  called  Phancy,  may  be  Strong,  when  Memory  is  Weak :  And 
I'o  the  contrary.  Becaufe  Phancy,  hath  refped  to  Continual  Quantity  ; 
as  in  a  Painter,  who  hath  an  Entire  Conceit  of  all  the  Parts  of  what 
he  intends  to  Draw".  But  Memory  hath  refped  alfo  to  Succeffive 
Quantity,  that  is,  Time. 

20.  It  is  either  Natural,  or  Artificial.    The  latter,  is   properly  cal- 
led Reminifcence.  «  By  the  former,  a  Thing  comes  to  Mind :  By  the  ^ 
latter,  we  call  it  to  Mind  j  that  is,  by  fome  certain  Method  of  Think- 
ing, hit  upon  the  Images  of  Things  paft.    By  which  Faculty,  we  are 

alfo  able,  to  take  notice  of  the  Order  of  Precedence  and  Subfequence, 
in  which  they  are  pafl. 

21.  When  we  forget  Things;  tither  the  ImprefTions  are  oblitera- 
ted, or  the  Images  diflblved  into  their  firft  Principles,  or  Extermina- 
ted from  the  Brain,  with  the  Current  of  the  Animal  Spirits  into  the 
Nerves.  The  reafon,  why  Men  of  much  Bufinefs,  forget  more  than 
others  of  the  fame  Age ;  the  Elder  Images  of  things,  being  deftroyed, 
or  excluded,  by  the  Crowd  of  new  ones. 

2x.  Forefight,  is  the  Conceit  of  a  Thing,  as  to  come.  As  real  and 
diftind  a  Mode  of  Phancy,  as  Memory  of  what  is  paft.  For  other- 
wifCj  no  Man  could  Hope  or  Fear,  upon  the  profped  or  conceit  of 
Good  or  Evil  to  come.    Subfcrved,  as  Memory,  partly  by  Extempore 


44  Of  Phancy.  Book  II. 

ImpreflTions,  and  partly  ,  the  permanent  Images  of  Things;  having 
a  power  to  diftinguifliing  them,  from  thofe  of  Things  Prefent  and 

xV  Mr.  Hohsy  with  the  like reafon  as  he  doth  many  other  Things, 
denies  tlie  being  of  any  fuch  diflind  Faculty.  Becaufe,  faith  he,  no- 
thing can  be  phancyed,  which  is  not :  But  Time  to  come,  is  not.  But 
by  the  fame  Argument,  we  may  deny  the  being  of  Memory.  For 
Time  paft,  no  more.  Is,  than  Time  to  come.  And  we  may  as  well  fay, 
that  there  is  no  iuch  thing,  as  Time.  For  neither  Time  paft,  nor 
Time  to  come,  now  Is  ;  and  Now,  is  but  a  Poynt,  which  is  no  Part  of 
Time.  But  therefore,  as  we  have  a  Conceit  of  Motion,  coming,  as 
well  as  by-gone  :  So  have  we  of  Time,  which  dependeth  thereupon. 

24.  As  Forefight,  when  it  is  Natural,  anfwers  to  Memory ;  fo  when 
Methodical,  it  anfwers  to  Reminifcence ;  and  may  be  called  Forecaft. 
All  of  themexprefled  in  the  Tenfes  given  to  Verbs.  Memory  faith,  I  did 
See;  Reminifcence,  I  had  Seen:  Forefight,  IftiallSee;  Forecaft,  I  ftiall 
have  Seen.  Wherein  two  Future  Times,  are  fo  compared  together ; 
as  the  nearer  of  the  two,  exprelfed  by  the  Particle  Have,  is  looked 
upon,  as  paft.  The  Creeks  have  given  their  Paftive  Verbs,  Nine  Tenfes. 
Yet  the  Radical  Letters  of  the  feveral  Forms,  by  which  they  are  expi-ef- 
fed  ;  fliew,  that  they  are  all  derived  of  Three ;  viz.  The  Prefent,  the 
perfectly  Paft,  and  the  firft  Future :  the  reft  ferving  to  exprefs  the  mix- 
ed Conceits  of  thefe  three  Times. 

15.  The  Schemes  of  Phancy,  are  its  Defigns  or  Compofures.  Some- 
times the  Images  only  of  one  Species,  are  compounded ;  as  of  Two  or 
more  Colours,  or  Figures.  Sometimes,  of  divers  Species,  as  of  Sight, 
Sound,  and  Touch ;  that  is,  of  a  Man,  Groaning,  with  Pain.  Some- 
times the  Modes  are alfo compounded;  as  of  the  fame  Man,  alfo Laugh- 
ing at  a  Jeft.  All  which,  may  be  over  and  over  decompounded;  as  in 
the  Phancy  of  a  Feaft,  a  Cavalcade,  or-a  Battel, 
i  ■x6.  The  Power  of  Phancy  appears,  not  only  in  Drawing  the  Schemes 
of  Things  according  to  Senfe :  But  alfo  in  fuch  a  manner,  as  they  ne- 
ver were  in  Senfe :  As  of  a  Horfe,  eating  a  Lobfter.  The  parts  indeed, 
of  this  Image,  the  Horfe,  and  the  Lobfter,  are  both  derived  of  Senfe. 
But  this  Compofition,  never  was  in  Senfe,  nor  ever  will  be,  but  only 
in  Conceit. 

xj.  Every  Scheme  of  Phancy,  hath  its  Parts,  and  its  Lights  or  Co- 
lours. With  refpe(a:  to  the  former,  it  is  Entire,  or  Mutilated.  To 
the  latter,  Lively,  or  Faint.  For  a  Scheme,  though  truly  drawn,  yet 
for  want  of  its  due  Colours,  may  look  Flat. 

z8.  Thefe  Schemes,  are  the  Materials  of  Wit  and  Ingenuity.  One 
that  conceives  a  ftrong  and  cleer  Scheme,  of  the  Kinds,  Meafures,  and 
Proportions  of  Sounds,  hath  a  Mufical  Genius ;  if  the  like,  of  Flat 
Figures,  one  for  Painting ;  if  of  Figures  and  Poftures,  for  Defigning  ; 
if  of  Solid  Figures,  for  Sculpture;  or  for  Architedure  ;  if  of  Figures 
and  Motions,  for  an  Engineer.  And  one  that  hath  the  like  Schemes  of 
Senfibles  and  Infenfibles,  with  the  Art  of  reprefenting  one  by  the  other; 
may  make  an  Orator,  or  a  Poet :  Whofe  Bufmefs  it  is,  to  give  Draughts, 
of  the  Virtues,  Vices,  and  AfTedions  of  Mankind. 

29.  Of  the  Perceptive  part  of  Phancy,  now  defcribed ;  Recognition, 
Memory,  and  Forefight,  as  hath  been  hinted,  are  in  (bme  degree,  com- 
mon to  Men  and  Brutes.    But  Reminifcence,  and  Forecaft,  or  the  Or- 

m i_ 

H    Chap,  ill  Of  Phancy,  45 

I V  ^^^^y  Profped:  of  Things,  and  the  Arbitrary  Compofition  of  the  Ima- 
ges of  Things,  are  proper  to  Mankind.  And  fo  are  Ingenuity  and 
|B  Wit  J  even  the  lowed  kind,  which  lyeth  in  the  Imitation,  or  pro- 
Ik  pofed  refembling  of  fome  Senfible  thing  by  another.  A  Parret  fpeaks 
the  Words  ftie  hears,  but  not  by  Imitation.  For  to  Imitate,  is  not  on- 
ly, to  do  lilce  another;  but  to  propofe  to  do  it;  which  a  Parret  doth 
I  not  do.  No  more  than  a  Man  that  yauns,  when  he  fees  another  yaun, 
may  be  faid  to  Imitate  him.  Much  lefs  have  Brutes  any  of  that  Wit, 
which  maketh  ufe  of  Senfible  Things,  whereby  to  reprefent  things  In- 
30.  Upon  JPerception,  follows  Volition.  For  all  Affedions  and  Padi- 
ons,  are  the  Volitions  of  Phancy.  Thefe  are  Two  in  general,  Appe- 
tite or  Inclination,  and  Averfion.  For  we  Will  to  Avoid,  as  well  as  to 
Enjoy  or  Obtcin.  Love,  is  an  Appetite  or  Will  to  fome  Good,  abfo- 
lutely  confidered :  Delight,  to  that  Good,  as  Prefent :  Defire,  as  Ab- 
fent ;  Flope,  as  Atteinable.  On  the  contrary.  Hatred,  is  a  Will  to  a- 
void  fome  Evil,  as  Evil :  Grief,  as  Prefent :  Fear,  as  Abfent :  Defpair, 
as  Unavoidable. 

31.  There  are,  fome  Mixed  Affedions;  as  Anger  and  Shamefacednefs. 
Anger,  is  Hatred  of  fome  Prefent  Evil,  with  Hope  of  overcoming  it. 
For  if  it  be  Infuperable,  the  Anger  ceafcth,  4:ho  the  Hatred  remains. 
Shamefac'dnefs,  is  Hatred  of  Difgrace,  with  Hope  of  avoiding  it.  Whence 
it  is,  that  the  Blood  rilqth  in  the  Cheeks,  bothofithofe  who  are  Angry, 
and  of  thofe  who  are  Abafli'd.  And  if  they  defpair  of  overcoming  that 
they  Hate,    they  both  look  Pale. 

^z.  Befides  thefe,  there  are  many  other  Symptoms  of  Humane  Af-* 

fedions  ;  as  Laughing,  Weeping,  Dancing,    Trembling,  Sighing,  and 

cfpecially  Palpitation,  or  fome  other  Unequal  Motion,  orUneafinefs  of 

the  Heart.     Which  hath  given    occafion,  not  only  to  the  Unlearned, 

but  to  fome  Philofophers,  to  think  the  Heart. the  Seat  of  all  our  Affe- 

dions  and  Paflions.    But  we  may  as  well  make  our  Eyes,  the  Seat  of 

our  Afledions,  when    we  weep  ;  or  the  Lungs  ,  when    we  laugh  ;  or 

our  Hands ,   when  we   fight ;   or  a    Horfe^s  Ears ,    when   lie    pricks 

them  up ;  or  a  Dogs  Tail,  when  he  waggs  it ;  as  the  Heart,  when  it 

i         aches  or  beats.    The  Affedions  themfelves,  being  feated  only  in  the 

i         Mind  or  Phancy  :  While  the  Vifible  or  Senfible  Motions  of  the  Parts 

,         aforefaid ,  are  made  the  Signs  and  Inftruments  of  the  Vital   Power 


3}.  The  Afiedions,  by  the  repetition  of  thofe  Conceits  from  wl;ence 
they  arife,  turn  to  Habits.  And  when  they  are  Irregular  or  Difproportion'd 
to  the  Objed,  are  then  properly  called  Paflions. 
\^  34.  Sometimes,  as  they  are  Supernumerary  ;  as  in  thofe  which  oc- 

4        cafion  Madnefs.     Wherein  the  Images  of  fome  one  Perfon  or  Thing, 
are  fo  cxtreamly  multiply 'd ;  as  not  to  allow  room  enough  for  the  re- 
ception and  due  difpofal  of  the  Images  of  other  Things.    And  fo  like- 
>        wife  in  vehement  Anger,  or  vehement  Concupifcence ;  feveral  forts  of 

Madnels  for  a  fliort  time. 
I  35-.  And  forhetimes,  as  they  are  Ill-compounded ;  as  in  Envy,  or  Ma- 

j  lice.  Wherein  the  Images  of  Perfons  and  Things,  are  falfe  and  fiditi- 
:  ous;  like  that  of  z  Centaur.  A  fort  of  Monflrous  Conceptions  in  the 
I        Brain,  like  thofe  w;hich  happen  in  the  Womb. 

N  36.  The 

^5  Of  Fhancy  Book   II. 

^6.  The  Power  of  Phancy,  in  making  the  Images  of  Things ;  and 
the  great  Ufe  hereof :  fliew  the  Wifdom,  and  Goodnefs  of  its  Author. 
The  faid  Power,  being  above  the  Force,  and  the  Ufe  of  it,  above  the 
Defign  of  Body,  howfoever  qualifi'd. 

57.  For  fuppofe  thefe  Images,  to  be  of  Vifible  Things.  .  They  muft 
then  be  Drawn,  either  in  the  Eye,  or  the  Brain.  Say,  they  are  Drawn 
in  the  Eye.  The  Eye,  can  fee  nothing,  without  Light.  But  we  can 
Phancy,  when  afleep,  or  with  our  Eyes  fliut,  that  we  fee  a  Square  Fi- 
gure, or  a  Blew  Coat,  though  we  fee  them  not.  Now  the  Images  of 
thefe  Things,  thus  phancy 'd  to  be  feen,  cannot  be  Drawn  in  the  Eye, 
but  byfomeCaule,  equal  to  that,  by  which  is  made  a  Real  Vifion  : 
that  is,  able  to  make  the  fame  Regular  Impreffions  upon  the  Eye.  But 
it  is  impofTible  for  any  Organ,  or  any  part  of  it,  to  regulate  it  felf. 
Much  lefs,  may  we  refer  the  power  of  this  Regulation,  to  the  Animal 
Spirits,  an  Unorganized  Fluid.  Nor  therefore,  to  any  tiling  inferior  to 
the  Vital  Principle,  which  we  call  Phancy. 

^8.  Or  fay,  that  thefe  Images  are  formed  in  the  Brain.  Yet  they  are 
Jndicatively,  of  the  fame  Species  with  thofe  of  Senfe.  The  Phancy  of 
a  Triangle,  is  not  a  Square ;  much  lels  is  the  Phancy  of  Figure,  a  Co- 
lour. But  the  Organifm  of  every  part  of  the  Brain,  particularly,  of  the 
Chambers  of  the  Optique  Nerves,  in  which,  if  any  where  in  the  Brain, 
the  Phantaftick  Images  of  Vifible  Things  are  made ;  is  altogether  diffe- 
rent from  that  of  the  Eye.  And  confequently,  the  Motions  and  Imprel^ 
fions,  which  are  made  in  a  manner  fuitable  to  the  faid  Organifm ;  mufl 
be  altogether  different,  from  thofe  made  in  the  Eye.  Of  which  diffe- 
rence, Tince  the  Brain  cannot  be  a  Judge,  fo  as  to  make  the  Images  in  it 
felf,  Jndicatively,  the  fame  with  thofe  in  the  Eye :  We  mufl:  of  neceffl- 
ty,  have  recourfe,  to  fomething  Superior  to  the  Brain  or  any  Organifm  ; 
and  that  is,  unto  Phancy. 

59.  The  Power  of  Memory  and  Forefight,  or  the  Thought  of  Pafl: 
and  To  come,  proves  the  fame.  For  fuppofe  a  Thought,  to  be  nothing, 
but  a  certain  Motion,  communicated  to  the  Animal  Spirits,  or  the 
Brain ;  as  fome  Men  conceit.  This  Thought,  mufl:  of  neceflity  ceafe 
with  the  faid  Motion.  And  confequently,  were  a  Thought,  nothing  but 
Motion ;  there  could  be  no  Thought  or  Conceit,  of  a  Thing  Palt,  or 
To  come,  but  only  Prefent.  As  being  always  and  only  fome  certain 
Form  of  Motion,  which  is  either  Prefent,  or  not  at  all. 

40.  Or  fuppofe,  the  Thought  of  Prefent,  Pafl,  and  To  come,  to  be 
the  fame  Motion,  or  alike  Image  or  Impreffion,  transferred  from  one 
part  of  the  Brain,  to  another :  That  which  is  in  fuch  a  certain  part,  to 
be  Prefent,  and  that  which  is  cis  vel  citra^  to  be  Pafl,  or  To  come. 
Now  this  cannot  be,  without  a  Comparifon  made  between  them,  and 
To  a  Judgment,  whether  they  are  in  the  Prefent,  Pafl:,  or  To  come  part. 
But  to  fay,  the  Motions,  Images,  or  Imprellions,  compare  themfelves, 
is  ridiculous.  So  that  we  mufl;  come  at  laft,  to  a  Vital  Principle, 
able  to  judge  of  them,  in  determining  where  they  are,  and  what  they 
are  apt  to  fignifie. 

41.  The  Power  likewifeof  Compounding  the  Images  of  Things,  de- 
raonftrates  the  fame.  For  thefe  Images,  are  Corporeal,  or  Incorporeal- 
He  that  faith  the  latter,  granteth  the  Exiftence  of  Incorporeal  Beings  fo 
Real,  as  to  be  the  Caufeof  moftof  the  Bufmefs  of  the  World:  For  fo, 
the  Phancies  of  Men,  are.   But  if  Corporeal,  I  then  ask,  Do  they  Reft,  or 

Move  ? 

Chap.  III.  Of  Phancy 


Move?  If  they  reft,  it  were  TmpoflTible  for  them  to  be  Compounded. 
For  how  can  two  Images,  as  of  a  Man  and  a  Horfe,  be  brought  toge- 
ther, fo  as  to  make  a  Centaur,  without  being  moved  ?  And  fo,  Ten 
Thoufand  other  ways.  If  then  in  Motion,  I  ask  again,  How  come 
they  now,  to  be  Compounded  ?  As  they  chance  to  meet  together  ? 
That  is  equally  Impoflible,  For  nothing  that  comes  by  Chance,  can 
come  by  Direction,  But  every  one  knows,  he  can  compound  thefe 
Images,  in  what  m.anner,  and  as  often  as  he  pleafes.  The  Power 
therefore  of  Compounding  thefe  Images,  fliews,  That  there  is  a  Power 
of  Moving  them,  and  the  Materials  whereof  they  are  made  :  That  is, 
the  Power  of  a  Vital  Principle,  called  Phancy.  Without  which,  Body, 
howfoever  qualift'd,  could  no  more  produce  one  Single  Thought,  than 
make  a  World. 

.  4x.  The  Office  of  Phancy,  is  eminently  feen,  in  its  being  fo  related 
to  tlie  Brain,  and  the  whole  Body ;  as  with  the  greateft  eafe  to  make 
u(e  of  them.  And  firft.  Generation  it  felf,  doth  in  a  great  meafure, 
hereupon  depend  :  viz.  as  a  Man  or  other  Animal,  is  hereby,  partly,  able 
to  beget  his  own  Image.  It  being  very  probable,  that  the  firft  Concep- 
tions or  Rude  Draughts  of  the  Sperme- Animals,  are  begun,  either  in  the 
Brain,  or  Tefticles,  by  the  Power  of  Phancy.  And  that  after  a  certain 
convenient  time,  they  obtein  a  Vifible  Bulk,  in  the  Form  of  Humane 
Worms  or  Tadpoles.  This  is  argu'd,  from  the  Marks,  which  Longing 
W^omen,  and  they  who  happen  to  be  affirighted,  give  their  Children. 
Which  fliews  the  Power  of  Phancy,  in  making  the  Images  of  things  : 
And  that  thefe  Images,  may  be  transfer 'd  from  the  Brain,  though  by  a 
very  long  Circute,  to  the  Womb.  As  alfo  doth  the  Refemblance,  which 
Children  bear  to  either  of  their  Parents,  as  the  Phancy  of  one,  or  the 
other,  is  the  Stronger.  And  fometimes,  their  relembling  of  neither; 
but  feme  other  Perfon ,  more  agreeable  to  his  or  her  prevailing 

4:5.  All  Animal  Motions,  properly  fo  called,  and  all  Corporeal  Ha- 
bits, do  alfo;  more  or  lefs,  depend  upon  Phancy.  As  for  Inftance,  that 
of  Speech.  It  is  wonderful  toconfider,  what  a  multitude  of  Motions, 
in  the  Lipps  and  Tongue,  go  to  make  all  the  Letters  of  Words  in  our 
common  Talk;  while  we  have  no  diftincSt  Thought,  fcarceof  one  Let- 
ter, but  onlv  of  the  Senfe  of  riie  whole.  Which  fliews,  both  the  fit- 
nefs  of  the  Parts,  for  their  joynt  Service  herein ;  and  the  near  Relati- 
on of  Phancy  to  thefe  Parts,  in  dired:ing  all  their  Motions  with  fo  lit- 
tle concern.  For  as  a  Man,  only  by  blowing  now  and  then,  into  a  Pair 
of  Bagpipes,  fo  by  a  blaft  of  Phancy,  now  and  then  into  the  Organs  of 
Speech,  he  keeps  both  the  one  and  the  other  in  play,  without  any  in- 
terruption, in  the  Mufick,  or  the  Talk.  And  fo,  in  Singing,  Dancing, 
Writing,  Playing  on  the  Lute,  and  other  Artificial  Motions,  confider'd 

Corporeal  Habits. 

44.  And  the  fame  Vivacity  of  Phancy,  is  feen  in  Mental  Habits.  In 
nothing  more,  than  in  Difcourfe :  Which  differs  from  Talk  or  Speech, 
as  a  Man  doth  from  a  Statue.  If  the  Eye  be  fo  rare  an  Engine,  as  to 
fee,  all  that  Light  can  reprefent  to  it :  How  Excellent  a  Faculty  of  the 
Mind,  is  Phancy,  that  can  fee,  without  Light  ?  Can  Hear ,  without 
Sound  ?  And  hnitate  all  the  other  Senfes,  without  the  Ufe  of  the  Or- 
gans of  Senfe.  Can  at  once,  perceive,  what  the  Senfes  perceive  di- 
Itindtly,  and  at  feveral  times  ?  Can  Travail  through  the  World,  while 


____________ 1. v — i 

^8  Of  Intelle&ual  Mind.  Book  11. 

we  fttftill?  And  drawing  aLandskipof  the  fevcral  Countries,  Perfons, 
and  Things,  ieen  or  heard  of  by  us,  in  their  proper  Time  and  Place,  let 
it  all,  into  its  little  Dark  Room  ?  All  which,  is  adtually  done  in  Common 

4f .  And  Phancy  perceives,  what  the  Eye,  and  other  Senfes,  never  per- 
ceiv'd,  nor  ever  ftiall ;  as  in  Hieroglyphkks,  and  in  Heroick^  and  other 
Poetick  Schemes.  Nor  ever  can.  For  in  all  Adions,  proceeding  from 
the  Phancy ;  we  fee,  with  the  Adions,  the  PaflTions  alfo,  of  another. 
For  otherwife,  thofe  Adions,  which  are  the  Tokens  of  any  Paffion,  and 
thofe  which  are  only  Mimical,  would  have  the  fame  Operation.  Which 
Perception,  as  well  as  Speech,  is  one  principal  Bond  of  Human  So- 

46.  Lallly  ,  the  Phancy  is  of  great  ufe,  in  the  Difcurfive,  and  Exe- 
cutive Ads  of  Reafon :  As  will  befl  appear,  in  theDefcription  of  Intel- 
tedual  Mind. 

CHAR    IV. 

:  Of  IntelleUml  Mind. 

I.    \.S  Senfe,   is  Subfervient  unto  Phancy?  fois  Phancy,  unto  Intel- 
^nj^  led  i  So  that  they  are  commonly  mixed  together,  in  their  Ope- 
rations.   Yet  they  have  their  Proper  Objeds,  and  their  Proper  Ads. 

t.  The  Nature,  not  only  of  the  Deity  ;  but  of  all  Vital  Beings,  is 
utterly  out  of  the  reach  of  Senfe.  And  fo,  of  Phancy  flridly  fo  called, 
or  as  depending  upon  Senfe. 

3 .  And  the  Nature  too,  or  Eflence  of  all  other  Beings :  As  the  Defi- 
nition, iuppofe,  of  a  Point.  Which,  in  regard  it  is  no  Part  of  any 
thing.  Body,  Space,  or  Line ;  cannot  properly,  be  either  Seen  or  Phan- 
cy'd  J  but  only  Underflood. 

4.  And  fo  Jikewife  is  the  Eflence  of  any  Figure,  or  Body  under  that 
Figure :  As  the  Definition  of  a  Cube.  Wherein,  tho'  Phancy  is  em- 
ployed about  a  Body  with  a  Cubick  Figure :  Yet  the  Intelled  alone, 
about  the  Eflence  of  this  Figure,  whereby  it  is  difl.inguilhed  from  all 

5.  Or  only  in  conceiving  of  any  Figure  perfcd  to  a  Poynt.  Such  as 
never  was,  nor  can  be  adually  made.  Nor  therefore  can  belong  to 
Senfe ;  nor  unto  Phancy,  thereupon  depending. 

6.  Nor  hath  Senfe,  or  Phancy,  any  thing  to  <3o  with  Proportionality, 
or  Commenfurability  :  Which  few  People  have  Intelledion  enough  to 
underftand.  Or  with  the  Indefinite  Divifibility  of  Bodies.  Which 
goes  beyond  all  Conception  in  Phancy,  and  yet  is  demonflrable. 

7.  Nor  with  any  other  Univerfal  whatfoever.  The  forming  of  which, 
is  peculiar  unto  Intelledual  Mind.  And  upon  this  ground  it  is,  that  a 
Man  only,  is  capable  of  Language :  Which  could  notpoflibly  confift, 
without  Univerfals.  If  you  fliew  a  Dog,  a  Houfe,  by  the  Name  of 
Houfe ;  whenever  you  fay,  Houfe,  he  will  know  it  again,  as  that  Indivi- 
dual piece  of  Building,  he  is  direded  to  look  upon.  But  the  Houfity  of 
that  Building,  whereby,  when  you  fay,  Houfe,  you  underftand  any  o- 

•  ther 

Chap.  IV.         Of IntelleBual Mind.  4.9 

ther  Houfe  in  London,  as  well  as  that  h  he  can  have  no  Conceit  of:  Nor 
therefore  of  any  Difcourfe,  concerning  a  Houfe.  Nor  doth  a  Dog,  as  he 
is  bid,  becaufe  he  underflands  the  Ratio  of  the  Words ;  but  only  re- 
members fuch  a  certain  Sound,  which  the  Words  make  altogether. 
For  fmce  he  wants  neither  a  Tongue,  nor  any  other  Vocal  Inftruments  j 
could  he,  by  forming  of  Univerfals,  perceive  the  Ratio  of  Speech,  he 
would  prefently  learn  to  fpeak. 

8.  Wherefore,  Intelledtion,  is  the  Operation  of  the  Mind,  about  Irt- 
fenfible  Things,    and  its  own /s'l?^/ of  tnofe  things. 

9.  The  A6ts  of  Intellecfl,  as  cf  Phancy,  are  Two  in  genera!,  Percepti- 
on,  and  Volition. 

10.  The  Modes  of  Intelleflual  Perception,  are  alfo  Two,  viz.  Dubi- 
tation,  and  Invention. 

11.  Dubitation,  may  be  called,  a  Negative  Perception.  That  is, 
when  I  perceive,  that  what  I  fee,  is  not,  what  I  would  See.  Phancy,  of 
it  felf,  and  where  it  is  the  fole  Judge  of  Things,  never  Doubts,  nor  can 
doit:  But  takes  every  thing  to  be,  what  itleemstobe.  It  is  therefore 
the  Prerogative  of  Intelled-ual  Mind,  That  it  can,  and  doth  Doubt.  And 
the  firft  point  of  good  Underftanding,  or  Ratiocination  truly  fo  call'd, 
is,  To  Doubt,  in  order  to  the  finding  out  of  Truth.  By  virtue  where- 
of, we  have  likewifc  this  advantage.  That  though  we  may  oftentimes, 
in  our  Enquiries,  come  fliort  of  Truth  :  Yet  we  can  never  be  compell'd, 
to  believe  ,  what  is  not  evidently  True.  And  fo,  we  are  ftill  in  the 
way,  of^finding  Truth  in  the  End. 

IX.  Dubitation,  is  attended  with  Difquifition.  Whereby,  we  recoi- 
led the  Simple  and  Complex  Ideas,  we  have  of  things.  And  with  CoN 
lation  ;  whereby,  we  compare  them  together;  till,  from  the  Refemblance 
of  Truth,  we  come  at  lafl  to  Truth  it  felf  Meer  Phancy,  Compounds 
Things;  and  fometimes,  with  great  Variety  and  Pomp:  But  doth  not 
always  exadly  Collate  or  Compare  them.  It  compares  them,  as  they 
arePoiTible,  or  as  they  Appear;  but  not  always,  as  they  Are,  So  that 
upon  every  Step  taken  by  Pliancy ;  Collation  goes  along  with  it.  Be- 
ing as  a  Guard,  by  which  the  Populacy  of  Senfe  and  Phanty,  are  kept 
Irom  crowding  in  upon  Reafon,  in  its  Operation. 

13.  VVherefore,  in  the  Difquifition  of  Truth,  a  ready  Phancy,  is  of 
great  ufe  -;  provided,  that  Collation  doth  its  Office.  Without  which, 
the  better  Phancy  or  Wit,  any  one  hath,  he  is  fo  far  from  finding  out 
of  Truth,  that  he  lies  the  more  open  to  Error. 

i^.  That  v\  hich  follows  upon  Collation,  is  Invention.  Judgment  or 
Opinion,  if  duly  formed,  in  a  remote  and  lels  proper  Senfe,  may  be 
called  Invention.  As  when  a  Judge,  or  a  Phyfician,  makes  an  exac5t 
Enquiry  into  any  Cafe :  And  fo,  in  mod  Human  Affairs.  Wherein, 
through  innumerable  Circumftances,  known  and  unknown,  it'feldom  hap- 
pens, That  any  Wife  Man,  can  or  will  go  further,  than  to  give  his  Opi- 
nion of  Things.  Which,  if  done,  upon  all  the  Circumftances  which  are 
Examinable;  he  may  be  faid  to  have  found  out,  though  not  certain, 
or  dcmonltrable  Truth ;  yet  the  neerefl  Approach  that  can  be  made  to  it, 
in  things  of  this  Nature. 

1 5.  No  Man  therefore,  can  be  a  proper  Judge  of  an  other's  A<flions, 
much  lefs  of  thcfe  of  Princes,  that  omits  any  one  Circumftance  rela- 
ting to  than.  An  exad:  Judgment,  being  fo  far,  like  a  Mathema- 
tick  Demonftration.    The  making  whereof,  may  poffibly  depend  uport 

O  Twen- 

tfo  Of  Intelle&Hal  Mind.        Book  11, 

Twenty  Propofitions  to  be  predemonftrated  :  the  omitting  of  any  one 
of  which,  will  make  the  whole  Operation  to  be  foolifli. 

1 6.  Invention,  properly  fo  called,  is  the  Termination  of  the  Mind 
upon  Truth.  Which  we  come  to.  Three  ways ;  By  Senfe,  By  firfl:  The- 
oremes,  or  by  Confequence  upon  both  or  either  of  thefe  grounds. 

17.  By  Senfe :  For  though  fome  Men's  Senfes  are  flronger,  than  of 
others :  Yet  the  different  degree  of  Strength,  alters  not  the  Species. 
What  one  Man  fees  to  be  White,  or  Triangular ;  feems  not  to  an  other , 
to  be  Black,  or  Square.  All  OlServations  in  Anatomy,  and  divers  other 
Arts  and  Sciences,  are  from  the  Evidence  of  Senfe.  And  what  are  all 
Mechanick  W'orks,  but  the  Senfible  Exhibition  of  Mathematick  De- 
monflrations  ?  No  Man  therefore,  can  be  more  fure  of  any  Senfible 
Thing,  than  of  that,  wherein  all  Men's  Senfes  agree. 

18.  By  firfl  Theoremes:  as,  the  Whole,  is  greater  than  a  Part;  and 
others  alike.  Some  of  which,  are  alfo  grounded  on  the  Perceptions  of 
Senfe.  For,  to  fay,  the  Whole,  is  greater  than  a  Part;  is  the  fame, 
with  refped:  to  Quantity,  as  with  relpecft  to  Figure,  to  fay,  a  Triangle, 
is  not  a  Square.  Therefore  thefe,  and  other  like  Theoremes^  are  Com- 
pendiums  of  the  particulars  of  Senfe. 

19.  Or  by  Confequence  upon  both,  or  either  of  the  former  Grounds. 
Taking  in,  not  only  Theoremes^  whjch  are  grounded  upon  Senfe;  but 
fuch  alfo,  as  are  Originally  and  Purely  Intelledtual :  As,  There  never, 
could  be  nothing.  For  all  manner  of  Mathematick  Proof  it  felf,  is 
Confequential ;  either  on  the  Senfe,  or  the  firfl  Theoremes  we  have  of 
Things.  So  that  Things  are  as  certainly  knowable,  by  any  fort  of 
good  Confequence,  as  by  the  Mathematick. 

20.  Therefore  alfo,  the  received  ^/"/^oa-z/w,  ^od  facit  tiotum^  eft  ma^ 
gis  mtum;  is  an  Error.  For,  to  fay,  that  one  Thing,  is  lefs  known, 
than  another  :  is  to  fay,  it  is  not  known,  but  fuppofed.  For  there  can 
be  no  Magis  and  Minus,  in  the  Certitude  we  have  of  Things,  whether 
by  Mathematick  Demonflration,  or  any  other  way  of  Confequence.  Of 
which  Confequence,  if  there  be  no  Doubt ;  then  nothing  can  be  more 
known :  And  if  there  be  ;  it  can  be  no  Confequence,  to  him  that 

21.  Whence  alfo,  to  deny  or  queflion  the  Being  of  every  thing, 
whereof  we  have  not  a  Senfible,  or  a  Mathematick  Proof:  is  abfurdly 
to  Limit  the  Operation  of  Reafcn.  The  Exiflence  of  the  Deity,  and 
of  many  other  things,  being  as  firongly  proved,  by  one  way  of  Con- 
fequence ;  as  any  Mathematick  Propofition  is ,  ot  can  be,  by  an 

2x.  But  albeit  there  is  an  Equal  Certitude,  in  all  Knowledge  truly  fo 
call'd :  Yet  the  Compafs  it  takes,  is  very  different.  That  is  to  lay, 
Demonflration  and  Comprehenlion,  are  two  Things.  So,  for  Exam- 
ple, in  Bufinefs;  the  Knowledge  of  any  one  Way,  to  attein  a  propofed 
End;  may  be  called, Demonflration.  But  Comprehenfion,  istheKnow- 
legeof  all  the  Ways,  and  of  that  among  them,  which  is  the  Befl.  So 
likewife,  in  Speculation,  one  may  know  the  Truth,  or  Demonflrate  the 
Being  of  a  Tiling;  who  doth  not  Comprehend  either  the  Reafon,  or 
the  Nature  of  it,  or  of  its  Relation  unto  other  Things.  The  Proof  of 
that  Propofition,  that  the  three  Angles  of  every  Rectilinear  Triangle, 
are  equal  to  two  Right  Angles;  depends  upon  a  Series  of  prece- 
dent Propofitions.  But  the  Reafon  of  it,  in  fliort,  is  becaufe  the  An- 

Chap.  IV.        Oflntelle&HalMwd.  51 

gles  of  every  two  fucli  Triangles,  are  equal  either  to  thoie  of  a  Square, 

ror  equal  to  thofe  of  a  Parallelogram,  equal  to  thofc  of  a  Square.  Yet 
the  Propofition  may  be  proved,  without  knowing  the  cleerefi:  and  mofl; 
kpparent  Reafon  of  it. 
23.  The  35^/7  Propofition  of  the  \fl  o't  Euclid,  That  any  two  Paralle- 
lograms, made  upon  the  fame  Ba{e,  and  within  the  fame  Parallel  Lines, 
are  of  equal  Content:  Might  be  hinted  to  the  Author,  in  feeing,  that 
in  drawing  out  the  Parallelogram,  what  it  gains  in  Length,  it  lofes  in 
Breadth.    But  whether  it  was,  or  noj  the  Propofition,  is  nevertheless 
True,  nor   everthelefs  Demonilrable.     So   like  wife   the  Truth  of  any 
Rule  in    Arithmetick,  or  of  any  Operation  according  to  it,  may  be 
proved,  by  one  who  underflands  not  at  all,  how  the  Rule  comes  to  ope- 
rate as  it  doth. 

1^,  In  like  manner,  theDemonftration  of  the  Nature  of  the  Deity, 
fb  far  as  contained  in  the  firft  Cliapter  of  this  Work:  is  neverthelefs 
True,  though  it  be  a  Demonftration  of  the  Being  of  that  Nature,  which 
is  Incomprehenfible.  We  can  Demonftrate  the  Being,  of  God's  Eter- 
nity. But  who  can  Comprehend  it  ?  So  likewife,  we  can  Demonftrate 
the  Being  of  his  Eternal  Ideas ;  and  their  Coexiftence  with  him ;  as  I 
have  there  alfo  done.  But  who  can  Comprehend  the  Manner  of  it  ? 
Cr  any  Mode  of  Infinity,  or  of  Divine  Exigence,  unlefs  we  our  felves 
were  Infinite  .■^ 

25.  Put  the  cafe  further,  thatfomefuch  Objedions,  fliould  lie  againft 
thefaid  De.monftration,  as  are  Infolvable.  Yet  is  it,  on  the  account  of 
thefe  Objedions,  neverthelefs  Valid.  Becaufe  every  Demonftration  , 
comes  from  certain  Knowlege :  But  thefe  Objedions,  if  there  are  any 
fuch,  from  Incomprehenfion,  that  is,  from  Ignorance. 

xL  Upon  Perception,  follows  Volition.  As  our  Affedions,  are  the 
Volitions  of  Phancy  ;  fo  Volition,  may  be  faid  to  be  the  Afledion  of 
the  Intelled. 

xj.  The  Mode  of  the  Will,  which  anfwers  to  Dubitation ;  may  be 
called,  Sufpenfion.  That  which  anfwers  to  Invention,  Refolution.  And 
that  which  in  the  Phantailick  Will,  is  Obflinacy;  isConftancy,  in  the 

x8.  It  mud  needs  therefore  be,,  that  as  the  Affedions  are  fubordinate 
to  the  Phantaftick  Perception ;  fo  the  Intelledual  Will,  is  to  the  Un- 
derftanding.  That  is,  we  can  have  no  Free  Will,  properly  fo  called ; 
fo  far  as  we  can  conceive,  and  exprefs  our  felves.  The  Will  being  al- 
ways at  the  Command  of  fome  Reafon,  or  Appearance  of  Reafon, 
great  or  fmall.  One  cannot  fo  much  as  phantaftically  choofe.  Even  or 
Odd,  he  thinks  not  why.  Some  Perception,  anfwerable  but  to  the  zoth 
part  of  a  Grain,  may  turn  the  Scale,  that  is,  the  Will,  on  either  hand. 
And  it  is  a  more  apparent  Contradidion,  to  fuppofe  the  Will  to  be  In- 
ledual ;  and  yet  not  to  follow  the  didate  of  the  Intelled. 

29.  The  Will  may  feem,  at  fome  times,  to  be  Superior  to  the  Un- 
derftanding,  or  at  leaft  to  lead  the  way.  For  before  we  underftand  a 
thing  well,  we  Refolve  or  Will,  to  ufe  our  Reafon,  or  to  Confider.  But 
ftill  It  is  Reafon  or  Underftanding,  that  determines  the  Will  in  that 
Refolution ,  to  confider ,  that  is ,  to  Doubt  and  Enquire.  So  that 
the  Will,  is  no  more  but  Plenipotentiary  to  the  Majefty  of  Rea- 

30.  But 

^2  Of  Science,  Book  II. 

30.  But  becaufe  the  Acfts  of  Phancy,  and  of  Intelled:,  are  often  mix- 
ed, as  hath  been  faid :  Whenever  the  Phantaftick  Will,  prevails  o- 
ver  the  Intelledual ;  it  takes  away  Dubitation,  wherewith  all  Right  Rea- 
fon  begins.  And  confequently,  the  due  Eftimation  alfo  of  Good  and 
Evil.  As  will  further  appear,  in  fpeaking  next,  of  the  Three  chief  En- 
dowments of  Intelledual  Mind,  Science,  V  Vifdom,  and  Virtue :  Where- 
of in  their  Order. 

C  H  A  P.    V. 

Of  Science.^HE  Proper,  and  the  Neceflary  Objedb  of  the  Underftanding, 

J_  is  Truth.  It  is  the  Proper  Objedl;  becaufe  the  Mind,  can 
therein  only  acquiefce.  For  one  may  perceive  a  Hundred  Fallhoods, 
without  perceiving  the  Truth.  But  if  Truth  be  once  perceived,  we 
do  thereby  alfo  perceive,  vvhatfoever  is  Falfe  in  contradiction  to  it. 

■L.  And  it  is  the  Neceflary  Objed:  of  the  Underflanding.  Even'  in 
the  Perception  of  Falfliood :  Which  cannot  be  faid,  to  have  a  con- 
nexion with  the  Underflanding.  For  that  is  as  much  as  to  fay,  a  Thing 
may  be  underftood  Falfly. 

9.  Truth,  is  the  Agreement  of  Things.  Whether  Verbal,  Mental, 
or  Real.  When  Words  agree  with  Conceptions,  they  make  a  True 
Speech,  When  with  other  Things,  a  True  Propofition.  When 
Conceptions  agree  with  Words,  they  make  a  True  Intent.  When 
with  other  Things,  a  True  Theoreme.  When  Things  agree  with 
Conceptions,  they  make  a  True  Operation.  And  fo  likewife  doth  the 
agreement  of  Things  with  Things. 

4,  Theoremick  Truth,  or  that  which  lies  in  the  Conceptions  we  have 
of  Things,  is  Negative,  or  Pofitive.  That  Gold  is  heavier  than  Quick- 
filver ;  is  Truth :  And  feems  to  be  a  Pofitive  or  Definitive  form  of 
Speech.  But  doth  indeed  exprefs  no  more,  than  Two  Negative  Con^ 
ceptions :  wz,  that  Gold  is  neither  Lighter  than  Quickfilver,  Nor  of 
Equal  Weight.  But  if  wc  fay,  or  know,  that  the  Weight  of  Gold, 
to  that  of  Quickfilver,  is  as  9  to  8 ;  it  is  Pofitive  or  Dehnitive  Truth. 
And  is  that  chiefly,  of  which  Science  and  Wifdom  are  produced. 
The  fornier,  as  it  is  feen  in  the  Eflcnce  of  Things ;  the  latter  as  in  their 

^.  The  Eilence  of  a  Thing,  is  the  Ratio  of  its  Being.  And  the  Idea 
or  adequate  Perception  of  this  Ratio,  is  a  Definition  of  it.  Which 
/^ftf,  ought  there! ore,  to  have  thel'e  two  Conditions;  To  be  Precife, 
and  Comprehenfive.  That  is.  To  take  in,  nothing  more,  nor  any 
thing  lefs,  than  what  belongeth  to  the  Nature  of  every  Thing. 

6.  In  every  Eflence,  is  contcined,  a  G(f»«a  ;  or  that  Part  of  the  Whole, 
which  it  hath  in  common,  with  other  Eflences.  And  a  Difference  j  or 
that  Part  of  the  Whole,  which  it  hath  in  Special  to  it  felf,  and  where- 
by it  is  diflinguilhed  from  all  others. 

7.  Where- 

Chap.  V.  Of  Science.  55 

7.  Wherefore  the  Genus  of  a  Thing,  however  fome  may  think  the 
contrary,  is  really  exiilent  in  the  thing  defined.  And  is  the  foundation 
of  that,  which  is  properly  called,  Generality ;  which  exil1:eth  only  as  a 
Conception  of  the  Mind.  And  therein  it  really  doth,  or  thaf  Word 
had  never  been  thought  of.  As  for  Example ;  the  Animal  Nature, 
quateniu  Animal,  is  the  fame  Nature,  Eadem  Natura^  in  a  Bead,  or  a 
Bird,  as  in  a  Man.  But  it  is  Unica  Natura^  or  Animality,  only  as  we 
have  one  Numerical  Conception  of  it. 

8.  Of  thofe  things,  which  are  more  Simple,  or  Senfible,  we  are  able 
to  think  more  adequately.  That  is,  to  allign  the  Eflential  Agreement, 
and  Difference,  that  is  between  them :  And  fo  to  form  and  exprefs  a 
more  perfed  Definition  of  their  Entire  Eflence.  As  in  Geometry; 
wherein  we  have  little  more  to  confider ,  befides  Quantity  and 

9.  In  the  confideration  of  Quantity,  we  abftrad:  even  from  Corpo- 
reity. We  can,  and  we  mud  do  it.  We  can,  in  Conception,  di- 
llinguifli  between  the  Quantity  and  the  Matter.  That  is,  though  we 
cannot  conceive  a  Body  to  exift,  without  Quantity;  yet  we  can  con- 
ceive of  Body  and  Quantity,  as  of  two  Things.  For  neither  can  we 
conceive  a  Body  to  cxifl,  without  Figure.  If  then  Body  and  Quanti- 
tit)',  are  one  Thing,  becaufe  Body  cannot  exift  without  Quantity  : 
then  alfo,  for  the  fame  Reafon,  Body  and  Figure,  are  one.  That  is. 
Quantity  and  Figure,  are  one.    But  who  will  fay  that  ? 

10.  And  we  muft  do  it.  For  otherwife,  we  could  have  no  true  Con- 
ception of  a  Surface,  or  a  Line,  or  a  Poynt.  For  a  Surface,  to  give  it 
a  Pofitive  Definition,  is  a  Broad  Uhi :  That  is.  Quantity  having  Breadth, 
without  any  Thicknefs  ;  And  confequently,  without  any  Corporeity. 
A  Line,  is  a  Long  C//5/ :  Having  no  part  of  Thicknefs,  or  Breadth.  And 
a  Poynt,  is  <in  Unextended  uli.  But  without  a  true  Conception  of 
thefe,  neither  can  we  have  a  true  Conception  of  any  one  Demonftrati- 
on  relating  to  Continual  Quantity.  But  on  the  contrary,  fuch  as  would 
lead  us  into  infinite  Error.  For  the  Leafl:  Error  in  a  Small  Quantity,  as 
in  a  Small  Circle ;  will,  in  a  great  one,  as  in  the  Circles  of  the  Heaven- 
ly Orbs,  be  proportionally  Magnify 'd. 

1 1 .  The  Regular  Relation  of  one  Quantity  to  another,  is  alfo  Defina- 
ble. This  is  Threefold  ;  Equality,  Proportionality,  and  Commenfurabi- 
lity.  Equality,  is  the  Identity  or  (amenefs  of  Quantities.  So,  in  Right- 
angled  Triangles,  the  Square  of  the  Hypothenufa^  is  equal  to  the  Squares 
of  both  the  other  Sides.  The  Equality,  is  Real  Truth :  And  theDemon- 
ftration  of  it,  is  Mental  Truth,  or  a  True  Theoreme. 

I X.  Proportionality,  is  the  Equal  Syntaxis  of  Quantities  or  Numbers 
Unequal.  Either  by  Addition,  as  in  z,  4, 6 :  Or  by  Multiplication ,  as 
in  X,  6,  18 ;  or  in  z,  6,  4, 12.  In  all  which,  there  are  Unequal  Numbers, 
Equally  augmented. 

I  ^.  Commenfurability,  is  when  two  or  more  Numbers  or  Quantities, 
are  Divifible  into  Equal  Parts,  by  one  Common  Number  or  Meafure.  So 
9,  21,  and  ^o,  are  all  divifible  into  Equal  Parts  by  Three. 

14.  Quantity  and  Pofition,  make  Figure.     Which  is  bounded  either 
Entirely,  or  in  Part.     A  Figure  may  be  faid  to  be  bounded  in  part,  when  • 
it  is  comprehended  between  two  Lines,   without  refped:  to  the  ends  of 
the  Figure,  or  the  Lines,   which  may  be  drawn  out  Infinitely.     Either 
at  an  Equal  Diftance,  as  in  a  Ribband :  Or  from  a  Poynt,  as  in  an 

P  Angle. 

j-^.  Of  Science,  Book    II. 

Angle.    The  feveral  Species  of  Regular  Figures  Entirely  enclofed,  both 
Plain  and  Solid,  are  all  in  a  manner  very  well  defined. 

If.  The  Relation  of  Figures,  is  Twofold,  Similitude,  and  Coex- 
iflence.  The  Similitude  of  Figures,  lyeth  in  the  Equality  of  their  An- 
gles, and  the  Proportionality  of  their  Sides.  They  may  therefore  be  Alike, 
tho'  they  differ  in  Quantity,  Infinitely. 

1 6.  Coexillence,  is  when  one  Figure  is  refoluble  into  another  j  as  all 
Re(fJilinear  Figures,  are  into  Triangles. 

17.  The  Compounded,  Invifible,  and  Vital  Effences  of  Things,  are 
none  of  them  Definable.  For  Inftance :  we  know,  that  the  Fibers  of  a 
Mufcule,  are  divifible  from  greater  to  lefs,  beyond  the  fmallnefs  of  a 
Spiders  Thread.  And  by  a  Glafs,  may  podibly  difcern  where  the  Divifi- 
on  ends.  We  know  too,  hy  xhtChymkal  Analy ft s  of  a  Mufcule,  that 
it  is  compounded  of  divers  kinds  of  Principles.  But  of  w  hat  juft  Num- 
ber they  are,  or  in  what  precife  manner,  they  are  Mixed  together,  To 
as  to  give  a  Fiber,  Extenfibility ,  and  all  its  other  Qualities,  who 
can  fay  ? 

18.  In  the  Chapter  Of  Principles^  I  have  proved,  that  the  Atomes  of 
every  Principle,  have  a  certain  peculiar  and  Immutable  Cize  and  Fi- 
gure. But  the  jufl;  Cize  of  any  one ;  or  how  far  the  Cize  of  one,  may 
differ  from  that  of  another,  we  know  not.  And  fo  of  their  Figures  ; 
we  know,  that  all  Salts  are  Angular ;  with  Obtufe,  Right,  or  Acute  An- 
gles. Some  making,  a  Prifme,  others  a  Table,  and  others  a  Cube.  But 
whether  the  Salts  which  appear  with  thefe  Angles  and  Figures,  are  com- 
pofed  of  Similar  Atomes,  we  know  not,  as  in  the  end  of  the  aforefaid 
Chapter  is  alfo  faid. 

19.  And  for  the  Eflence  of  Vital  Principles,  we  are  yet  more  in  the 
dark :  As  having  little  more  know  lege  hereof,  than  of  their  Operations. 
So  that  the  Definitions,  as  they  are  called,  of  Compounded,  and  Vital 
Eflences  :  Are,  in  truth,  no  better,  than  certain  Titles  or  Marks  of  Things, 
whereby  they  are  diftinguiflied  one  from  another. 

xo.  To  inftance  in  that  celebrated  one,  of  a  Man,  that  he  is^  Ani- 
mal Rationale.  Which  is  fo  far  from  being  a  Definition,  that 'tis  hardly 
a  good  Mark.  In  that  Brutes  have  a  fort  of  Fhantaftick  Reaibn.  Upon 
which  account,  'twere  a  better  Title,  to  fay,  he  is  Animal  Intelleduale. 
And  it  alfo  includetli,  his  being  Religious :  which  he  therefore  is,  be- 
caufe  Intelledual. 

XI.  Neither  is,  Intelledual,  any  more  than  a  good  Mark.  A  Golden 
Bell,  hung  about  Animal's  Neck ;  but  not  the  Definition  of  a  Man.  For 
fmce  we  have  not  a  Definitive  Knowlege  of  his  Vital  and  Corporeal 
Parts:  Neither  can  we  have  it,  of  the  Whole.  That  is  to  fay,  an /^e^, 
as  adequate  to  the  ElTence  of  a  Man  ;  as  the  Idea  of  a  Solid,  compre- 
hended between  Plain  Figures  produced  from  a  Plain  to  a  Poynt,  is  a- 
dequate  to  the  Eflence  of  a  Pyramid, 

XX.  Am  I  then  asked  fertile  Definition?  I  anfwer.  That  where  the 
Knife  ends,  Glaffes  begin ;  and  w  here  Glalfes  end,  the  Fire  begins,  and 
all  other  Chymical  ways  of  Analyfs ;  and  where  thefe  end,  Reafon  be- 
gins :  wherewith  we  mud  go  as  far  as  we  can,  towards  an  Idea  of  his 
,  Corporeal  Parts,  as  the  one  Half  of  it  j  and  of  his  Vital,  as  the  o- 
ther.  Aiid  fo  of  every  other  Vital ,  Invifible,  or  Compounded  Ef- 

x3.  And 

C  H  A  P.  V.  Of  Science.  55 

x^.  And  as  for  Figure  and  Quantity  themfelves;  albeit  the  Ideas  we 
have  of  them,  come  nearer  to  perfe^ion,  than  thofe  we  have  of  modt 
other  Things,  as  hath  been  faid  :  Yet  are  they  not  abfolutely  perfedt  and 

24.  Not  of  Figure.  We  cannot  conceive,  how  the  Perimeter  of  a 
Circle,  or  other  Curve-Figure^  can  be  or  confift,  without  being  Infinite- 
ly Angular.  For  the  Parts  of  a  Line,  are  Lines.  But  we  cannot  con- 
ceive, how  thefe  Lines,  can  have,  as  here,  a  different  Diredion  ,•  and 
therefore  an  Inclination;  without  making  an  Angle.  And  yet  to  fup- 
pofe  a  Circle  to  be  Angular ;  is  to  deftroy  the  Definition  of  a  Circle,  and 
the  Theoremes  hereupon  depending- 

x^.  If  two  Circles  be  defcribed  upon  one  Centre :  tlie  Perimeters^  by 
this  Conflrudlion,  are  in  every  Part,  Equidiftant.  Therefore,  to  eve* 
ry  Part,  in  the  greater  Circle,  there  is  an  anfwerable  Equidiftant  Part 
in  thelefs.  And  therefore,  the  lefs  would  be  inferr'd,  equal  to  the  greater. 

x6.  Tangent  Lines,  are  luppofed,  and  faid,  toTouch  onlyin  aPoynt. 
But  to  fay,  two  Lines  Touch,  and  yet  in  no  Part ;  is  fo  far  a  Contra- 
didlion,  that  no  Mathematick  Grammar  will  explain  it.  We  have  a 
conceit  of  it;  yet  not  fo  clear,  as  that  a  proper  word  has  ever  yet  been 
invented  for  it. 

xj.  It  is  certain,  that  the  Angle  of  Contad,  is  lefs  than  anyRediili- 
near  Angle  can  be,  how  fmall  foever  Infinitely.  That  is  to  fay,  lefsthan 
Infinitely  fmall. 

28.  Afymptote  Lines ^  though  they  may  approach  ftill  nearer  together, 
till  they  are  nearer,  than  the  leaft  ailignable  Diftance  :  Yet  being  ftill  pro- 
duced Infinitely,  will  never  meet. 

zp.  Let  a  Radius  be  moved,  as  a  Radius^  upon  a  Circle.  Whetlier 
we  fuppofe  it  to  be  wholly  moved,  or  in  part;  the  Suppofition  will 
bring  us  to  an  abfurdity.  If  it  be  in  fome  part  wox;^»^,  and  in  fome  part 
quiejcent;  it  mufl:  needs  be  a  Curve-Line^  and  fo,  no  Radius.  If  it  be 
wholly  movent ;  then  it  either  moves  about,  or  upon  the  Centre,  If  it 
moves  about  it,  it  comes  Ihort  of  it;  and  fo  again,  is  no  Radius.  Nor 
can  it  move  upon  it ;  becaufe,  all  Motion  having  Parts,  there  can  be  no 
Motion  upon  a  Poynt. 

30.  By  which,  and  other  like  Inftances,  it  is  mofl:  evident.  That  al! 
Mankind  are  in  the  dark,  as  to  the  Ultimate  Parts,  not  only  of  Curve- 
Lines^  but  of  Quantity,  and  of  Motion,  as  it  hath  Succelfive  Quantity. 
And  therefore  ,  that  we  have  no  Adequate  Conception  of  their 
Nature.  For  if  we  had,  we  fhould  then  be  able  to  folve  all  thofe 
Difficulties  relating  to  them.  So  that  there  is  hardly  any  one 
Thing  in  the  World,  the  Etlence  whereof,  we  can  perfedly  com- 

11.  Flow  much  left,  can  we  comprehend  the  Firfl:  Caufe  of  every 
Thing  ?  Or  any  of  thofe  Perfedions,  which  are  of  neceflity  belonging 
to  him  ?  For  the  'Being  whereof,  we  have,  neverthelefs,  as  good  Evi- 
dence ;  as  we  have  tor  the  Being  of  Quantity,  Figure,  or  Motion, 
or  any  thing  elfe  whatfoever,  though  we  cannot  comprehend  them*    • 

■\  1.  But  albeit,  we  are  able  perfedly  to  comprehend,  neither  the  De- 
ity, nor  any  other  Being :  Yet  fo  far  as  we  can  go,  in  the  certain 
Knowlege  of  Things,  Corporeal  or  Vital,  Finite  or  Infinite :  So  far, 
we  attem  unto  I'rue  Science.  And  we  Ihall  go  the  farther,  if  ha- 
ving fixed  the  due  Marks  of  Things ;  we  reft  not  here,  as  the  Schools^ 


<r6  Of  IVifdom.  Book  11 

__J__     I  _  _ .  .  '  II     III  -  -- m-ir-       I  [  ■'      I  ■  I  — I   -r 

to  the  great  hindrance  of  the  Advancement  of  Knowlege,  have  done; 
but  come  as  near  as  we  can  ,  to  their  True  Definitions ;  exiftent  only  in 

the  Divine  Ideas. 

CHAP.    VI. 

Of  Wifdom, 

I.  A  S  Science,  is  properly  that  Knowlege,  which  relateth  to  the  Ef- 
jt\  fences  of  Things  :  So  Wifdom,  to  their  Caufes  and  Operations, 
z.  The  Caufes  of  things,  are  ufually  reckon'd,  Four ;  the  Efficient, 
Matter,  Form,  and  End :  But  not  well.  There  is  no  Material,  or  For- 
mal Caufe,  in  the  Senfe  wherein  thefe  are  taken.  The  Matter  and  Form 
of  a  Thing,  being  its  Eflence.  If  then,  the  Matter  and  Form  of  a 
Thing,  were  the  Caufes  of  it :  It  would  be  its  own  Caufe.  And  the 
Caufes  and  EfTed,  would  be  all  one.  The  End,  'tis  true,  is  a  Caufe. 
But  no  otherwife,  than  as  it  operates  to  the  ufe  of  Means.  But  what- 
foever  operateth  to  fome  EfTedt,  is  an  Efficient  Caufe.  And  therefore, 
there  can  be  no  Caufe,  but  what  is  fuch. 

3.  Of  all  Operation,  there  are  Four  Cardinal  Caufes;  Body,  Senfe, 
Phancy,  and  Reafon.  And  the  Quadruple  Conjundion  of  each  of  thefe, 
produceth  in  all.  Sixteen  General  Ways,  of  Operation. 

4.  The  iji  Four  Ways,  are  thofe  of  Body  :  viz.  of  Body  upon  Body, 
Body  upon  Senfe,  Body  upon  Phancy,  and  Body  upon  Reafon. 

5-.  The  zr/  Four,  are  thofe  of  Senfe :  vh.  of  Senfe  upon  Body,  upon 
Senfe,  upon  Phancy,  and  upon  Reafon. 

6.  The  3<^  Four,  are  thofe  of  Phancy :  viz.  of  Phancy  upon  Body, 
upon  Senfe,  upon  Phancy,  and  upon  Reafon. 

7.  The  4//;  Four,  are  thofe  of  Reafon  :  viz.  of  Reafon  upon  Body, 
upon  Senfe,  upon  Phancy,  and  upon  Reafon  it  felf. 

8.  In  the  diftind  Obfervation,  and  the  Regular,  and  Ready  Ufe,  of 
thefe  Operations,  confifleth  all  the  Wifdom  of  the  World. 

9.  The  firfl  kind  of  Operation,  is  that  of  Body  upon  Body.  Which 
is  performed  three  Ways ;  by  Bulk,  Figure,  and  Pofition.  Bulk  operates, 
both  to  Motion,  and  to  Refl.  It  operates  to  the  Dire<5lion,  and  Acce- 
leration of  Motion.  For  that  which  is  greater,  gravitates  more :  That 
is,  tends  more  fteadily,  to  fbme  one  Poynt  or  Centre.  And  that  which 
is  greater,  gives  a  Quicker  Motion,  to  that  which  is  lefs.  For  if  the 
Quantity  of  the  Motor ,  be  double,  to  that  which  is  Moved :  the  Ce- 
lerity of  the  Motion,  in  the  Body  Moved,  will  be  double  to  that  in  the 
Motor.  Becaufe,  the  Motion,  which  is  fpread  through  all  the  Dimen- 
fions  of  a  greater  Body ;  in  a  lefs,  is  Spun  out  in  Length  ,•  that  is,  be- 
comes Quicker. 

10.  Figure  likewife  operates  both  to  Motion  and  Refl.  A  round  Bo- 
dy, moves  upon  its  Centre,  with  lefs  refiflance  from  any  contiguous 
Body,  than  one  that  is  angular.  An  empty  Bladder,  though  it  gravi- 
tates no  more,  than  when  it  is  blown  up,  but  fomewhat  lefs :  Yet  des- 
cends more  eafily,  becaufe  with  lefs  refiflance. 

II.  And 



Chap.  VI.  Of mfdom.  •  57 

II.  And  foPontion.  For  a  le{$  Weight,  being  placed  at  a  greater 
Diftance  from  the  Centre  of  Gravity;  will  move  a  greater  Weight,  at 
a  left.  Becaufe,  the  Celerity  of  the  Motion,  in  the  lefs  Weight;  is 
Equal  to  the  Bulk  of  the  Motion,  in  the  greater.  On  thefe  Three,  are 
grounded  the  greater  part  of  Mechanick  Operations. 

III.  As  are  alfo  the  Motions  of  Animals.     Where  weareto  confider, 
not  only  with  a  Phyfician,  how  the  Strudure  of  the  Parts,  operates  to 
the    faid  Motions,  in  every  Man  :  but  how  the  Mechanifm,  that  is,  the 
Bulk  and  Figure  of  the  Bone  and  Mufcules,  and   the  Infertion   of  the 
Mufcule  into  tiie  Bone,  are  more  advantagious  to  fome  certain  Moti- 
ons, in  one  Man,  tlian  in  another     There  being  as    much  Variety,  in« 
^ the  other  Parts  of  tlieBody,  as  in  the  Face  it  felf.     And  by  Ufe,  may 
j     Wbe  as  eafily  difcerned.     From  a  due  obfervation  whereof,  efpecially  in 
'  the    Cheff,  Arms,    and  Legs;   we  may  learn  to  make  a   True  Judg- 

'  ment,  for  what  fort  of  Corporeal   Adtionor  Employment,  any  Man  is 

!  bed  made. 

I  i^.  On  the  Vifible  Co-operation  of  thefe,  with  other  Caufes,  many 

I  pifeafes  likewife  depend.  As  on  the  Straitnels  of  the  Cheft,  a  Phthifts : 
On  the  Largenefs  of  the  Veins,  an  Atrophy:  On  their  Smallnefs,  Obe- 
fity :  On  the  fmallnefs  of  .the  Jugular  Veins,  an  Apoplexy :  Of  thofe 
near  the  Joynts,  the  Gout :  Of  the  Emulgent,  the  Stone.  And  the 
Thinnefs  of  the  Mufcules  of  the  Abdomen,  or  of  the  Peritoneum,  may 
be  the  occafion  of  a  Rupture.  And  it  is  very  probable,  that  moil 
Difeales,  partly  proceed,  from  Ibme  either  apparent  or  occult  failure,  in 
the  Strudure  of  the  Parts. 

14.  Bulk,  Figure,  and  Mixture,  whereof  Pofition  is  a  Part,  being  the 
fame  things  in  fmall  Bodies,  as  in  great;  they  have  the  fame  Operation 
(uomodo^  in  Atomes,  oxthc  Moleculaol  Atomes  themfelves.  And  there- 
fore in  the  Separation  and  Union,  and  in  the  Alteration  and  Generation 
Bof  all  Bodies.  And  fo  too,  of  all  Difeafes,  whether  from  Caufes  with- 
in the  Body,  or  without  in  the  Air  and  tieavens. 
15-.  But  the  certain  Modes  of  their  Operation,  for  the  mod  part,  are 
very  obfcure.  As,  for  inftance,  in  that  of  Rhuharh.  Whereof,  it  may 
be  asked.  How  it  purges  ?  Whether  only  by  Irritation  in  the  Stomach 
and  Guts?  As  only  holding  of  ill-tafted  Things  in  the  Mouth,  will 
make  a  fmall  Salivation.  Or  alio,  by  pading  thence  into  the  Blood  ? 
As  from  the  yellow  Colour  it  gives  to  the  Urme,  it  is  evident,  that  it 
doth,  in  fome  part.  Or  by  operating  alfo  upon  the  Nerves  ?  With  the 
help  whereof.  Excretion,  as  well  as  other  Animal  Fundtions,  is  per- 
formed. Whether  this  Excretion,  be  performed  by  a  bare  Precipita- 
tion? Or  alfo,  by  a  Fermentation  precedent  to  it?  In  regard,  thatmoft 
Purees,  Heat  a  little.  And  all  of  them.  Work  bell,  that  is,  caufe  the 
Blood  fo  to  do,  as  do  Fermenting  Liquors,  in  warm  Weather,  or  in  a 
warm  Room.  Whether  it  operates  firit,  upon  fome  one  Humour,  and 
by  that,  upon  the  whole  'Mafs  ?  As  Nitrous  Acids  do,  upon  the  Salt 
conteined  in  the  Bezoar  Stone,  and  thereby  diflblve  the  whole  Sub- 
fiance.  Whether  on  the  Chyle,  or  the  Gall,  or  the  Lympha,  or  chiefly 
on  the  Arterial,  that  is,  t\\Q  Aerial  Blood  >  As  there  it  meets  with  Cer- 
tain finer  and  more  adive  parts  of  the  Air,  fo  necelTary  unto  all  Fermen- 
tation :  With  other  Query's  of  the  like  kind.  The  refoktion  whereof, 
whether  relating  to  this,  or  any  other  Medicine,  we  can  no  further  rtach  ; 
than  we  can  the  E(Iences  of  Bodies,  whereupon  their  Operations  do  depends 

Q^  16.  Bui 

Of  Wifdom  Book    II. 

16.  But  it  fufficeth  to  denominate  a  Man  Wife  or  Prudent,  if  he  is 
fo  far  fure  of  the  Operation  of  this,  or  other  Body  ;  as  to  know  how 
to  ufe  it,  and  herein  to  anfwer  his   End.    If  he  hath  no  further  In- 
tent, than  meerly,  to  Purgtf:  'tis  enough,  though  he  knows  no  more 
of  Rhuharh^  but  that  it  will  Purge.     But  if   he   would   have  fuch  a 
Medicine,  as  will  Bind,   as  well  as  Purge:  He  muft  know  too,  that 
Rhuharh  will  do  both.     And  if  he  would  Purge  more,  and  Bind   lefs  ; 
or  Bind  more,  and  Purge  lefs;  he  mufl  further  know,  how  to  fepa- 
rate  the  Purging  Parts,  from  the  Binding.    That  by  one  ihort  Infufion, 
the  Menjlruum  will  imbibe  little  more  than  the  Purging  Parts.     But  that 
this  Tindture  being  thrown  away,  by  a  Second  and  longer  Infufion, 
another  Tindture  may  be  made,  of  thofe  Parts  vuhich  are  Binding  :  Or^ 
that  the  Rhuharh  it  felf,  after  it  has  been  Infus'd,  will  have  the   fam^ 
effed: :  which  is  enough,  to  anfwer  the  End  he  purpofeth  to  himfelf. 
And  fo  in    the  ufe  of  any  other  Medicine,  or  of  any  other  Body.    Of 
the  Operation  whereof,  though  the  putting  of  all  the  Queries  we  can 
think  of,  as  it  promoteth  the  Search  or  Inveftigation  of  Truth,  is  fo  far 
commendable ;  yet  the  Style  of  Wifdom,  belongeth  to  that  only,  which 
terminateth  xipon  Truth  it  felf. 

17.  The  Second  general  way  of  Operation,  is  that  of  Body  upon 
Senfe :  which  I  have  already  explain'd,  in  the  Chapter  of  Senfe  j  where- 
unto,  to  avoid  Repetition,  the  Reader  is  refer'd. 

18.  The  Third  general  way  of  Operation,  is  that  of  Body  upon 
Phancy.  Either  by  Mediation  of  the  Organs  of  Senfe ;  or  by  imme- 
diate Impreffions  from  the  Images  of  Phancy,    Apt  to  make  thefe  Im- 

,  preflions  two  ways.  Partly,  by  the  Humors,  whereof  they  are  made ; 
fuggefting  anfwerable  Conceits  of  Fire,  or  Water,  Anger,  Mirth,  or 
Melancholy,  according  to  the  Conftitution,  or  the  Difeaie  of  every 
Man.  And  partly,  by  the  Brain,  the  Shop  of  thefe  Images:  by  the 
Bulk,  and  Strudure  whereof,   they  are  differently  qualified. 

19.  By  thefe  means,  Phancy  is  more  or  lefs  Confufed,  or  Cleer; 
W^eak,  or  Strong  J  Plentiful,  or  Jejune.  Cleer,  from  the  Purity  of  the 
Humors.  Strong,  from  the  Dominion  of  fome  one  Humor.  Copious, 
from  the  Bulk  of  the  Brain ;  whereby  there  is  more  room  for  Stow- 
age. Thofe  therefore,  who  have  a  Head  of  a  larger  Cize,  cteteris  pa- 
ribus^ may  be  fuppofed,  to  have  a  greater  Memory,  or  fome  other 
more  plentiful  Phancy. 

10.  The  Cleernefs  of  Phancy,  dependeth  not  only  on  the  Cleannefs 
of  the  Humors ;  but  alfo,  on  the  Regular  Strudure  of  the  Brain,  hs 
being,  hereby  fitted,  for  a  more  Regular  Reception  and  Compofition,  of 
all  Impreffions.  For  as  in  Rickety  Children,  the  Limbs,  and  loraetimes 
the  Vifcera  are  deformed :  So  in  Fools,  the  Brain  it  felf.  And  though 
the  Deformity  is  not  eafily  noted  in  other  People :  Yet  as  every  Exter- 
nal r  Part,  fo  undoubtedly  the  Brain  it  felf,  is  more  or  lefs  regularly 
formed  with  great  Variety.  And  as  the  fmalleft  difference,  almoft  of 
a  Hair's  breadth,  will  alter  the  Vifible  Symmetry  of  the  Face :  So  the 
like  difference,  mufl  in  an  equal  degree,  abate  from  the  exad  Symme- 
try of  the  Brain :  And  fo,  from  the  Perfpicuity  of  the  Phancy.  And 
fo  far  as  this  difference  extends,  every  Man  is  born,  a  Wit  or  a  Wood- 

XI.  Yet  fome  there  are,  who  though  they  were  Blockheads,  when 
Boys ;  have  become  Men  of  great  AbiUties.  As  fome  Children,  Itrangely 



Chap,  VI.  Of  mfdom  5^ 

out-grow  the  Rickets.  And  fome  Ill-favour 'd  Girls,  being  grown  Wo- 
men, have  been  famed  for  their  Beauty.  So  the  Afymmetries  of  the 
Brain,  as  well  as  the  Deformities  of  the  Leggs  or  Face,  may  be  rediify'd 
in  time. 

%%.  The  Fourth  general  way  of  Operation,  is  that  of  Body  upon 
Reafon.  Yet  this  way,  is  only  by  xVIediation  of  Senfc  and  Phancy.  For 
though  we  may  have  tlie  Conception  of  a  Body,  without  the  prefent 
Sight  of  it :  Yet  we  cannot  argue  of  a  Body,  without  a  prefent  Con- 
ception of  it.  So  far  therefore,  as  Body  operates  upon  Senfe  and  Phan- 
cy;  it  may  likewife  operate  by  thefe,  upon  Reafon.  '  Yet  not  thefame 
way;  but  according  to  their  (everal  Natures:  as  in  fpeaking  of  the  Ope- 
rations of  Senfe  and  Phancy,  will  appear. 

x^.  The  next  Cardinal  Caufe,  is  Senfe:  which  hath  alfo  Four  ways  of 
Operation  :  The  Firll,  is  that  of  Senfe  upon  Body.  Not  only  by  Me- 
diation of  Phancy ;  as  when  a  Man  falls  a  Vomiting,  in  feeing  another 
Vomit :  but  in  returning  the  Impreflions  it  receives,  Natural  or  Preterna- 
tural, upon  Body  it  felf.  So  any  llrong  Pain,  caufeth  Groans,  Cold  Sweats, 
Lipothymies;  alters  the  Pulfe,  and  foroetimes  puts  one  into  zFeaver, 
So  likewife  Tickling,  will  caufe  a  Convulfive  Laughter,  and  other  In- 
voluntary Motions.  And  therefore,  fuch  as  are  not  the  eiiecl;  of  the  Will 
or  Phancy,  but  of  meer  Senfe. 

x4.  Senie  alfo  operates  upon  Senfe.  For  the  mofl  part  in  Co-opera- 
tion with  Phancy  :  So,  as  one  Senfe  may  alter,  or  weaken  another,  and 
fometimes  extinguidi  it.  A  Difh  of  Meat,  well  Dreft;  that  is,  if  it  Looks 
■well,  will  Tafte  the  better.  A  good  Voice,  or  a  graceful  Mien,  will 
compound  for  the  Faults  of  a  Face.  Mufick  or  good  Company,  will 
eafe  Pains.  That  is,  Hearing,  or  Seeing,  will  call  off  the  Phancy,  from 
the  Senleof  Touch.  And  in  the  Tooth-ach^  the  Sight  of  a  Barbar,  will 
have  the  fame  Effed.  Phancy  or  Fear,  doth  indeed  co-operate ;  but 
is  not  ftrong  enough  to  produce  that  EffedJ,  without  the  prefent  Sight. 

2-^.  Hither  may  be  refer'd,  the  force  of  Long  ulage,  upon  any  kind 
of  Senfe.  VVhich  may  alter  it  fo  far,  as  to  make  that,  which  was  at 
firft  Intolerable,  to  be  Grateful,  or  at  leafl  Tolerable  ;  as  fome  Tafls  and 
Scents.  And  fome  Men,  have  hereby  brought  th^mlelves,  to  endure  any 
fort  of  Pains. 

7.6.  That  Senfe  operates  upon  Phancy,  appears  in  the  precedent  In- 
mces.  Every  Senfe  operates  to  Conceptions  of  the  fame,  or  a  diffe- 
3nt  Species.  Of  the  fame ;  as  Sight  doth,  to  the  Phancy  of  Colour  ; 
whereof  one  may  have  a  true  Conception,  when  he  Sqgs  it  not.  Or  of 
a  different ;  as  when,  upon  the  Sight  of  a  Man,  we  remember  his  Name, 
wl'iich  we  have  formerly  heard,  but  had  forgot. 

7.J.  But  every  Senfe,  doth  not  operate  upon  Phancy,  with  the  fame 
force.  The  Conceipts  of  Vifibles,  are  Cleerer  and  Stronger,  thanthofe 
of  Audibles.  By  reading  a  Word  or  Sentence,  we  can  remember  it 
better,  than  only  by  hearing  it.  And  they  are  much  flronger,  *than 
thofe  we  have  of  any  other  Senfe.  And  hence  it  is,  that  no  Man  ever 
Dreams,  he  is  in  Pain :  Except  he  is,  and  finds  he  is  indeed,  when  he 
awakes.  But  we  often  Dream,  that  we  Hear  and  See,  what  we  do  not. 
So  too,  one  that  is  Hungry,  or  goes  to  Bed  failing,  may  Dream,  he 
fees  a  fine  Dinner;  but  not  that  he  is  Eating  and  Tailing  the  Sweetnefs 
of  it. 

*  *8i  Senfe 

6o         Of  Wffdom. Book  IJ. 

z8.  Senfe  likewife  co-operates  with  Pliancy,  upon  Reafonit  felf ;  ei- 
ther in  hindering,  or  furthering  the  Ule  of  it.  Eating,  Drinking,  Spor- 
ting, Mufick,  Vetiery,  give  us  Inftances  every  where,  that  Senfe  is 
many  times  of  that  force,  as  to  controul,  or  fufpend  it.  Whereas  the 
Privations  of  Senfe,  as  Stilnefs,  Darknefs,  Eafinefs,  are  all  ufeful  to  it. 
And  fo  is  Senfe  it  felf,  if  kept  within  bounds.  Good  Mufick,  or  Com- 
pany, a  Convenient  Room,  or  a  Pleafant  Walk,  will  fometimes  help  '  to 
compofe  ones  Thoughts.  Becaufe,  Senfe  it  felf,  if  grateful,  and 
bounded,  confifteth,  as  all  Right  Reafon,  in  Uniformity  and  Pro- 

29.  Hereupon,  in  part,  dependeth  the  force  of  Beauty.  For  in  every 
good  Face,  as  each  Part  hath  a  Symmetry  of  its  own ;  fo  there  is  a 
Symmetry  of  double  or  treble  Proportion,  between  one  Part  and  ano- 
ther, and  between  one  and  every  other  Part :  Which  together,  in  the 
feveral  Parts,  make  an  innumerable  Variety  of  proportional  Mca- 
,  50.  Nor  are  Cloathes  without  their  Effed:.    The  Symmetry  whereof 

Phancy  appropriates  to  the  Wearer ;  tacking  them  to  the  Body,  as  if 
they  belonged  to  it.  As  Nature  hath  done  Hair  and  Feathers;  the 
Cloaths  which  Beafts  and  Birds  do  wear^  And  the  Garbs  and  En- 
figns  of  Power  and  Honor,  have  this  Operation ;  that  they  help  Peo- 
ple to  look' upon  Power  and  Honor,  as  Sacred  Things,  whatever  they 
think  of  thofe  that  have  them.  And  they  operate  upon  thefe  too 
as  well  as  the  People :  Minding  them,  that  they  ought  to  diflinguilh 
themfelves  from  the  Vulgar,  as  much  by  the  Habits  of  their  Mind, 
as  thofe  of  their  Body.  From  the  Confideration  whereof,  Prudent 
Men  became  the  Authors  of  fuch  Diftindtions. 

31.  The  Operation  of  Speech  is  alfoflrong.  Not  only  from  the  Rea- 
fon or  Wit  therein  contain'd,  but  by  its  Sound.  For  in  all  good  Speech, 
there  is  a  fort  of  Mufick;  with  refped  to  its  Meafure,  Time,  and 
Tune.  Every  well-meafured  Sentence  is  proportional  Three  ways ;  In 
all  its  Parts,  To  other  Sentences,  And  to  what  it  is  intended  to  exprefs. 
And  all  Words,  have  that  Time  allow'd  to  their  Syllables,  as  isfuitableto 
the  Letters  whereof  they  confill,  and  to  the  Order  wherein  they  fland  * 
in  a  Sentence.  Nor  are  Words  without  their  Tones  or  Notes,  even  in 
Common  Talk  :  which  together,  compofe  that  Tune,  which  is  proper 
to  every  Sentence  :  and  may  be  prick'd  down,  as  well  as  any  Mufical 
Tune.  Only  in  the  Tunes  of  Speech,  the  Notes  have  much  lefs  Va- 
riety, and  have  all  a  lliort  Time.  With  refped  alfo  to  Time  and 
Meafure,  the  Poetick  is  lefs  Various,  and  therefore  lefs  Powerful,  than 
that  of  Oratory.  The  former ,  being  like  that  of  a  fliort  Country 
Song,  repeated  to  the  end  of  the  Poem.  But  that  of  Oratory,  is  va- 
ried all  along,  like  the  Divifions  which  a  skilful  Mufician  runs  upon  a 

32,.  The  Behaviour  or  Gefture,  is  alfo  of  force:  as  in  Oratory,   fo 
in  common  Converfe,    Confifting  of  almofl:  as  many  Motions,  as 
•    there  are  moveable  Parts  of  the  Body.     And  all  made,   with  a  cer- 
tain agreeable  Meafure  between  one  another.     And  at  the  fame  time, 
anfwerable  to  that  of  Speech.     Which,   when  eafie  and  unafieded,  is 
,  becoming. 

33.  The  Third  Cardinal  Caufe,    is   Phancy.    Which  alfo  operates 
Four  Ways.    Firft,  upon  Body  ;  as  in  all  manner  of  Voluntary  Moti- 

Chap.   VI  Of  Wifdom.  ^        6i 


bns.  Unto  which,  Phancy  diredls  us,  whether  we  are  awake  or  afleep. 
It  hath  likewife  fome  Power  over  thefe,  which  are  fnvoluntary.  So 
Love  and  other  Paflions,  will  .fometimes  alter  the  Pulfe.  And  fome 
find  an  Inclination  to  make  water,  when  they  are  in  Fear. 

^4.  It  likewife  aiTifteth  in  the  bufinefs  of  Generation.  Always  in 
order  to  Coition.  And  in  the  Formation  of  the  Fcetus.  And  fome- 
times in  ftigmatizing  it  v\ith  feveral  forts  of  Marks. 

35'.  As  alio  in  the  Produdion  of  Difeafes.  Confumptions  often  come 
with  Grief.  From  Venereal  L.ove,  Madnefs ,  and  Hyfterick  Fits. 
Which  many  times  happen,  not  becaufe  the  Phancy,  is  vitiated  by  the 
Humours ;  but  the  Humours,  by  the  Phancy.  For  neither  a  Dog,  the  moil 
obfcene,  nor  a  Horfe,  the  moil  Luftful  of  Quadrupeds,  having  none  of 
thofe  Phancies,  which  Men  and  Women  have,  is  ever  fubjedt  to 
thefe  Difeafes.  Some  Children  have  become  Fools,  or  Mad,  with  a 
great  Fright.  There  is  fcarce  any  fort  of  violent  PafiTion,  but  there 
arc  Inftances,  therein  it  hath  been  the  Occafion  of  fudden  Death. 
Sometimes  the. Effect  of  Joy  it  felf.  Probably,  not  of  that  alone, 
but  when  befet  with  Fear,  left  the  Joy  (hould  arife  upon  a  falfe 

36.  Nor  is  Phancy  unconcern'd  in  the  Cure  of  them.  A  Fright 
alone,  hath  fometimes  put  by  an  Ague-fit.  And  mitigated  a  Fit  of 
the  Gout.  The  Diforders  which  arife  from  Melancholiy,  by  Chear- 
fulnefs  are  amended,  Mofl  Medicines  operate,  and  Difeafes  end,  the 
better,  when  the  Patient  is  Calm,  and  of  a  good  Courage.  For 
moft  of  the  Internal  Parts,  the  Heart,  Lungs,  Stomach,  Guts,  and 
Urinary  Bladder  ;  Arteries,  Veins,  and  the  Canales  of  all  the  Vifcera ; 
one  half  of  the  Spleen,  and  of  the  Reins,  being  in  fome  fort  Mufcu- 
lar ,  as  in  the  Of  Compomded  Bodies  Bodies,  hath  been  fliewed :  It 
Ihould  not  feem  llrange,  that  Phancy,  which  hath  fo  great  a  power 
over  the  Mufcules  of  the  External  Parts;  may  fo  far  alfo  govern  the 
Internals,  as  thefe  are  Mufcular;  and  coniequently  the  Humours,  which 
are  under  their  Command. 

37.  Phancy  alfo  operates  upon  Senfe.  Not  only  in  the  forementio- 
ned  Cafes,  wherein  it  mediates  between  Senfe  and  Senfe  :  but  of  it  felf 
alone.  Sometimes  to  the  Diminution  of  Senfe.  So  a  ftrong  Conceit 
of  Eale  or  Pleafure  to  come,  will"  diminifh  Pain.  And  fometimes  to 
the  Encreale  of  Senfe,  as  of  Pain  :  For  a  ftrong  Conceit  of  Pain,  is 
Pain.  So  that  when  it  comes,  it  is  doubled  ;  both  phancied  and  felt. 
From  whence  it  is,  that  Brutes  and  brutilli  Men,  are  commonly  more  able 
to  bear  Pain,  than  others. 

38.  In  fome  Cafes,  Phancy  may  operate  to  the  Creation  of  Senfe. 
It  may  be  as  ftrong  in  Men,  awake,  as  in  a  Dream.  When  through 
Fear,  or  Surprize,  they  may  think  they  fee,  what  they  fee  not. 
Whereunto,  we  are  to  refer,  the  far  greater  Part  of  fuppofed  Appa- 

.  ^9.  But  it  fhews  the  wonderful  Goodnefs  of  the  Creator,  in  fo  con- 
triving the  Communication  of  Senfe  and  Phancy ;  that  the  Conceits  of 
Pain  and  Pleafure,  are  nothing  near  fo  ftrong,  as  thofe  of  Hearing  and 
Sight.  Which  if  they  were,  we  fliould  either  have  been  vexed  uith  E- 
verlafting  Defires,  or  tormented  with  intolerable  Fears ;  and  the  whole 
World  would  foon  have  run  mad. 

R  40,  Phan- 

62^  OfWijdom.  Book  a 

,1  ■  ...  —  -  ..  .  .  ■■  ■   . 

40.  Pliancy  likewife  operates  upon  Phancy.  Oftentimes  to  its  Dimi- 
nution. As  when  Children  are  tempted  to  take  Phyfick,  by  the  pro- 
mife  of  a  Bawble :  the  Conceit  of  a  fine  Sight,  extinguifliing  that  of 
an  Odious  Tafle. 

41.  Hereupon  is  grounded  the  befl  Cure  of  any  Paflion.  For  few  Peo- 
ple having  Reafon  enough  to  maftcr  their  Conceits  :  the  ready  way,  is  to 
fet  one  Conceit,  to  mailer  another.  So  if  a  Man  would  marry  his 
Children  xo  his  Mind,  let  him  fliew  them  all  the  Town  :  thereby  keep- 
ing their  Conceits  at  an.  equal  Poize,  till  his  own  Advice  turns  the 
Scale.  And  it  is  the  principal  Means,  whereby  prudent  Men  govern 
the  Phancies  of  People  in  moll  other  Cafes. 

4z.  And  Phancy  will  many  times  beget  and  enlarge  Phancy.  By  Con- 
nexion ;  if  one  would  call  to  mind  a  forgotten  Name,  in  running  over 
the  Alphabet,  we  are  fure  to  meet  with  the  firft  Letter,  which  will  bring 
in  the  reft.  By  Similitude,  one  Conceit  will  introduce  many  more  ,•  and 
each  of  thefe,  the  like :  as  st  Tree,  that  divides  it  felf  into  innumerable 
Branches :  The  Conceits  too  of  Senfible  Things,  beget  anfwerable  Con- 
ceits of  Infenfibles :  atid  fo,  vice  verfi.  The  matching  whereof,  is  the 
Touch-ftone  of  all  true  Wit, 

43.  The  ftrengthof  Phancy,  likewife  operates  to  its  Agility.  That  is. 
Confidence,  operates  to  Wit.  Therefore  fome  bold  Men,  tho'  they  begin 
with  Infinite  Ignorance  and  Error ;  yet  by  fpurring  on,  refine  them- 

44.  Hence  alfo,  even  an  underftanding  Man,  may  be  modeft  to  a  finlt. 
He  may  have  Wit  enough,  to  obferve,  1  hat  lefler  Errors,  may  be  forgot 
in  time,  or  amended  by  Ufe  :  Vet  cannot  prevail  with  hifnfelf,  to  ven- 
ture on. 

45.  The  Phancy  likewife  of  one  Perfon,  operates  on  that  of  another. 
So  l.ove  and  other  Palfions,  beget  their  kind  :  without  the  Knowledge 
of  which,  Senfe  alone  will  not  do  it.  A  Lover,  may  be  extreamly  plea- 
fed,  with  the  Leave  of  his  Miftrefs,  to  put  off  her  Bodice,  or  put  on  her 
Shoes  :  But  a  Shoemaker,  or  a  Tailor,  is  not  at  all  concerned  at  it ;  be- 
caufe  he  knows,  there  is  nothing  of  Favour  in  the  Cafe. 

46.  This  being  confidered,  and  withal,  the  Subtilty  of  Body,  and 
the  Nicety  of  Motion,  beyond  all  Thought  :  and  that  Phancy  and 
Body,  do  Co-operate  and  Sympathize,  as  well  as  Senfe  and  Body; 
as  hath  been  fhewed:  It  feems  not  impoflible,  that  the  Phancy  of 
one  Perfon,  though  not  difcovered,  may  by  means  of  fome  Subtile 
Intervening  Fluid,  bind  the  Phancy  of  another.  Provided,  that  the 
Phancy  of  the  Agent  be  ftrong,  and  the  Reafon  of  the  Patient  weak, 
and  the  diftance  between  them  not  over-great.  And  hereupon  depen- 
deth  tU  Natural  Magick,  fo  far  as  we  can  fuppofe  it  to  have  any 

47.  Nor  is  Phancy,  without  its  Operation  upon  Reafon  :  and  that 
fundry  ways,  both  to  the  Improvement,  and  the  Diminution  of  it.  Phan- 
cy may  improve  Reafon,  by  its  perceptive  Adts :  or,  as  it  furnifheth 
us  with  plenty  of  Materials,  that  is,  of  Conceits,  for  Reafon  to  work 
upon.  \et  plenty  of  Phancy,  doth  not  always  operate  to  plenty  of 
Reafon  :  but  if  falfe,  or  confufed,  unto  Errour.  And  therefore  tho' 
a  big  Head  or  Brain,  cceteris  paribus,  may  be  a  Mark  of  a  well-fur- 
nifht  Phancy :  Yet  is  no  certain  Argument,  of  an  exad  Judgment : 
which  depends  more  upon  the  Regular  Structure,  than  Bulk  of  the  Brain. 


Chap.  VI.  Of  Wifdom,  65 

.      - — — — . — . — : — '        ; — ■ 

48.-  And  Phancy  may  operate  upon  Reafon,  by  its  A&.5  of  Volition. 
As  Reafon  is,  in  a  fort,  held  in  cuftody  by  thofe  Things,  which  are 
more  pleafing  to  the  Phancy.  Reafon  and  Phancy  feldom  failing  to 
bear  one  another  Company,  as  Husband  and  Wife. 

49.  Whence,  as  every  Man  hath  his  Faculty  or  Talent ;  Co  alfo  his 
Phancy,  by  which  he  governs  hiaifelf  more  or  lefs  ;  and  by  which  he 

is  therefore  to  be  governed,  or  made  ufe  of.    That  is,  as  his  Faculty  is  » 

the  Edge,  that  makes  the  Work  :  fo  his  Phancy  is  the  Handle,  by  which 
he  is  to  be  held.  ; 

50.  Among  other  Phancies,  Four  efpecially,  are  many  times  fuperior 
unto  Reafon.    Wit,  Opinion,  Love,  and  Pride.  •,..•; 

^i.  As  Pronunciation  and  Figures  are  the  Mufick  of  Speech  :fo 
Tropes,  and  other  Modes  of  Wit ,  are  the  Mufick  of  Phancy. 
Wherein  the  Conceptions  of  Things,  are  placed,  in  their  feveralDe^ 
grees  of  Similitude,  as  in  feveral  proportions,  one  to  another:  In 
which  harmonious  Chimes,  the  Voice  of  Reafon  is  often  drowned, 

5  i.  Hence  it  is,  that  few  Men  of  extraordinary  Judgment,  affed  In- 
ventive Poetry.  Hethat  pleafeS  himfelf  over-miich,  with  Surface  and 
Colour ;  his  own  Wit,  or  anothcrs  :  \\\\\  feldom  look,  w^iin^  n^uch  lefs 
to  the  Centre  of  Things.  ,'    -  r  ' 

5V  On  the  other  hand  too,  it  may  often  be  prefumed.  That  one 
who  can  artificially  manage  the  Similitudes  of  Truth,  is  alfo  Mafter 
of  Truth  it  feU.  Whether  therefore.  Wit  be  ufed  in  the  behalf  of 
Reafon,  or  againfl:  it ;  it  ufually  proves,  in  all  Diifcourfe,  the  Artillery 
of  a  good  Argument ;  and  in  all  Bufmefs,  the  Equipage  of  a  good 

54.  Opinion,  whether  of  a  Man's  felf,  or  another,  of  Perfons  or 
Things ;  may  have  more  Force,  than  Wit.  Becaufe  it  always  pretends 
to  Reafon,  which  Wit  fometimes  doth  not.  In  fo  much,  that  fome, 
will  think  well  of  themfelves,  in  that ,  wherein  they  are  univerfally 
condemned.  And  the  felf-fame  Words  and  Adlions ,  may  be  ap- 
plauded or  cehfured ,  as  the  Perfons  are  elleemed,  to  whom  they 

5  J.  Many  things  beget  Opinion.  So  doth  Novelty.  Wit  it  felf, 
if  Hale,  is  lefs  taking.  A  State-Device  will  often  pafs  for  Novelty's 
fake,  tho'  it  be  underftood.  -So  doth  want  of  Experience:  as  alfo  ear- 
ly or  long  Cullom.  Therefore,  of  all  Opinions,  fome  of  thofc,  we  lay 
up  in  our  Younger  Years,  are  m6fl  prevailing.  As  being  firfl:  fown, 
having  time  to  take  root,  and  Room  to  fpread  themfelves.  So  as  not 
only  to  abide  the  Encounters  of  Reafon;  but  by  thefe,  to  grow 
the  ftronger :  as  fome  Knots  hold  the  fafter,  the  harder  they  arc 
pulled.    A  point  of  great  Confideration,  in  the  Education  of  Children. 

56.  Cuftom  is  of  that  force,  as  to  make  us  to  think  well  of  any 
thing.  What  can  be  more  indecent  now ,  than  for  any  to  wear 
Boots,  but  Troopers  and  Travellers?  Yet  not  many  Years  fince,  it  was 
ail  the  Fadiion.  What  is  more  uncouth  to  us,  or  more  lamiUar  to  fome 
other  Nations,  than  writing  towards  the  Left-hand?  Theabfurd  pro- 
nouncing of  Greek  Profe,  is  fo  common,  that  no  body  takes  notice  of 
it.  The  Accents  given  to  Syllables,  fhould  have  nothing  to  do  with 
their  Meafure,  as  fliort  or  long;  but  to  denote  their  Tune,  as  Grave  or 
Acute.  And  if  accented  with  a  Circumflex,  as  both  Grave  and  A- 
cute ;   like  the  Graces  of  foriie    Mufical  Notes.    And  was,  no  doubt^ 

^  the 

^4  OfWifdom.  Book   II. 

the  Tinging  Tone,  which  the  Native  Greeks,  gave  in  their  Common 
Talk,  to  all  fuch  Syllables.  And  is  the  Reafon,  why  a -Circumflex,  muft 
needs  make  a  long  Syllable ;  a  double  Note,  requiring  a  double  Xime.' 
Which  not  being  confidered,  by  the  firft  Teachers  of  Greek  amongft 
us ;  occafioned  their  introducing  the  way  of  reading  Prole  now  in 
ufe.  Wherein,  we  often  make  thofe  -Syllables,  fliort,  which  by  the 
coming  of  two  Confonants  together,  are  naturally,  long.  Whereas, 
the  Poetick,  being  the  true  Meafure,  it  ought  to  be  obferv'd  in  Profe, 
as  well  as  in  Verfe. 

57.  What  but  Cuftom,  could  make  Nonfenfe  it  felf  to  look  fine  ? 
as  in  the  devout  Addrefs,  which  our  Poets  now  make  to  their  Mule  .■> 
It  was  indeed  ufual  for  the  befl  of  Heathen  Poets  to  do  it.  And  in 
Them,  it  was  Senfe ;  who  believed,  or  pretended  to  believe,  the  Being 
of  fuch  a  Deity.  But  what  fliould  make  any  Man  now,  to  addrefs  him- 
felf  to  that,  wiiich  he  knows,  and  fays,  is  a  Nonentity  ?  Except  his 
Pliancy,  be  that  Divine  Thing,  which  he  worlliips. 

58.  TheDefcentof  Eftates,  in  fome  few  Places  of  this  Kingdom,  to 
the  younger  Sons  J  fo- contrary  to  the  Ufage  of  the  red,  and  of  all 
the  World ;  hath  nothing  elfe  to  plead,  but  ancient  Cuflom,  There- 
fore underftanding  Men,  confider.  That  much  of  the  Common  Law, 
which  here  obtains,  hath  no  other  Sandion  :  That  we  cannot  forefee, 
all  the  Confequences  of  an  Alteration.  And  the  People  feem  to  be  con- 
tented with  the  Cuftom,  as  it  is. 

59.  The  force  of  Love,  that  is,  of  the  Pa/Iion,  or  Fantaftick  Love^ 
is  alfo  great :  there  being  many  things,  which  meet  together  to  produce 
it.  Of  Senfibles,  befides  the  Beauty  of  .  the  Face  and  Shape,  the 
Voice,  Air,  Mien,  and  Drefs,  with  borrow'd  Colours  and  Scents.  Of 
Infenfibles,  Humour,  Wit,  Difcretion.  And  what  is  more  than  all. 
Youth,  and  Vigour.  Thofe  may  glow  and  fparkle,  but  'tis  this,  which 
lets  all  on  fire. 

60.  The  lead  of  thefe  Caufes ,  in  the  vigorous  Age,  will  beget 
Love.  One  Curie,  fometimes,  like  a  Screw,  will  work  its  way  into 
Heart  of  Oak.  A  Lock  of  Hair,  will  draw  more  than  a  Cable-Rope. 
And  a  Love-Hood,  will  catch  Phancies,  a  hundred  times  fader  than  a 
Cobweb  does  Flies.  A  Word,  a  Look,  a  Tread,  will  fometimes  do  it ; 
as  they  are  Appendents  to  acternal  Synfimetry,  or  Indications  of  the 
Beauty  of  the  Mind.  How  much  more,  when  all  of  them  meet,  and 
co-operate  ?  And  there  is  an  Artificial  Mixture  of  them  together  : 
When  even  a  little  ill  humour,  skilfully  manag'd,  like  a  Difcord  in 
Mufick,  will  grace  all  the  red.  Till  Phancy  forms  at  lad,  fo  gay  an 
Image,  that  Reafon  it  felf  is  often  forced  to  bow  down  to  it.  All 
things  being  fo  infallibly  laid,  to  fulHl  the  Defgn  of  Propagation  ; 
That  no  Man  of  Low  tdate,  or  High,  of  Leifure  or  Bufinefs,  Merry 
or  Melancholly,  Foolifli  or  Wife  •  but  one  time  or  other,  hath  had  a 
Sweet,  or  an  Aching  Tooth.  Some,  who  have  begun  in  jed,  forget- 
ting their  own  Altitude,  have  ended  in  earned,  and  courted  them- 
felves  into  Love.  And  Ihould  the  Men  forget,  the  Women  would  be- 
gin firft. 

61.  But  notwithdanding  the  force  of  this  Phancy ;  that  of  Pride, 
is  above  it.  Both  are  grounded  upon  falfe  Opinion.  1  he  former,  on 
the  Opinion  Men  have  of  Another  :  This,  on  the  Opinion  they  have 
Themlelves.     And  v^hereas  the  former,  is  encreafed  by  Converfation, 



Chap.  Vi.  Of  Wifdom,  65 

which  cannot  always  be  had :  this,  wherein  a  Man  is  his  own  Dar- 
ling, lies  down  and  rifes  up  with  him,  till  it  grows  into  an  Invinfible 
Habit.  And  in  breeding  Envy  and  Malice,  begets,  if  not  a  greater 
Pain,  yet  much  more  lafting,  than  any  Venereal  Pleafure,  can  be,  or 
be  pliancy 'd  :  And  therefore,  more  vehement  Projects  and  Attempts,  tov 
be  rid  of  it.  So  that  Men,  having  once  got,  a  Monflrous  Conceit  of 
themfelves,  and  others,  and  of  wiiat  they  call  Honor :  Will  dellroy 
any  thing,  to  preferve  that.  Not  only  fet  the  World  oh  fire,  but  Sa- 
crifice their  mofl  adored  Mifl redes  upon  the  Pile. 

6x.  The  Fourth  Cardinal  Caufe,  is  Reafon.  Which,  in  all  refpsds, 
is  Superior  to  the  three  former.  For  fird,  every  Man's  Reafon,  hath  an 
abfolute  Command,  diredly  or  indiredly,  of  all  the  Motions  of  his 
own  Body.  In  the  dired:  ufe  of  Phancy,  of  all  the  voluntary  ,•  andin- 
diredly,  of  all  the  reft.  That  is,  though  he  cannot  hinder  the  Moti- 
on of  his  Heart,  or  Lungs,  or  Gutts,  bythe  ufe  of  Phancy :  Yet  he 
knows  the  means,  to  do  it  otherwife.  So  that  his  not  doing  it,  by 
the  dired  Operation  of  Phancy;  fliews,  fo  far^  the  Inability  of  Plian- 
cy, but  not  of  Reafon. 

63.  And  Reafon  hath  the  fame  Command  over  Motion  in  other  Bo- 
dies ;  as  it  ufeth  one  Body  or  Motion  to  govern  another.  As  when  a 
Man,  by  the  help  of  a  Pully,  drav\s  up  himfelf.  Or  as  by  the  help  of 
a  Statera^  a  lefs  W^eight,  is  made  to  draw  up  a  greater.  For  Weight 
operates  no  farther  of  itfelf,  than  it  is  Superior  to  the  refifting  Weight. 
But  Reafon  applying  Celerity  to  Weight ;  makes  a  lefs  Weight  which 
moveth  Swiftly,  to  be  of  more  force  than  a  greater,  which  moveth 
Slov\ly.  And  Reafon  hath  the  fame  Power,  of  Nulling,  or  Govern- 
ing, all  other  Operations  of  Bodies. 

64.  And  it  iiath  the  fame  Superiority  over  Senfe.  Sometimes  in 
Sufpending  the  Ad:s  of  Senfe.  So,  deep  Thoughts,  will  often  fufpcnd 
the  Senfes  fo  tar,  that  many  things  may  be  done  about  a  Man,  and 
Noyfcs  made;  Clocks  may  ftrike,  and  Bells  may  Ring,  while  he  takes 
no  notice  at  all  of  them. 

65.  But  chieSy,  in  governing  the  Effedts  of  Senfe  :  which  is  the  Le- 
gal Power  of  Realon.  For  Reafon  was  not  made,  to  deftroy  Senfe  j 
but  by  its  own  Operations,  to  Countermand  and  Govern  thofe  of  Senfe. 
Senfe  of  Pain,  if  permitted  to  operate,  cauieth  Groans,  with  many  In- 
voluntary Motions,  and  all  Endeavours  to  avoid  it.  All  which,  are 
fometimes,  countermanded  by  the  force  of  meer  Phancy.  But  more  , 
potently,  in  conjundion  with  that  of  Reafon:  As  in  thofe,  who  have 
voluntarily  endured  all  manner  of  Torments,  without  any  Motions 
thence  arifing,  or  fo  much  as  a  Groan.     How  much  more,  is  it  in  the 

Power  of  Reafon,  to  command  the  Operations  of  all  the  other  Senfes, 
which  are  much  weaker  ?  Either  to  Subdue  them ;  or  to  make  ufe  of 
tliem,  in  ferving  its  own  turn* 

66.  Nor  is  Reafon  lefs  Superior  to  the  Phancy.  'Tis  true,  there  hath 
.  always  been  a  Conteft  between  them :  the  one  for  the  Prerogative  of 
the  Sovereign ;  the  other,  for  the  Liberties  and  Privileges  of  the  Sub- 
jed:.  But  this  fhews,  that  Reafon  is  above  Phancy.  For  otherwife,  the 
Reaks  which  Phancy  plays  now  and  then ;  would  be  continually  aded, 
till  the  Sovereignty  fell  at  laft  on  Phancy 's  fide. 

kd-].  The  Perceptive  Ads  of  Phancy,    have  a  Sovereign  Power  over  its 
own  Ads  of  Volition,  that  is,  the  Pailions :   but  not  over  Reafon.  For 
S  Phancy 


66  Of  Wifdom.  Book  II. 

Phancy  of  it  felf,  is  Mutable ;  as  having  no  neceflary  connecftion  with 
Truth,  but  only  with  the  Appearance  of  it.  But  Reafon,  as  it  acqui- 
efces  in  Truth  alone ;  it  can  never  difown  the  Truth,  it  once  acknowlege- 
eth.  Nor  can  Phancy,  or  any  thing  elfe,  make  Immutable  Truth  and 
Goodnefs,  not  to  be  defirable  to  a  Reafonable  Mind. 

68.  And  Reafon  is  Superior  to  Phancy,  fo  far  as  to  Govern,  that  is, 
to  ufe  it.  Reafon  doth  not  deftroy,  or  fupercede  Phancy ;  but  makes 
ufe  of  it,  for  its  own  Purpofe.  But  Phancy  cannot  make  ufe  of  Reafon. 
For  then,  it  were  Reafon,  and  not  Phancy. 

69.  Reafon  makes  ufe  of  Wit  and  Phancy,  fometimes,  only  for  Di- 
verfion.  Or  for  the  difguifing  of  Falfliood.  Or  for  the  Illuftration  of 
Truth :  Wherein  Reafon  draws  the  Out-lines,  and  Phancy  lays  on  the 
Colours.  And  the  Mind  is  conducted  by  fenfible  Things,  to  the  con- 
ceiving of  thole  which  are  Infenfible.  As  alfo  in  the  Invention  of 
Truth.  For  there  is  no  neceffity,  as  fome  have  thought,  that  Phancy 
fliould  ramble  or  run  at  random :  but  ought  to  be  direSed  by  Reafon,  in 
all  its  Motions.  A  Phyfician,  in  order  to  a  Cure,  confiders  firft,  the 
Nature,  Caufes,  and  Symptoms  of  the  Difeafe,  as  the  prime  Indicants 
of  what  he  is  to  do.  Next,  the  Patient,  Seafon,  and  other  Coindi- 
cants :  and  then  the  means.  Wherein  Phancy  a6ts  all  along,  in  Citing 
the  Species  of  Things  before  Reafon.  But  Reafon  commiflions  Phancy 
to  ad^,  and  where  to  begin  and  end,  and  then  makes  a  Judgment  on  the 
whole.  And  Reafon,  by  the  Similitudes  of  Truth,  which  Phancy  fug- 
gefls,  is  many  times  conduced  unto  Truth.  It  being  a  Theoreme  of  Right 
Reafon,  That  however  there  are  many  Similitudes  without  I'ruth  ;  yet 
there  can  be  no  Truth,  without  Similitude.  So  that  where  ever  the  one 
appears,  it  is  not  unreafonable  to  enquire,  whether  they  are  not  together  t 

70.  Reafon  likewife,  uferh  Phancy,  in  the  Profecution  of  that  which 
is  Good.  Which  requireth  two  things;  wz.  a  Comprehenfion  of  what 
is  to  be  done,  and  a  Regulation  of  the  Phancy  in  the  doing  of  it.  Part- 
ly, by  Subduing  of  thofe  Conceits  of  Things,  which  oppofe.  Which  are 
chiefly,  thofe  of  Senfe  and  Opinion :  Without  the  Maflery  whereof, 
no  Man  can  be  very  Wife.  And  partly,  in  direding  unto  thofe  Con- 
ceits which  may  adifl; :  both  in  the  Choice  of  the  End,  and  in  the  Ufe 
of  the  Means.  So  that  the  Office  of  Phancy,  under  the  Command  of 
Reafon,  is  to  extenuate  the  Difficulties,  to  facilitate  the  Means,  and  to 
prefentiate  the  End,  fo  as  to  make  it  appear,  in  its  true  Luftre  and 

7 J.  Reafon  likewife  operates  upon  Reafon,  So  doth  the  Reafon  of 
one  Man,  on  that  of  another,-  as  in  all  good  and  true  Oratory.  Where- 
in, though  Wit  and  other  Ornaments,  may  glaze  and  brandifli  the 
Weapon  :  Yet  is  it  found  Reafon,  and  the  Experience  of  things,  that 
carries  the  ftroak  home.  The  flrongeft  Wit,  being  that  which  hath 
evident  truth  for  its  Bafis.  Therefore  allcr  Poetry,  now  it  is  bereaft  of 
Infpiration  ,•  for  the  moft  part,  is  but  Lightning  without  Thunder.  Where 
the  Flight  of  Phancy,  is  managed  with  good  Judgment ;  the  feldomer  . 
it  is  feen,  it  is  the  more  valuable.  Whereof,  among  a  itw  others,  Sir  R. 
Blackmore,  a  Brother  of  my  own  Faculty,  hath  given  more  than  one  Ex- 

7z.  The  Operation  of  one  Man's  Reafon  on  another's,  is  alfo  the  Root 
of  Good  Government.  For  though  few  Men  underfland  the  particu- 
lar Reafons  of  Things  :    Yet  all  Men  are  Mailers   of  this  General 

Reafon : 


VI,  OfWifdom.  6  J 

Reafon ;  That  bne  Man  ought  to  be  fo  govern'd  by  another,  as  they  are 
Creatures  of  the  fame  Rank  and  Order  in  the  Univerfe  :  That  is, 
not  by  meer  Will  and  Force,  as  a  Man  governs  a  Beaft,  but  by  Law. 
Which  Law,  however  it  may  fometimes  fail  in  its  End  ;  or  not  al- 
ways be  undcrftood  :  Yet  it  always  carries  this  apparent  Reafon  in 
it,  That  it  was  not  made  without  Common  Confent  j  which  every  bo- 
dy knows  how  to  give, 

7:5,  The  Ads  of  Reafon  alfo  operate  one  upon  another,  Dubitation, 
operates  to  Difquifition  ;  Difquifition  ,  ^  to  Invention  ;  Invention  to 
Volition ;  and  Volition  to  Refolution ;  that  is,  Volition  of  the  Endj 
to  Volition  of  the  Means.  In  all  which.  Truth  is  the  Spring  of  O- 
peration.  For  Dubitation  it  felf,  comes  from  this  certain  Truth,  That 
we  have  caufe  to  Doubt.  And  Truth,  fo  far  operates  upon  Voliti- 
on, as  Goodnefs  is  the  true  Objed  of  the  Intellectual  Will, 

74.  As  one  Conceit  in  the  Phancy,  fo  one  Truth  in  the  Underftand- 
ing,  begets  another.  There  is  both  a  Proximate,  and  a  Remote  Conne- 
(ilion  of  Trutlis.  The  Proximate  may  be  faid ,  for  Diflindion  fake^ 
to  be  Adequate,  or  Proportionate.  Both  which  operate,  -as  well  to  the 
Invention,  as  the  Improvement  of  any  Art  or  Science.  The  applying 
of  a  Vibrating  Weight  to  a  Clock,  for  the  meafuring  of  Time,  de- 
pended on  an  Adequate  Truth,  The  Equality  of  the  Motion  being 
the  fame,  whether  made  alone,  or  given  to  a  Movement.  But  the  apply- 
ing of  a  Spring  to  a  Watch,  for  the  fame  End ;  upon  a  Proportionate. 
For  as  Weight  is,  to  the  Reciprocations  of  a  Pendulum;  fo  is  Elaftici- 
ty,  to  thofe  of  a  Spring, 

75.  So  the  Ufe  of  Spedacles,  by  an  Adequate  Connedion  of  Truths, 
gave  Men  occafion  to  think  of  Microfcopes  and  Tellefcopes.  A  pair  of 
Noble  Inventions  5  Yet  butthe  Artof  Spedtacle-makingimprov'd.  But 
the  Invention  of  Burning- glades ,  depended  on  a  Proportionate.  For 
that  Figure,  which  contrads  the  Species  of  any  Body ,  that  is,  the 
Rays,  by  which  it  is  feen :  will  in  the  fame  Proportion,  contrad:  the 
Heat,  wherewith  the  Rays  are  accompany'd.  And  only  looking  on  the 
Moon,  might  occafion,  as  it  were  by  a  Proportion  Converfe,  the 
Thought  ot  a  burning  Concave.  The  Moon  being  a  Convex,  by  which 
the  Sun-beams  are  fcattered,  and  the  Nodurnal  Air,  thereby  rendred  the 
Inore  cool, 

76.  One  Truth,  hath  a  Proximate  Connedion,  fometimes,  with  one 
other  Truth,  and  no  more.  But  for  the  moft  part,  with  divers  other 
Truths,  without  which  it  is  not  evident.  So  the  Demonftration 
of  moll:  Geometrick  Proportions,  dependeth  on  that  of  divers  others. 

77.  And  fo  it  is  in  Arts,  and  Bufmefs,  as  well  as  Science  ;  as  in  Mer- 
chantry.  The  Goods,  Ship,  Mailer,  Convoy,  Road,  Timc^,  Seafon, 
Winds,  Port,  Fadory  and  Return ;  and  under  each,  many  Circumftan- 
ces,  are  to  bediftindlyconfidered  :  and  the  Knowledge  of  them,  fofar 
as  is  podible,  to  be  certain  ;  a  Millake  in  any  one,  affeding  all  the  reft, 
though  not  alike.  For  the  Connedion  between  the  End  and  any  of  thefe 
means,  is  adequate.  But  between  the  End  and  the  feveral  Means  com- 
pared together,  it  is  proportionate.  Whereby  the  Quantity  of  Opera- 
tion, which  any  one  of  them  may  have,  more  than  another,  upon  the 
whole  Bufinels,  is  computed, 

78.  So  likewife,  in  the  great  Bufinefs  of  War.     The  whole   Art  of  a 
Common  Soldier,  lies  in  the  Knowledge  of  all  his  Motions.    That  is, 


68  Of  Wijdom.  Book  II 

In  the  exad:  Command  of  his  Body,  and  of  his  Arms.  That  of  an 
Officer;  In  the  Knowledge  of  thefe  Motions ;  of  the  beft  way  of  teach- 
ing them ;  and  of  chufing  fuch  Men,  as  are  fitteft  to  perform  them, 
viz.  Such  as  are  of  Body,  Strong  and  Agile  ;  and  of  Mind,  Teachable 
and  Stout.  But  that  of  a  General,  lies  far  wider.  He  knows,  what 
makes  the  beft  Common  Soldier,  or  any  beft  Officer.  He  skills  all 
his  Men,  and  all  the  Military  Preparations  they  are  to  ufe.  And  both 
the  Nature,  and  the  Confines,  of  the  Ground,  whereon  they  are  on- 
ly to  Move,  or  to  Adt :  He  confiders  his  Enemy,  as  well  as  himfelf, 
in  all  thefe  refpedts.  And  having  number'd  the  Excefles  and  Defers 
on  both  Sides,  and  meafured  their  mutual  Force  and  Operations :  doth 
thereupon  form  the  AtStion,  and  his  Judgment  of  the  Succefs. 

79.  This  Connexion  of  Parts,  in  every  true  Scheme  of  Art  or  Bu- 
finefs;  is  that  which  makes  Secrefie,  many  times,  fo  neced'ary  a  Part 
of  it ;  both  the  Habit,  and  the  Skill  of  Secrefie.  For  as  one  that  has 
well  view'd  any  Creature,  being  fliewed  only  the  Ear,  or  Tail,  pre- 
fently  knows,  to  what  Creature  it  belongs :  So  an  Enemy,  that  ftudies 
and  comprehends  the  Connection  of  Things  ;  by  feeing  only  fome 
one  Part  of  any  Defign,  will  be  able  hereby,  to  difcover  the 

3o.  There  is  alfo  a  Remote  Connection  of  Truths,  as  there  is  of 
Phantaftick  Conceits  ;  and  of  much  greater  Ufe.  What  is  more  ready, 
than  that,  between  the  Conceits  of  Milk,  Udder,  Boil'd,  Sauce,  Muftard, 
And  what  more  vain  ?  Nor  is  there.any  better  Connexion  between  Truth 
and  the  Opinions  of  fome  Men  ;  than  there  is  between  Milk  and 
V, Muftard.  Whereas  any  the  moft  Remote  Connexion  of  Truths,  is  al- 
ways ufeful,  as  one  Truth  operates  to  the  Invention  of  another  at  the 
greateft  diftance. 

81.  The  Demonftration  of  that  fo  ufeful  Propopofition,  the  41^?  of 
the  \fi  of  Euclid^  by  which  we  know  the  Square  of  every  Recti- 
linear Triangle,  and  thereby  the  Quantity  of  any  Piece  of  Ground  ; 
hath  an  immediate  Dependance,  only  on  the  34//;  and  T^-jth  Pro- 
portions. But  depends  remotely ,  on  many  more  foregoing  Theo- 
remes.  ^ 

8x.  What  can  be  more  remote  from  the  prefent  way  of  Writing,  than 
the  exprelfing  of  Sentences,  by  the  Figures  of  Birds  and  other  Parts 
of  the  Creation  ?  Yet  was  the  firft  Step  towards  Letters.  For  the 
making  of  thofe  Figures'being  tedious,  and  requiring  much  Room  :  put 
Men  firft  upon  contracting  them;  as  by  the  moft  ancient  Egyptian 
Monuments,  it  appears  they  did.  Next,  inftead  of  Sententious  Marks, 
to  think  of  Verbal ;  fuch  as  the  Chinefes  ftill  retain.  And  obferving 
by' degree?,  that  all  Words  confift  of  a  certain  Number  of  Simple 
Sounds  ;  they  perceived  at  length,  there  was  no  need  of  more  Marks, 
than  would  ferye  to  exprefs  thefe  Sounds :  and  fo  brought  them,  from 
many  Thoufands  of  Yerbal  Marks,  to  Two,  or  Four  and  twenty  Literal 
•  ones  now  in  ufe. 

83.  Arithmetick,  which  at  firft  kept  within  its  own  Sphere  ;  by  a  fur- 
ther Step,  came  at  length,  to  be  applied  to  the  Improvement  of  Geome- 
try. And  Geometry,  which  at  firft  confifted  only  of  Rules  for  the 
Meafuring  of  Lands :  now,  befides  the  Application  of  it  unto  Archite- 
cture, and  other  Ufcs  ;  by  the  DoCtrine  Of  Spherical  Iriargles.,  is  ap- 
plied to  the  meafuring  of  the  Heavens. 


Chap.   VL  Of  tVifdom.  6 1 

84.  And  as  we  ought  not  to  dcfpair  of  any  thing  pofTible,  at  the  grea- 
tefl  diftance  :  fo  neither  upon  the  meaneft  Foundation.  For  every 
Trutii  being  produdive;  there  is  no  Truth  which  can  be  defpicable. 
Many  aPcafant  has  been  Anceftor  to  a  Prince,  He  that  firH  made  Gun- 
powder, did  not  think,  he.  then  firfl  began,  to  introduce  a  new  Scene  of 
War.  Nor  the  f.rll  Specflacle-maker,  that  he  was  l(^ding  the  way,  to 
the  Difcovery  of  new  Planets.  Nor  the  firfl:  Obfervcr  of  the  Loadilone, 
that  he  was  finding  ^he  way  into  a  new  World. 

85-.  The  firfl  fair  Advance,  towards  the  47/^  Thcoreme  of  the  firfl: 
of  Eucliifj  commonly  called  the  Pythagorean  ;  was  the  J5//7  foregoing, 
viz.  That  any  Two  Parallelograms,  made  upon  the  fame  B^e,  and  with- 
in the  fame  Parallels,  are  equal.  Which  fuggefled  the  fame  of  Two 
Triangles,  in  Theoreme  ^yih.  And  this,  the  double  Quantity  of  a 
Parallelogram  to  a  Triangle,  conflituted  with  it,  as  before,  in  Thco- 
reme 41//.  Upon  which,  the  Demonftration  of  the  47//-',  chiefly  depends. 
But  thefe  withal,  have  a  Dependance,  on  many  other  precedent  Theo- 
remes,  not  only  very  Remote,  but  fcemingly,  fo  contemptible,  as  not  at 
all  to  promife  fo  noble  a  Productic^n. 

86.  The  firfl  Conceit  tending  to  a  Watch,  was  a  Draw- Well.  For 
People  of  old,  v\  ere  wont  only  to  let  down  a  Pitcher  with  a  Hand-Cord, 
for  as  much  Water,  as  they  could  eafily  pull  up.  But  meeting  with 
fomc  deep  Wells,  put  them  upon  thinking  of  a  Draught-wheel.  And 
feeing  the  Pitcher  or  Bucket  to  defcend  with  its  own  weight ;  they  per- 
ceived the  Movement  applicable  to  a  Spit ;  if  the  Motion  of  the  Weight 
could  be  made  flow  ;  which  was  done,  by  adding  more  Wheels  and 
the  Flyer,  which  made  a  Jack,  Upon  which,  Men  began  to  fee,  that  if 
the  Motion 'were  yet  flower,  it  would  ferve  to  meafure  Time,  as  well  as 
turn  a  Spit :  and  fo  in  the  room  of  the  Flyer,  put  the  Ballance,  which 
makes  a  Clock,  Which  being  foufeful,  thinking  Men  confidercd,  how 
it  might  be  made  portable,  by  fome  means,  anfw  erable  to  a  Weight : 
and  fo  indcad  of  that,  put  the  Spring  and  Fufe-wheel,  which  make  % 

87.  It  appears  by  the  Fragments  of  Anatomy  put  among  Hippcrates's 
Works;  that  the  mofl  ancient  Phyficians,  in  tracing  the  Blood- Veflels, 
began  at  the  Head  and  Brain  :  and  thereby  gave  a  falfe  and  phantaflick 
Defcription  of  them.  But  Ariflotle^  or  fome  other,  at  length,  hit  upon 
the  right  way,  of  beginning  at  the  Heart.  Whence  their  Continuation 
through  the  Parts  of  the  Body  was  gradually  obferved  by  (cveral  Hands. 
While  Men  were  curious  in  doing  this ;  they  alfo  took  notice  of  their 
diflcrence.  So  that  whereas  for  a  long  time,  they  had  been  taken 
for  one  fort  of  Veflels ;  <fXi-\^  being  the  common  Name  to  them  all : 
they  were  afterwards  diflinguillied  into  Veins  and  Arteries.  Having  gone 
as  far  as  they  could  without ;  they  began  to  obferve  them  within.  And 
firrt,  in  the  Heart,  befides  the  two  Auricles,  two  Bellies,  and  to  each 
Belly  two  Mouths;  they  obferved  feverai  Membranes  placed  before 
them ;  which  they  took  at  firfl,  to  be  Nerves,  But  upon  better  Enquiry, 
they  perceived  them  to  be  Valves  or  little  Doors,  fome  of  which  opened 
towards  the  Heart,  and  others  from  it:  fervingto  admit  the  Blood,  one  _ 
way,  and  to  tranfmit  it,  another  ;  and  therefore  both  ways  to  hinder  its 
Return.  And  to  clear  this  the  better,  they  bethought  themfelves  of 
diOecling  Living  Animals.      Being   fatisfied  of    the    Communion   be- 


T  tween 

62  Of  Wtfdom  Book    II^ 

tween  the  Veins  and  Arteries  next  to  the  Heart :  they  conceiv'd  there 
was  the  Uke,  between  their  Extremities  in  the  other  Parts.  And  Ana- 
tomy, which  with  all  other  Learning,  for  many  Ages,  had  lain  dead, 
again  reviving  ;  they  were  better  affiir'd  of  it,  by  viewing  the  Infides 
of  the  Arteries  and  Veins,  as  well  as  of  the  Heart;  which  hitherto 
had  been  omitted.  In  doing  which,  they  found  the  Veins  were  alfo 
furnifli'd  with  Valves,  fliutting  againfl:  the  Arteries,  and  opening  to- 
wards the  Heart.  Whereupon,  confidering  Men,  could  not  but  ask. 
Whether  all  the  Blood  went  from  the  Heart,  and  whence  it  came  thi- 
ther? Andfo,  upon  the  whole.  To  what  purpofe  this  Communion  at 
both  Ends,  ferv'd,  if  not  a  Circulation  >  He  that  in  tracing  the  VefTels, 
began  at  the  Heart,  tho'  he  thought  not  at  all  of  a  Circulation ;  yet 
made  he  one,  and  the  firfl:  true  Step,  towards  the  Difcovery  hereof. 

88.  So  plain  it  is.  That  as  there  is  no  Art,  nor  Science,  but  what  is 
capable  of  Improvement  :  fo  there  is  no  evident  Truth,  howfoever  mean 
and  ufelefs  it  may  feem  to  be,  but  may  thereunto  contribute. 

89.  Laftly,  as  the  Ads  of  Intelledual  Perception,  operate  one  upon 
another:  So  likewife  upon  the  Intelledual  Will.  For  nothing  can 
make  Truth  and  Goodnels  once  perceived  ,•  not  to  be  defirable  and 
binding  above  all  things.  Whence  it  is,  that  a  Knave,  though  cunning, 
is  always  contemned.  And  that  he  himfelf  contemns  thofe,  who  give 
him  that  Refped:,  which  he  and  they  are  fenfible,  he  deferves  not. 
Likewife,  that  all  People,  have  a  Senfe  of  that  Honour,  which  is  due 
to  Virtue,  and  to  that  only.  He  that  gives  the  Honour,  knows  what 
the  Thing  is,  which  he  gives.  As  alfo,  that  there  is  no  Man,  who  is 
not  born  a  Fool,  but  would  be  thought  wife.  And  that  wife  Men,  have 
always  taken  the  firfl  Care,  of  becoming  fuch  indeed,  whatever  they 
may  be  thought  of. 

90.  And  thus  far,  of  the  General ,  and  more  Immediate  Caufes  of 
Operation  in  the  World.  The  exad  Diftinguiihing  whereof,  fo  as 
not  to  take  a  Remote  Caufe,  for  a  Proximate ;  a  Solitary  one,  for  a 
Conjundt ;  a  Poflible  one,  for  a  NecefTary ;  or  any  one  Caufe ,  for 
another;  or  that  which  is  no  Caufe,  for  that  which  is:  And  the 
expert,  and  ready  Ufe  hereof,  fo  as  to  feparate  thofe ,  which  ope- 
rate beft  alone ;  to  joyn  thofe,  which  befl  co-operate ;  and  to  joyn 
them  in  the  Order,  wherein  they  ought  to  fland  :  are  the  Rules  of 
Pradice,  in  all  VVifdom.  Though  he  that  has  once  acquired  a 
Prudential  Habit;  doth  not,  in  his  Bufinefs,  Turn  to  thefe  Rules; 
anymore,  than  one  who  has  learned  to  fpeak  well,  to  thofe  of  his 




Of  Virtue. 

As  Truth,  the  Objed  of  the  Underflanding,  is  the  Conformity  j 
fo  Goodnefs,  the  Obje<St  of  the  Will,  is  the  Conveniency  of 
one  thing  to  another. 

X.  The  Eflence  of  Things  being  various  j  there  muft  needs  be  many 
kinds  and  Degrees  of  Goodnefs. 

;.  It  may  be  confidered,  as  more  or  lefs  Certain  and  Permanent. 
Reafon,  by  a  flrong  Forefight,  is  aWe  to  look  upon  Things  Uncertain  and 
Tranfient,  as  Nonentities.  That  therefore,  which  is  Certain  and  Perma- 
nent, is  fo  much  more  above  the  contrary,  as  Something  is  above 

4.  It  may  be  confidered,  as  more  or  lefs  Comprehenfive.  So,  in  a 
Worm,  which  enjoys  only  the  Senfes  of  Tafte  and  Touch ;  it  is  lefs,  than 
in  a  Filh,  where  there  is  an  Addition  of  Sight.  And  in  a  Fifli,  left 
than  in  a  Bead,  which  hath  alfo  the  Senfe  of  Fiearing. 

5.  It  may  be  confidered,  in  the  manner  of  its  being  Enjoyed.  The 
lowefl:  Degree  of  Enjoyment,  is  that  of  Senfe.  As  being  made 
without  any  Reflection  upon  it  felf.  And  aS  it  is  lefs  Various,  and  more 

6.  Tlie  neiH^above  the  Senfual,  is  that  of  Phancy.  Which  hath  a 
Power  of  Refleding  upon  its  own  Enjoyments.  And  fometimes  to 
magnifie  the  Conceits  of  Senfual  Pleafures,  above  the  Senfe  it  felf. 
And  thefe  Conceits  may  remain  in  their  Vigour,  when  the  Senfe  is  Ex- 

7.  Above  that  of  Phancy,  is  the  Intelled:ual.  That,  for  the  moll  part, 
arifesonly  from  the  Similitude,  This,  from  the  Identity  of  Things.  That 
from  the  Probability,  This,  the  Demonftration,  of  Truth.  And  Truth,  is 
therefore  Valuable,  as  to  the  Doubting  and  Enquiring  Mind,  it  gives  Reft. 
And  as  herevvithal,  it  gives  Light ;  no  lefs  amiable  to  the  Mind,  than  to  the 
Eye:  Underllanding ,  being  expreft  by  Seeing,  among  all  Mankind. 
Every  Truth  ihines  with  its  own  Beams ;  and  lends  them,  for  the  Dis- 
covery of  other  Truths.  Firft,  with  refped:  to  the  Equations,  Proporti* 
ons,  and  Common  Meafurcs  of  Things.  And  then,  the  feveral  Kinds 
and  Degrees  of  Goodnefs,  joined  herewith.  Thofe,  as  the  Grounds  j 
Thefe,  the  Perfection,  of  the  Mundane  Beauty.  In  Contemplation 
whereof,  we  Enjoy,  as  well  as  See,  the  Goodnefs  of  every  Thing ; 
and  the  Happinefs  of  all  other  Creatures,  becomes  our  own. 

8.  The  Kinds  and  Degrees  of  Goodnefs,  may  alfo  be  confidered,  in 
relation  one  to  another,  in  tiie  Congruity  of  which  Relation,  the  Per- 
fedion  of  every  thing  confifts.  Flying  is  a  more  Excellent  Animal- 
Motion,  than  Creeping.  Yet,  if  a  Catterpillar  had  V  Vings,  which  hath 
no  Eyes  to  govern  that  Motion;  it  would  be  a  Creature,  not  more,  but 
lefs  Perfed:.  In  many  Brutes,  the  Outward  Ear,  is  afKxt,  as  a  Natural 
OtocouUick,  to  the  Inward :  VVhereby  the  Senfe  of  Fiearing,  is  in  them, 
much  quicker  than  in  a  Man.  Yet  k  nodefed  in  a  Man ;  whofe  Inward 
Senfe  is  fo  much  quicker  than  a  Brute's,  as  his  Outward  is  flower. 

9.  The 

'64  Of  Virtue.  Book  II. 

9.  The  Graduation  of  the  Parts  of  the  Univerfe,  is  likewife  neceflary 
to  the  Perfedtion  of  the  whole.  Which  confiftcth  very  much,  in  the 
Order  of  Things.  So  that  a  Thing,  though  not  Equal  in  Goodncfs  to 
an  other,  yet  is  then  perfecft,  when  it  hath  all  the  Goodnefs  it  ought 
to  have.  That  is,  when  it  hath  all  its  own  Convenient  Parts,  and  when 
it  hath  a  Convenient  Relation  to  other  things,  oris  itfelf  a  Convenient 
Part  of  the  Univerfe, 

10.  Wherefore,  true  Goodnefs,  and  what  is  Immutably  fuch ;  is  that, 
which  in  the  Place  or  Relation  wherein  it  ftands,  can  be  no  better  :  Or, 
that  vAhich  anfwers  its  End,  with  refped:  to  the  Univerfe,  And  confe- 
quently,  with  refped  to  the  Deity,  the  Original,  and  Ultimate  End,  of 
whatfoever  is  Good, 

1 1 .  According  to  the  Perception  we  have  of  Goodnefs,  we  make  our 
Choice,  If  Phancy  gives  the  Profped  5  Phancy  too,  or  the  Phan- 
taftick  Will,,  makes  the  Choyce:  And  is  nothing  elfe,  but  Afltd:ionor 
Pafllon,  But  when  it  proceedsifrom  Reafon,-it  is  then  propefly  called. 
Virtue;  Seated  fundamentally,  in  the  Intelledual  Will, 

iz.  Wherefore  all  Virtue,  or  what  we  call.  Morality,  is  founded  in 
Truth.  And  confequently,  cannot  be  variable,  as  fome  Men  think, 
with  the  Opinions  and  Manners  of  Men ;  as  if  thofe  things  were  Vir- 
tuous in  one  Countrey,  which  are  Vitious  in  another,  lor  albeit  the 
Philofophy,  which  treateth  of  Virtue,  isby  the  Grd-^/fj  called,  '£9(%»f.  Yet 
it  is  not  ,  becaufe  Cuftom  ,  maketh  Virtue :  but  becaufe  Virtue  is 
the  Parent  of  Cuftom,  fo  far  as  this  is  ufeful  unto  all  Communities,  or 
agreeable  to  the  bell  Reafon  in  any  one.  As  therefore,  Intelled  ual  Truth, 
and  Goodnefs,  are  both  Immutable :  So  all  true  Virtueupvhich  is  foun- 
ded in  the  former,  and  maketh  Choice  of  the  latter,  cannot  but  be  one 
Immutable  thing, 

13.  The  Choice  which  Virtue  makes,  is  of  the  End,  and  the  Means 
toobteinit.  Both  which,  ought  to  be  Immutably  Good  ;  and  therefore, 
the  bed.  For  how  can  one  be  Virtuous,  that  is  to  (ay,  Reafonable,  in 
choo/ing  any  thing,  but  what  is  Bed  ? 

14,  'I  he  bed  End,  is  either  the  Highed,  or  any  other  which  is  bed 
in  its  proper  Place,  gs  having  an  apt  Relation  and  Tendency  to  the 
Highed.  And  fo  loo,  the  bed  Means,  are  fuch  as  have  an  apt  Relati- 
on to  their  Proximate  End,  and  alfo  to  the  Highed  or  End  of  Ends.  As 
far  therefore,  as  the  Choyce  we  make,  is  remote  from  either. of  thefe  : 
it  is  fo  far,  the  Choyce  of  Phancy  and  Padion,  but  not  of  Virtue. 

If.  Wherefore  Wifdom  and  Virtue,  are  two  Things.  All  Virtue,  is 
Wifdom,  but  all  Wifdom  is  not  Virtue.  One  that  makes  an  apt  ufe  of 
Means,  difficient  to  attein  his  End,  whether  Good  or  Bad;  is  fo  far  Ju- 
dicious and  Wife.  But  Virtue  always  prepofeth  the  bed  End,  and  u- 
feth  the  bed  Means  to  attain  it.  And  is  therefore,  the  Highed  point  of 

16.  One  may  be  faid,  to  be  Innocent,  who  hath  been  fo  educated, 
as  to  phancy  thofe  things,  which  are  Good  and  Innocent.  Or,  that 
wanteth  Opportunity,  Courage,  or  W\t  enough,  to  be  Bad.  But  one 
that  knows,  on  the  one  hand,  the  W^ays  of  Knavery  and  Vice  ;  and  of 
Wifdom  and  Goodnefs  on  the  other:  that  difdains  the  Word,  andchoo- 
feth  the  Bed,  may  be  truly  dyl'd,  a  Virtuous  Man. 

17.  Virtue,  having  chofcn  the  End,  and  formed  an /ri<?4  of  the  Means; 
brings  us  next,  to  the  Profecution  of  them ;  that  is,  to  Refolution  herein. 

18.  But 

^  H  A  p.    VII,  Of  Virtue. 


f^iS.  But  Rerolution,  cannot  follow  Reafon,  except  it  be  alfo  Superior 
unto  Phancy.  Both  in  fubduing  thofe  Conceits  and  Paflions,  which  op- 
pofe  us ;  and  in  Cleering  and  Fortifying  thofe,  which  may  afTift  us,  in 
what  we  are  doing.  Being  a  fort  of  Compounded  Will,  wherein  Rea- 
Ibn  and  Phancy,  are  both  in  their  Vigorous  Ad-.  Reafon,  prefenting  the 
Means  and  End,  in  their  true  Figure;  Phancy,  in  their  full  Magnitude. 

19.  It  feemeth  therefore,  that  Virtue,  is  the  Higheft  VVifdom,  and 
fomething  more.  Wifdom  is  the  Pradtical  Part  of  Humane  Underlland- 
ing.  But  Virtue,  is  the  Entire  Operation  of  Human  Mind.  In  which 
there  is  a  certain  c^;t/.»  or  Swing  of  Phancy,  under  thd  Command  of 

10.  Wherefore,  as  Virtue  is  feated  Fundamentally,  In  the  Intelled  • 
fo,  Perfedtively,  in  the  Phancy.  So  that  Virtue,  is  the  Force  of  Rea- 
fon, in  the  Conduct  of  our  Ad  ions  and  Paffions,  to  a  Good  End,  or 
that  which,  in  its  place,  is  the  beft.  Or,  in  ftiort,  a  Refolution,  in  the 
ufe  of  due  Means,  to  a  due  End.  A  cleer  Reafon,  ading  in  Conjuncti- 
on with  a  well  Difciplyn'd,  but  flrong  and  vigorous  Phancy;  feldom 
fail  to  attein  their  End.  Phancy,  without  Reafon ;  is  like  a  Horfe,  with- 
out a  Rider.  And  Reafon,  without  Phancy ;  is  not  well  Mounted.'  But 
thofe  who  are  fo  happy,  as  to  pofTefs  them  both ;  ire  ufually  the  Authors 
of  the  greatelT:  Performances.  When  Phancy,  neither  bridles  Reafon, 
nor  drives  it  forward ;  but  is  the  Flying  Charriott,  wherein  fhe  rides  on, 
with  the  Profped  of  Succefs  and  Glory. 

11.  Therefore  Mediocrity,  is  not,  according  to  Artftotles  Definition, 
neceffary  unto  Virtue.  One  cannot  love  his  Country,  too  well;  tho', 
tbfave  that,  he  lofeth  his  Life,  A  Man  may  be  Refolvedly  Patient, 
unto  Death.  So  that  it  is  not  the  Mediocrity  of  Refolution,  which 
makes  the  Virtue ;  Nor  the  Extremity,  which  makes  the  Vice :  but 
tht  one,  being  with  the  other,  without  Realon.  Saving  a  Man's  feif, 
or  fbflcring,  if  with  Reafon,  is  Virtue:  If  without  it.  is  either  Softneft, 
ofXDbftinacy.         '.' 

ix.  'Tis  true,  Virtue  flands,  for  the  moft  part,  between  two  Vices 
\^et  is  it  hereby  no  more   Defined;  than   an  Honefl:  Man,  by  living 

I  between  two  Thieves.  Therefore  the  Nature  of  Virtue,  is  better  ex- 
prefled  by  Proportion  ;  as  it  alfo  is  elfewhere,  by  Ariftotle  himfelf.  For 
they  are  both  of  them  founded  in  Truth.  And  as  in  Proportion-,  there 
is-  the  Equality  ot  a  Double  Ratio ;  fo  alfo,  in  Virtue :  -vlt.  between  the 
K^^  and  thcObjeds,  of  the  Mind.  For  as  Perception,  is  to  the  EticJ;  j 
fo  is  Refolution,  to  the  Means. 
z\.  This  Proportion,  is*feen,  even  in  Penal  Juftice.  For  all  Crimes, 
proceed  from  the  Irregular  Operations  of  the  Phancy.  Now  though 
the  Ads  of  Juftice,  as  Penal,  are  difproportion'd  untoScnfe:  Yet  the 
Irregularity  of  Senfe,  is  proportion'd  unto  that  of  Phancy.  As  tw(^  Se- 
venths, or  other  the  greatefl:  Dilcords  ;  may  be  tuned  to  iDiapafdn.  Ox 
aSth&Similitude  of  two  Figures,  in  themfelves  Irregular  ;  produce  a  Re- 
gularity or  Proportion,  between  the  Parts  of  the  one  and  the  other.  '';' 
2,4.  Wherever  tlTCrefore,  anyone  Virtue  exifts;  there  is  a  difpdfitioii 
Unto  all  Virtue  :  As  confifting  every  where,  in  Proportion.     Sothatt 

IB  there  is  an  Uniformity  in  theDifpofitions  and  Adions  of  a  truly,  Vir- 
B  tuous  Man. 
""     zi.  Yet  the  fame  Virtue  may  exift  in  Teveral  Degreeil    Reafcinantl 
Phancy,  may  botlY  ad  their  Parts,  fo  as  to  make  Virtue  Entire ;  when 

U  both 

^4  ^/  Virtue.  Book  11. 

'^  • 

both  of  them,  whether  from  Nature,  or  Ufe,  whether  in  different  Per- 
fons,  or  with  refped:  to  different  Things,  may  be  more  or  lefs  forccable, 
and  thereby  make  Virtue,  more  or  lefs  Strong. 

2.6.  But  no  Difference,  can  warrant  that  weak  Diftindtion,  which  the 
Mafler  of  the  Schools,  makes  between  Intelledual  and  Moral  Virtue, 
or  that  which  comes  only  by  Cuftom,  as  he  would  have  it.  For  how 
can  any  thing  be  Virtuous,  w  hich,  in  not  being  Intelledual,  is  Phanta- 
flick  and  Brutifli?  Nor  can  any  Virtue  come  from  meer  Cuftom:  but 
Cuftom,  fo  far  as  good  and  ufeful ;  mud  of  neceff  ty  come  from  the  bell: 
Reafon,  tjbatis^  from  Virtue.  For  in  that  Virtue  is  founded  in  Reafon  ; 
it  is  the  fame  Nonfenfe,  to  fay,  that  Virtue,  as  to  fay,  that  Reafon, 
comes  of  meer  Cuftom.  Which,  tho'  it  be  aftifted  by  Ufe,  yet  can  have 
no  other  Parent,  but  the  Intellectual  Mind. 

ay.  Our  Affedions,  in  conjundion  with  Reafon,  may  become  Vir- 
tuous. So  Hope,  as  it  is  an  Afledion,  is  the  Expedation  of  a  future  Good  : 
whether  with,  or  without  any  ground.  As  it  is  a  Virtue,  is  the  like 
Expedation,  conceived  upon  good  ground,  and  by  proper  Means  main- 
tain'd  :  and  fo  of  the  reft. 

i8.  And  Virtue  may  have  different  Names,  from  the  difference  of 
Perfons and  Things.  To  fpend  on  the  Poor,  is  to  be  Liberal;  on  all 
indifferently.  Generous.  To  be  kind  to  all,  is  to  be  Charitable  ,•  with 
Mutual  Refped,  Friendly.  Contentment,  without  External  Fionour,  is 
Humility;  without  the  Pleafure  of  Eating,  Temperance;  of  Drinking, 
Sobriety;  of  Lawful  Venery,  Continence;  of  Unlawful,  Chaftity. 
Which,  with  all  other  Virtues,  centre  in  one  of  thefe  two  Operations 
of  the  Mind;  the  bearing  of  aLeffer,  to  avoid  a  Greater  Evil:  Or  the 
Forbcalring  of  aLeffer,  toobtein  a  Greater  Good. 

29.  1  here  are  three  Virtues,  fo  called,  which,  to  fpeak  properly, 
are  rather  neceffary  to  the  Perfedion  of  Virtue ;  viz.  Prudence,  Con- 
ftancy,  and  Love.  '..  Prudence,  ftridly  taken,  is  not  Virtue  Compleat, 
but  the  Intelledual  Part  of  it :  and  is  therefore  common  to  all  Virtue. 
For  no  Man  can  be  Temperate,  Patient,  Liberal,  or  any  other  way  Vir- 
^  tuous,  that  is  not  Prudent. 
...  TfO.  What  Prudence  is,in  the  Intelled,  Conftancy  is  with  refped  to  the 
Phancy  ;  as  this  is  govern'd  by  the  Intelled,  in  the  Profped  of  the  End, 
and  Ufe  of  the  Means  to  attein  it. 

31.  By  Love,  I  mean  not  the  Paffion,  or  that  which  is  Phantaftick; 
but  Charity  or  Intelledual  Love.  That  is  to  fay,  the  Love  of  whom- 
foever  or  whatfoevcr  is  Good.  W' hen  the  Goodnefs  of  the  Mind,  is 
Commenfurate  to  that  of  the  Univerfe.  The  former ,  eclipfeth  the 
Perfon  in  whom  it  prevails.  This  Latter,  gives  him  great  Grace  and 
Beauty,  and  paints  a  Glory  round  his  Head.  Whereby  he  at  once,  Da- 
zles  the  Malevolent,  Charms  the  Innocent,  Chears  the  Virtuous,  and 
Sunshimielf  in  his  own  Beams. 

■),%.  Among  other  Virtues,  Four,  are  more  Eminent,  as  chiefly  con- 
ducing to  the  Happinefs  of  Mankind.  Tw  o,  which  we  may  call.  Con- 
templative, Huraihty  and  Magnanimity.  And  two,  more  Pradical,  Ju- 
ftice  and  Fortitude. 

.  33.  By  Humility,  I  mean  not,  the  Abjednefs  of  a  Bafe  Mind:  but,  a 
Prudent  Care,  .not  to  over-value  our  felves  upon  any  account.  There  is 
^.Lftimateto,  he  made,  of  our  felves,  and  others:  And  in  both  we 
jnay  be  miftaken.     Except  we  knew  the  juft  Rate  of  every  thing,  by 


Chap.  VII.  Of  Virtue.  ,jf^ 

which  we  are  to  be  valued  :  And  all  other  Men,  as  well  as  pur  felves.  So 
that  to  under,  rather  tlian  over-value  our  felves,  is  much  the  ,fefc^  .wav. 
Whereby  we  are  fure,  neither  to  be  injurious  to  others,-  nor  to  our 
felves, in  blocking  up  our  own  way  to  further  Improvements.   -     -      ,     , 

34.  Again,  if  we  have  any  deep  Thoughts,  we  cannot  but  fee,    that 
our  Attainments,   let  them  be  never  fo  great,  are  yet  but   m?aa,  if 
compared  with  the  boundlefs  Perfedlion  of  the  Univerfe.     We  ar-e  alfo 
to  confider  the  Difference  between  Worth,  and  Merit,  ,ftri(a:ly  taken, 
That  is,  a  Man's  Intrinfick  ^     This,  his  Current  Value.     Which,  is  lefs  or 
more,  as  Men  have  occafion  for  him  :  Or,  give  him  one,  to  make  proof 
of  himfelf.     Likewife,    that  the  difference  between  Men,    is  oftentimes 
more  by  Education,  and  Opportunities  of  Improvement,  than  by  Nature. 
And  where  it  is  by  Nature,  we  are  the  rather  to  remember,  That  it  is  the 
Divine  Benignity,  which  hath  diftinguilhed  us  from  others,  and  not  our 
felves.  , 

'^^.  This  Virtue,  moreover,  is  the  befl:  of  Ornaments  unto  all  d-r 
thers.  Like  a  Lady's  Veil,  it  more  illuftrates  the  Beauties,  which  it 
feems  to  covev.  Nothing  being  more  natural,  than  for  Men  to  mag- 
nifie  that,  which  they  exped:  not  to  fee.  It  both  beautifies  other 
Virtues,  and  makes  way  for  them.  Whoismoiie  Contented,  Patient, 
Peaceable,  Grateful,  Juft,  Benign,  than  the  Humble  Man  ?  If  naturally 
breeds  Courage.  For  who  needs  to  fear  falling,  that  knows  he  {lands 
upon  even  Ground?  Whereas,  a  Haughty,  Man,  by  expofing  himfelf  j 
muft  either  be  buoy'd  up  with  more  intolerable  Pride ;  or  fmk,  and 
become  Pufilanimous. 

36.  Nor  therefore,  doth  it  a  little  conduce,  unto  Magnanimity.  Not 
that  of  Arijiotle,  Eth.  4.  3.  Where  he  defines  it  to  be  that,  whereby 
one  that  is  worthy  of  great  things,  judgeth. himfelf  fo  to  be.  Which 
to  do,  by  his  own  Words  elfewhere, ,  is  no  .Virtue.  For]  in  defcribing 
the  Nature  of  Virtue  and  Vice,  Etk  2,  5.  he  truly  faith,  That  Men 
do  hereby  become  Good  or  Evil.  But  here  he  tells  us.  That  Pufilanimi- 
ty,  is  no  Vice  :  becaufe  that  by  it,  Ave  .become  not  Evil,  but  only  Err. 
And  if  fo,  then  Magnanimity,  which  by  hjnf^,  is  oppofed  to  it,  can  ia 
his  Scnfe,  be  no  Virtue  j  as  lying  onlyan  the  Judgment  which  a  Man 
makes  of  himfelf.  Whereas  Virtue  lies,  as  I  have  Ihew'd,  not  only  in 
the  Judgment,  but  alfo  in  the  Will  i  both  the  EIed:ive,  and  the  Exe- 
cutive Will.  _  ;  .-  ■:  .<5,,i   .,.    :.,_^o;iJ!; 

37.  Magnanimity  then,  is  a  Refolution,  of  being -aad  doing  that,- 
which  is  truly  Great.  Or,  in  i"hort,  It  is*a  growing  Greatnefs  of  Mind. 
A  Virtue,  which  Bot  only  well  confifleth  with  Humility,  but  is  hereby 
promoted.  For  who  will  take  one  Step  further,  that  dreams  he  hath 
no  further  to  go  ?  By  the  former,  a  Man  takes  a  juft  Account,  ho>v 
far  he  is  gone.  Which  being  done,  by  the  other  he  reColves,  notwith- 
llanding  the  Storms  above,  and  the  Rocks  and  Deeps  below,  ftill;tp; 
goon;  and  either  to  find  out,  or    make  hi?  way,  till  he  comes  jto  his, 

^,  Journey's  end.                                               "  -                          '  rbirlv.' 

38.  Wherefore,  as  Humility  is  the  Parent,  fo  Magnanimity,  tHe^^l 
tron  of  many  other  Virtues.  Chiefly  Two  j  Induftry,  a&d  Sapiencft;§j:, 
the  Love  of  Wifdom.                r  ;   .               ..h.:;; 

39.  Magnanimous  Induftry,  is  a  refolved  Affiduity  and  Care,  aiifwe- 
rableto  any  weighty  Work.    He  therefore  that  ufeth,  tt;iis  Virtue)  nj« ft 
put  in  pradice  many  more.    He  muft  be  ne  great  Tlatfr^  Drinkej",  Slee- 

^6  of  Virtue .  Book  II. 

per  ;  no  Gamefler,  Wencher,  Fopp.  He  mufl;  difcipline  his  Senfes,  and 
exert  his  Mind.  Every  worthy  Undertaking,  requires  both.  Parts  will 
not  do,  let  Men  talk  of  them,  as  they  will.  Thefe  go  little  further,  than 
the  Readinefs,  or  the  Multiplicity  of  Conceits.  'Tis  Thinking, . whicii 
puts  them  into  Order,  begets  a  found  Judgment  of  Things,  and  brings 
them  to  EfFed:.  So  that  we  may  as  well  weigh  a  Peacock's  Tail,  againit 
a  Prince's  Crown ;  as  the  fined  Parts,  againft  any  thing  great  and 
'   weighty,  without  the  Care  and  Pains  which  are  equally  great. 

40.  Nor  doth  any  one,  with  all  his  Pains,  enjoy  more  Pleafure.  As 
having  that  which  is  Real  and  Subftantial  ever  in  his  Hands,  and  before 
his  Eyes.  Whereas  thofe  that  trifle  ;  are  only  tormented  with  wifliing, 
as'  Hypochondriacks  are  with  Thinking,  themlelves  as  big  as  Mountains. 
And' Swelling  ftill,  with  vafl  Expedtations  ;  they  either  burfl  at  length, 
or  are  utterly  loft,  by  gazing  in  an  Infinite  Vacuum. 

41,  By  Sapience,  I  mean,  what  the  Ancients  did,  by  Philofophy ; 
the  Habit,  or  Difpofition  of  Mind,  which  that  Word  properly  im- ' 
porteth,  viz.  The  Love  of  Wifdom.  That  is  to  fay,  A  Prudent  Enqui- 
ry into  all  Wifdom,  for  the  Good  of  Mankind.  A  Philofopher  there- 
fore, properly  fo  called,  is  one'  that  enquires  fo  far  into  the  Particulars 
of  Art,  and  Nature ;  both  into  'the  Nature  of  Man,  and  of  all  otiier 
Things  ;  and  into  their  Relations  one  to  another  ;  as  to  be  able  to  a- 
dapt  them  to  the  Ufes  of  Life ;  and  to  ufe  both  the  Arts,  and  their 
Mafters,  for  the  Publick  Good.  The  AuUiors  of  ufeful  Inventions,  the 
Devifers  of  wholfome  LawSj  the  Propofers  of  Virtuous  Precepts,  the 
Founders,  or  Eftablilhers  of  Common- wealths,  were  the  Philofophers  of 
Ancient  Times,  and  were  honoured  as  the  Fathers  and  Prophets  of  their 
Country.  And  every  wife 'Prince,  or  other -Perfon,  who  in^he  fame 
manner,  ftudies  the  Publick  Good,  merits  the  fame  Title.  Some  may 
learn  Arts  and  Sciences,  as  School-boys  the  Orations  of  Cicero ;  know- 
ing nothing  of  thi  Performs  and  Things  to  which  they  relate,  nor  with 
what  Spirit  and  Life';  nor  to  what  intent  he  fpeaks  every  Word.  But, 
like  Tellefcopes,  what' they  fee  noi?i;hemfelves,  they  may  difcover  unto 
others,  whofentorelagaeious' 'Wifdom^  or  Art  of  Application,  is  the 
Art  of  Arts:  The  Soul,  that' infornis,  all  Arts  and  Sciences,  and  gives 
them  Life  and  Efficacy  for  the  Ufe  of  Mankind. 

4i.  ThetwocPubUek  Virtueis,-^rejufticeand  Fortitude.  Every  thing 
is  not  Jullice,  that  looks  hke  it.  One  may  do,  what  is  Juft,  yet  not 
Juftly,  but  witfedn'Hl  Mind.  'Sothk  Juftice,  is  a  "Rrudent  and  Mag- 
nanimous doing  of  Right,  ki  air  Cafes,  unto  all  Men,  with  an  upriglit 
InteMi  21 .3wd  ,^(Jlim,  .       . 

•^'43.Tie"ther'fefere,  thatis-compleat  Mafter  of  this  Virtue  ;  mull  be 
dile/of  great  Undferft^nding^  'and  of  equal  Courage  and  Probity.  O 
thbrwife,  eithei<  the  Difficulty  o^^the  Cale,  og  the  Power  of  fome  Party,: 
6^  Ife  ©wn  vicioti^  Pficlinafiotisj-wili  -gravel  him.  But  being  well  quaii- 
fic^, -he  cbnfid^rs  the  various  Nature  of  Men ;  and  fo,  the  Force, 
which  pifcretion,  Courage,  Honefty  ;  Simplicity,  Fear,  or  Knavery,  may, 
hS^'iri-the  Gbnee^ment,  op  Difcovery  of  the  Truth.  And  the  va- 
rl@iftP'Natureb6"ThihgSj 'as  tlfcy  -  relate- td  Publick  Societies,  with  the 
Multiplicity  of  Circumflances  incident  to  every  Cafe.'  That  as  no  twQ 
Qi.^,'%rfi  in  •aIt'-TR)int-s  the  fiirfeer^fo  there -aiie  very  few,  which  appear 
at^tlie  y^bffi  wha^ <l$ey  are  at  the  Bdttonfi.  -And  therefore  hears,  with 
g^t- Tetaperj-  afl^-'i\'eighs  §11  ^rticttlarSj  and  their  Ratios  or  Propor- 
A  '^h[  tions 


VIL  OfVirme.  jj 

tions  one  to  another ;  fo  as  thereupon  to  determine,  what  is  fit  and  juft. 
And  being  tiius  fafe,  in  the  v\'ay  hegoes,  and  the  End  of  it ;  he  abftrads 
the  Cafe  before  him,  from  Perfonal  Refped:s ;  and  ftands  as -a 
Rock,  againft  all  the  13attering  Engines,  of  Importunity,  Terror,  or 

44.  Fortitude,  as  an  Affedion,  is  the  Doing,  or  Suffering  of  any  tiling 
with  Equanimity.  As  a  Military  Virtue,  is  the  Prudent  and  Magnani- 
mous Condud;  of  a  Juft  War.  A  Jewel  compofed  of  feveral  Gemms  : 
Juftice  in  the  Motives,  Skill  in  the  Condud:,  Courage  in  the  Adion,  and 
Prudence  running  through  all. 

45-.  Arijiotle^  in  his  Ethkks^h^ih  faid  many  things  very  well.  Yet  in 
fome  others,  is  inconfiltent  with  himfelf.  In  Eth.  z.  6.  he  faith  well. 
That  Virtue,  Omni  Arte  exaiiior  efl  ^  prajiantior.  And  that  it  confifts 
in  that  Proportion,  jSj^^  C/?>  ^^  ""^i  d^jt^ita  Ratione.  Yet  in  Eth.  ^.  10. 
he  forgat  himfelf,  in  faying,  Ha:  rirtutes,  Fortitudinem  puta  ^  Tempe-^ 
rantiam,  part /urn  earum  effe  vic/e»tur,  qua  funt  Rationis  expertes.  Con- 
founding the  Afledion,  which  Brutes  may  have ,  with  the  Virtue. 
Whereas  this,  as  well  as  all  other  Virtues,  is  built  upon  the  mod  refined 

46.  For  firft,  it  fuppofeth  a  War  undertaken,  to  be  juft.  For  without 
Juftice,  'tis  no  better  than  a  grand  Riot.  The  beft  Condud,  ufed  not  to 
fave,  but  deftroy,  is  Cruelty.  And  naturally  abateth  Courage,  fo  far  as 
Guift  difpofeth  Men  to  Cowardice. 

47.  And  that  the  Condud  be  prudent.  One  may  be  Bold,  without 
Reafon.  He  only  is  Valiant,  who  is  bold  to  that  degree,  be  it  more  or 
Itkj  which  is  moil  uleful  for  the  attaining  of  Vidory.  ForNonfenle^ 
can  never  make  a  Virtue.  Therefore  a  through-bred  Soldier,  weighs  all 
prelent  Circumftances,  and  all  podible  Contingents.  Which  are  always 
fo  many,  and  oftentimes  fo  fudden,  and  fo  great,  that  the  Bufinefs  of 
War,  may  be  termed,  The  Rendezvous  of  the  beft  Efuman  Councils. 

48.  Laftlv,  the  Adion  muft  be  attended  with  Courage.  In  Doing  ; 
Induftry  muft  be  rtiounted,  and  in  a  watchful  Circulation.  In  Suffering, 
with  a  chearful  Patience,  the  hardeft  Fatigues.  In  Expedation,  of  Dan- 
gers, and  yet  of  Succefs.  Without  which,  let  a  Man  be  never  fo  hardy  , 
lie  will  hive  fome  Degree  of  Sheepifhnefs.  But  having  his  Mind  thus 
armed  ,•  he  marches  forward,  in  a  fort  of  Extafie,  with  the  Scene  of 
Vidory  before  his  Eyes,  the  Euge's  of  his  Friends  ringing  in  his  Ears^ 
and  the  Necks  of  his  Enemies  already  under  his  Feet. 

49.  In  the  Pradice  of  this,  and  every  Virtue,  among  other  Ends,  we 
ftiould  propofe  to  oiir  felves,  this  is  one„To  fliew  the  Dignity  of  Virtue, 
and  of  the  Mind  of  Man,  the  chief  of  God's  Creatures  here  below. 
If  the  Strudure  of  oiir  Bodies,  and  of  the  World  about  us,  is  fo  wonder- 
ful :  then  what  is  that  Piece  of  Ant,  t\'hich  maketh  a  Judgment,  and  all 
virtuous  Ufes  hereof  ?  If  the  good  Qualities  which  lie  difperfed  among 
other  Creatures,  Diligence  in  an  Art ,  Chaftity  in  a  Dove)  Innocence 
iri  a  Sheep,  Truftinefs  in  a  Dog,  Obedience  in  a  Horfe  ;  are  fmgly  (a 
fine  and  commendable  :  how  excellent  is  the  Mind,  which  ennobles 
them  into  Virtues,  and  makes  a  Golden  Chain  of  them  all  ? 

50.  Arid  how  fit  is  Man,  hereby  made,  to  govern  Inferiour  Creatures, 
his  own  Species,  and  Himfelf  ?  it  is  fit,  he  fliould  be  endowed  with  Phan- 
cy,  as  well  as  Intelled  ;  and  that  Senfe  and  Phancy,  ftiould  have  their 
Force  and  Povvers.  For  otherwife,  where  were  the  Majefty  of  Reafon, 
m  over-ruling  then!  .*  X  5 1.  It 

rg       ■  Of  Celeftial  Mind  Book    11. 

5 1 .  Tt  were  a  Wrong  to  the  Deity,  fliould  we  think  he   hath  employed 
lefs  Art  and  Goodncfs  in  the  Fabrick  of  our  Minds,  thun  in  that  of  our 
Bodies.     As  no  Man  therefore,  can  walk,  fo  neither  can  he  think,  un- 
eafily  or  unfafely ;  but  in  ufing,  as  his  Legs,  fo  his  Thoughts,  amifii. 
Which  a  virtuous  Man,  as  virtuous,  never  doth ;  but  in  a  manner  fuita- 
ble  to  the  Organifm  of    his  Mind.      Taking  a    greater  Pleafure^  in 
the  Government   of  S'enfe   and  Phancy  ;   than  another  doth,    irr  the 
Enjoyment  it  felf.     While  in  fupprefTing  their  UfurpatiOns,   and  man'd-' 
ging  their  utmoft  Force  and  Power,  he  fits  as  King  over  all  the  Children 
of  Pride. 

5z.  We  are  therefore,  tomeafure  the  Excellency  of  a  virtuous  Mind; 
not  as  it  is  the  Copy,  but  the  Pattern,  of  Regal  Power,  and  the 
greater  Empire  of  the  Two.  xAnd  with  the  Honour  of  this,  to  vindi- 
cate the  Glory  of  that  Supream  Virtue,  which  hath  bleft  the  World, 
with  fo  Divine  an  Image  of  it  felf. 

CHAP.    Vill. 

of  CeUfiial   Mind 

i.T^Ycontemplatingiof  God,  as  inHimfelf,  and  in  his  viHble  Works  ; 

J3  we  know  what  he.  Is.  We  know,  that  his  Perfeftion  is  bound- 
Ififs  and  Abfolute  ;  unto  whicii,  no  Addition  can  be  made,,  either  in  our. 
Conception,  or  any  other  way. 

z.  And  we  know  our  own  Impcrfedlion.  There  is  indeed  aPerfedion 
of  Congruity,  belonging  to  every  Creature  ;  as  hath  been  ihew'd  in  the 
foregoing  Chapter.  And  fuch  is  that,  which  belongeth  to  the  Mind  of 
Man.  That  is,  an  agreeable  Relation,  between  its  own  Faculties ;  be- 
tween it  felf  and  the  Body ;  and  between  it  felf  and  other  Parts  of 
the  Univerfe. 

^.  But  we  alfo  know,  it  is  very  imperfed,  in  fundry  refpeds.  That 
the  mod  Tenaceous  Memory,  is  very  unfaithful.  How  many  thoufands 
of  Idea's,  have  we  irrecoverably  loft  ?  That  the  greateft  Underftanriing, 
is  Narrow.  How  much  of  God,  and  of  Nature,  is  there,  whereof  we 
never  had  any  Idea  at  all !  And  the  Knowledge  We  have,  how  difficultly, 
that  is,  with  how  much  Doubting  and  Difquifition,  is  it  obtained  ?  And 
it  cannot  be,  but  that  the  Imperfedtions  of  our  Will ;  Ihould  follow 
thofe  of  Perception.  And  therefore  alfo,  that  of  our  Satisfadion  and 

4.  Now  it  is  the  Office  of  Reafon,  by  what  we  know,  and  fee ;  to 
difcover  to  us,  what  we  fee  not.  By  the  Knowledge  of  God,  of  our 
Selves,  and  of  Nature  Below  us,  which  we  fee;  we  may  come  alfo  to 
the  Knowledge  of  Nature  Above  us,  which  we  fee  not.  We  may  come 
to  know.  That  there  are  Beings,  as  well  Higher  and  more  Perted,  as 
Lower,  and  lefs  Perfed,  than  our  felves  :  That  they  are  of  divers  kinds : 
and  wherein  their  Diverfity  doth  confift. 

5.  For  as  we  can  never  conceive  too  higUy  of  God  :  fo  neither  too 
magnificently  of  Nature,  his  handy  Work.  The  Perfection  of  Nature, 
tho'  not  Abfolute,  like  that  of  God  himfelf,  whereunto  nothing  can  be 


C  H  A  P.  VlII.        Of  Celejiial  Mind  ____  70 

added:  Yet  is  It,  and  ought  to  be  Confumtriate;  unto  which,  notb'ng 
fcah  be  added,  which  it  is  capable  of.  For  otherwife,  vvelhould  fiippold 
jGod,  to  be  Perfed:  in  his  E(iience,  and  hnperfed:' in  his  Operation  :  that 
is  to  fay,  Imperfediiy  Perfed. 

6.  And  for  the  fame  Reafon,  there  is,  atid  ought  to  be,  a  Corifum- 
hiafe  F^erfedion  of  Things,  in  every  Kind.  Of  Metals,  Gold  is  the  moft 
Durable:  Of  Stones,  the.  Diamond,  is  the  Cleerefl:.  Among  Plants^ 
Corn,  of  all,  istlidmdfl;  Noui-ifliing.  Among  ^ladrHpe^s^.o'i  all  the 
Bifukd^  the  Roe-Deer,  is  the  Swifteft :  Of  all  ihe  Hoofed,  the  Hbrre  i^ 
the  riiod'  Beautiful :  Of  all  the  Clawed,  the  Lyon  isth'd  ftrongeft.  Atid 
among,  Animal  Bodies,  that  of  a  Man,  is  in  ftiany  Vefpeds,  the  riiofij 
Nobie.  In  like  manner,  there  ought  to  be,  and  therefore  i^,ftrme  vthet-c 
or  other,  a  Cohfummate  Perfedtiort  beflowed  u'pori  lift  and  Mif?d.' 
Which,,  in  that  we  find  it,  neither  Below,  nor  within  oirr  Selves :  iv^ 
mull;  of  neceffity  own  it,  to  be  above  uS.  Forinthait  jsfatuire  is",  tfte: 
Work  of  God ;  and  Mind,  net  only ;  a  Part  «f  Nature^'' bi^  tlxt  thi^ 
Part:  It  is  every  way  Congruous,  that  God  Itiotiid  CorlfdrtiVnate  Mind; 
with  all  the  Perfedion  it  is  capable  of,  and  Conrunima,te  Natute  witli 
fuchaMihd.  ,.  '^J!'^^     -y']'-^ 

7.  The  Exiftence  of  other  Beings,  Superior  unto  HaffianMrpd,  isnff-' 
ther  evident,  from  the  Plenitude  of  Things,' fo  far  as  We^' dM  kbFe  tO  ^o. 
throughout  the  Vifible  World.  A  Glafs,  that^s  "efilpty  d  of  Licjuof,  \vrTt 
be  filled  with  Air  :  If  of  Air,  with  a  mi^teiJ  Etfi'er.  F6r^Can'fec'iny 
thing     '-'•-■'-    -•'^-       ■  v.:J._...L._  ,:...,.■::>,..    ..  w,..^, 


not  a  free  acceisor  tnoie  Doaies,  .wnicn  are  trie  i^auies  or  Ligiit,  weiglit,' 
and  Cold.  So  alfo  the  Pores  of  Bodies,  and  the  Intervals  between  tlrc^e- 
veral  Mundane  Orbs ;  are  all  filled  with  divers  Fluids,  one  within,  a'nici 
more  fubtile,  than  another.  And  what  can  be  more  Redl^'nable,  thin/ 
that  there  (liould  be  the  fame  agreeable  Plenitude,  in  the  Invififelc 
VVofld?  We  may  then  as  well  fuppofe  a  Corporeal  Vacuum,  between 
Heaven  and  Earth  ;  as  a  Vital  between  God  and  Man. 

8.  As  alfo,  from  the  Indefinite  Extent,  of  the  Corporeal  World.  Arf 
Argument,  that  the  Vital,  fince  it  cannot  anfwer  it,  in  the  fame  way 
of  Extent;  is  made  to  do  it,  in  that  of  Perfection.  So  that  \vi  Can 
no  more  bound  the  Perfedion  of  the  one,  tljan  we  can  the  Extent  of 
the  other. 

9.  And  the  Reafons  which  prove  the  Exiftfence  of  Celeflial  Miridj 
do  alfo  prove  the  fanie,  to  be  of  divers  Kind%  and  of  Degrees  of  Siipe- 
riority,  unto  the  Mind  of  Man.  For  it  is  Incompetent  unto  Nature,  thi^ 
Parts  whereof,  we  fee  every  where  related  one  to  another,  in  Oitler 
and  Meafure;  that  a  Start  fhould  be  given,  from  the  loweiV  Degree  or" 
Species  of  Underflanding  Mind,  to  the  Higheft.  Since  then,  there  a t^ 
divers  kinds  and  Degrees  of  Imperfedion,  in  the  Mind  of  Man:  if  is 
very  Congruous,  that  they  fliould  be  anfwer'd,  by  as  many  Degrees  of 
Elevation,  or  Orders  of  Celeflial  Mind;  till  we  come,  atl'a{l,to  that, 
ivhich  is  of . Confunimate  Perlcdion.  ,  '^ 

10.,  The  fame  is   Indicated,   from   the  Scale   of  ISTature  below'tf'^ 
viz.  the  feveral  Degrees  of  Perfedion  therein  vifible.    Among  Stones, 
['  fome  have  only  the  Perfedion  of  Figure,-  others,  have  that  of  Coldfur 
added  to  it.     Of  Plants,  fome  have  Figure  only ;  others,  Figure  and  Co- 
lour ;  others,   Figure,  Colour,  and  Scent.    Some  bear  only  Seed;  'C- 


8o Of  Celefital  Mind.  Book  IL 

thers,  Seed  and  Flower ;  others,  Seed,  Flower,  and  Frujt.  In  Animals, 
the  Gradation  is  flill  greater.  Of  the  meaneft  Kind,  are  thofe  which 
have  no  Local  Motion,  but  like  a  Plant,  are  fixed  to  one  place  ;  nor  any 
Senfc,  but  that  of  Touch ;  as  the  Centre-Shell.  Next  to  which,  are 
thofe,  which  have  two  SerjCes,  Touch  and  Tafte;  with, a  cpmpleat  Lo- 
cal Motion.  Yet  without  the  help  of  any  Organs,  but  the  Mufcules, 
to  perform  it*;  as  the  Snail,  Next  above  tliefe,  is  a.  yVormj  which 
hath  alfo  two  Senfes ;  and  Claws,  but  no  Feet :  apd  the  Claws  are  ftrait, 
only  to  take  hold,  for  better  progreffion,  as  a  Florfe  that's  fliod  with 
Froft-Nails.  Above  thefe  are  Caterpillars,;  which,  .  with  two  Senfes, 
have  Claws,  and  Feet :  and  the  Claws  are  Hooked,  to  take  the  better 
hold,  in  climing  from  Twig  to  Twig,  and  hanging  on  tiie  backfides  of 
Leaves.  Yet  their  Motion  is  Fortuitous,  and  Slow  ;  as  having  no  Sight. 
Above  thefe  therefore,  are  thofe  which  have  Sight,  as  well  as  Motion  • 
and  their  Motion,  with  Legs  and  Wings,  is  Determinate  and  Q^ick  j 
as  all  Flying  Infeds.  Yet  they  only  beget  a  Magot.  ,  Therefore  above 
thefe,  are  Fifties,  which  immediately  produce  their  Kind.  AncJ  have 
alfo  the  Senfe  of  Smell,  added  to  their  Sight.  But  yet  are  Deaf  and 
Dumb.  Therefore  next  to  thefe,  ai-e  Birds,  and  Beafts,  with  flearing 
and  Voice.  Above  all  which,  is  placed  Man,  with  Underflanding  and 
Artificial  Speech:  and  hereby  the  Notice,  of  divers  btlier  Created  Beings 
Superior  to  himfelf;  as  well  as  of  a  Deity  over  all,  ^ 

II.  For  it  cannot  poffibly  be,  that  there  fliould  beany  Difproporti- 
onin  the  Works  of  God.  But  there  would  have  been  no  Proportion, 
for  God  to  have  beflowed  more  Art,  and  Multiplicity  of  VVifdom, 
on  the  Corporeal  World,  which  is  the  Meaner;  than  on  the  Vital, 
which  is  the  more  Excellent.  Or  on  that  half  of  Vital  Nature,  which 
is  below  the  Mind  of  Man ;  than  on  the  nobler  Moiety,  which  is  4- 
bove  it.  So  that  we  are  to  look  upon  Man,  as  the  Equator  of  the 

ix.  We  may  hence  alfo  gather,  whei*ein  the  Diverfity  of  Superi- 
or Beings  doth  confift.  That  with  refped  to  their  Efltnce,  they  are 
of  two  general  Orders ;  the  one,  of  Embody 'd ;  the  other,  of  Abflf  adt- 
ed  Mind. 

15.  It  is  reafonableto  believe,  that  the  Lower  Orders,  flanding  near- 
er to  our  felves,  have  fome  way  or  other,  a  Perfonal  Relation  unto  Bo- 
dy. This  we  are  direded  to,  if  we  look  below  us.  For  as  there  are 
feveral  Orders  of  animated  Body,  before  we  come  unto  Intelled: :  So 
it  mufl  needs  be,  that  there  are  feveral  Orders  of  Imbody'd  Intelled, 
before  we  come  to  pure  Mind. 

14.  Or  if  we  look  above  us.  For  if  the  Tranfition  from  Flumahe 
unto  Perfed  Mind,  is  made  by  a  Gradual  Afcent :  we  cannot  conceive, 
that  the  Perfonal  Relation,  which  Mind  hath  to  Body,  Ihould  be  quit- 
ted all  at  once ;  but  anfw  erably,  by  degrees :  till  we  come  at  laft,  to  Ab- 
llraded  Mind,  advanced  above  all  Corporeal  Nature. 

15.  And  that  Mind,  in  its  Confummate  Eftate,  is,  and  ought  thus  to 
be  abllraded  from  Body,  is  evident.  For  if  it  be  the  Perfedion  of  Body, 
to  be  united  unto  Mind  :  then  is  it  the  Perfedion  of  Mind,  to  be  Ab- 
flraded  from  Body.  And  how  can  it  be  otherwife,  when  as  God  him- 
felf, is  the  mofl  Pure  and  Perfed  Mind.  If  then,  God  hath  made  Bo- 
dy, which  is  wholly  Dark;  and  Embody 'd  Mind,  with  a  dark  Side :  we 
muft  believe,  he  hath  alfo  made  a  Mind,-  as  far  as  it  is  capable,  wholly 


Chap.   Vl  I,         Of  Celefliil  Mini  6. 

Light,  and  ncared  in  Likenefs  to  himfclf.  As  therefore  animated  f3o- 
dy,  and  Imbody'd  Mind,  are  the  two  proximate  Parts;  Co  Abdraded 
Body  and  Mind,  the  two  Extreams,of  the  Vifible  and  Inviflble  World. 

i6.  From  the  Eilence  of  Superior  Beings,  we  may  aHb  judge  of  their 
Powers:  that  is,  of  tiieir  Faculties,  and  their  Operations.  And  firll, 
that  thofeof  the  Lower  Orders,  are  not  without  Senfe  :  as  that  which 
dependeth  on  the  Union,  of  Vital  and  Corporeal  Nature.  That  as  we 
our  fclves,  have  feveral  Senfes,  which  many  Creatures  below  us,  are 
deprived  of:  So  tliofe  above  us,  may  have  divers  others,  which  we  alfo 
are  without,  and  wherefore  we  can  have  no  Conceit.  And  that  as 
Senfe,  is  gradually  N4ultiply'd,  in  the  Creatures  below  us  :  So  again, 
it  is  with  body,  gradually  laid  afide,  in  thofe  above  us. 

17.  And  it  is  equally  rcafonable,  to  afcribe  the  Power  of  Phancy  to 
Imbody'd  Mind,  as  that  of  Senfe.  For  Phancy  being  joyned  with  In- 
telled  in  our  (elves  ;  why  may  it  not,  in  a  Superior  Mind?  And  it 
would  be  a  Diforderly  Tranfition,  from  Senfe  to  Intelledi,  without  the 
mediation  of  Phancy. 

18.  It  is  moreover  evident,  that  Human  Phancy,  is  of  a  different 
Species,  from  that  of  Brutes ;  as  in  the  Chapter  Of  Phancy^  hath  been 
p-'^ved.  As  far  then,  as  Phancy  in  our  felves,  is  Superior  to  what  it  is, 
in  the  Creatures  below  us:  So  far  may  it  be  Inferior,  to  what  it  is,  in 
thofe  above  us.  It  may  in  them,  be  far  firongcr,  than  in  our  felves  j 
both  in  Reteiiung.  and  in  Forming  the  Images  of  Things,  And  there- 
fore. tI'c,  in  its  Operation  upon  Body,  For  if  Phancy  in  our  fclves, 
ca-  .in  Generating,  Aflimilating,  and  Deforming  a  Body  :  How 
mucti  more  effedually,  in  Them  ?  If  Phancy  in  us,  hath  fo  great  a  Pow- 
er, over  fo  many  Organized  Parts :  How  much  greater,  and  more  uni- 
verfal,  may  it  have  in  them,  both  over  their  own  Body,  and  over 
any  other,  by  fome  fort  of  Perfonal  Union,  or  without  it,  at  theit 

19.  But  how  far  foever  Phancy,  in  the  faid  Lower  Orders,,  may 
be  Superior  to  Humane  Phancy  :  we  are  neverthelefs,  to  look  upon 
their  way  of  Intelledion,  to  be  Co-ordinate,  or  of  the  fame  Species, 
with  our  own.  For  it  is  Proportional,  that  as  below  us,  fome  Crea- 
tures have  one  Species  of  Senfe,  and  fome  another,  with  the  fame  fort 
of  Phancy  :  So,  that  the  Creatures  next  above  us,  Ihould  have  a  diffe- 
rent Species  of  Phancy,  with  the  fame  fort  of  Intelledt. 

xo.  Yet  as  the  Creatures  below  us,  have  different  Degrees  of  Saga- 
city, with  the  fame  Species  of  Phancy:  So  thofe  above  us,  having 
the  advantage  of  other  forts  of  Senfe  and  Phancy ;  may  fetch  a  far 
greater  Compafs  than  our  felves,  with  the  fame  Species  of  Int(;lIedion^ 
And  fo,  may  be  acqliainted  with  many  particulars  in  Nature,  which  we, 
are  unable  to  take  notice  of  j  and  may  go  much  farther,  in  comprehend- 
ing the  Effences  and  Operations  of  Things. 

txi.  From  this  Identity  of  Intelledion,  with  our  own,  and  its  con- 
jundion  with  Senfitive  Phancy ;  it  comes  to  pais,  that  notwitliPcanding 
the  greatneis  of  their  Knowlege,  they  are  capable  of  Moral  Evil.  As 
it  dependeth  on  the  Subjedionof  theUnderllanding,  unto  the  Goverri', 
ment  of  a  Superior  Phancy.  And  therefore  alfo,  by  how  much  Phancy" 
is  more  potent  in  Them,  than  in  our  Selves ;  they  are  capable  of  Af- 
fections and  Paffions,  fo  much  the  more  Inordinate  :  And  fo  too,  of  io 
much  more  and  greater  Moral  Evil.  And  confequently,  of  fo  muchgreat- 

Y  er 

82  Of  Cele[lial  Mind.  Book  IL 

er  Infelicity.  So  that  Body  is  given  unto  fome  Superior  Minds,  not 
to  make  a  true  Light,  but  with  a  Mixture  of  Darknefs :  that  is,  to 
make  a  Mafterly  Phancy.  And  hereby,  they  feem  to  (land  in  foraewhata 
like  Relation,  unto  other  beings  Superior  to  themfelvesj  with  that  of 
Brute-Animals,  unto  Men.  ^ 

xz.  The  Order  of  Celeflial  Beings  next  Superior  to  the  laft  defcribed  : 
is  that  of  Mind  divefted  of  all  Body,  as  to  any  ftated  Union  therewith, 
howfoever  Subtilized  or  Refin'd.  And  confequently,  of  all  manner  of 
Senfe.  Yet  fo  withal,  as  we  are  to  conceive,  the  Phantaftick  Principle, 
by  a  Perfonal  Union  with  the  Intelleduai,  to  make,  as  in  a  Man,  one 

x3.  Nor  is  it  diJI^cult  to  conceive  the  being  of  Phancy,  independent 
upon  Senfe.  For  as  Phancy,  doth  not  make  Intelledt ;  being  only  the 
Inflrument,  w  hich  it  ufeth  :  So  neither  doth  Senfe,  make  Phancy  ;  but 
only  gives  it  occafion  to  operate,  in  the  making  of  its  own  Ideas,  abfo- 
lutel)  diflindt  from  the  perceptions  of  Senfe.  Neither  hath  Senfe,  any 
thing  to  do  with  thofe  Motions,  which  are  transfer'd  unto  Phancy,  in 
the  Command  which  the  Inalledual  Will  hath  over  it. 

24.  Phancy  then,  in  a  Mind  divefted  of  Body,  as  aforefaid,  may  be 
affeded  three  ways ;  viz.  by  Body,  Phancy,  and  Intellecft.  By  Body. 
For  albeit  Phancy,  in  a  being  purely  Mental,  having  no  Perfonal  Uni- 
on with  a  Body,  can  have  no  Perception,  properly  called,  Senfitive : 
Yet  in  ^:hat  all  Created  beings,  by  mediation  of  Life  and  Motion,  do 
Communicate  •  it  may  hereby  be  affeded  in  fome  other  analogous  way : 
which,  for  dillindion,  may  be  called,  Superfenfitive, 

X5.  By  Phancy.  For  it  cannot  be  deny'd,  but  that  all  Minds  may 
CoiTununicate,  as  well  as  Bodies.  And  it  is  much  more  reafonable, 
that  they  fliould  do  fo  ;  in  that  they  have  a  Confcious  Perception.  And 
what  then  fhould  hinder,  but  that  they  may  communicate  the  fame  Im- 
prefllons  one  to  another,  as  thofe  which  they  receive  from  Bodies  ?  Or 
fuch  as  are  thereunto  anfwerable  i  And  fo  enjoy,  though  no  Senfe,  ftrid- 
ly  fo  called,  yet  thofe  Perceptions,  which  are  analogous  unto  all  the  Spe- 
cies of  Senfe  ? 

x6.  And  by  Intelled.  Which  in  this  more  Noble  Order,  may  have 
fo  much  the  greater  Command  over  Phancy  ;  as  Phancy  is  lefs  Maflerly, 
than,  where,  by  a  Perfonal  Union  with  Body,  it  is  fortify 'd  by  Senfe. 

x7.  But  although  in  this  Superior  Order,  Phancy  and  Intelled:  make 
one  Mind :  Yet  fuch  a  Mind,  as  is  endowed  with  a  different  Species  of 
Intelledion  ;  and  fo  of  Operation,  yet  more  Excellent.  For  we  muft 
ftill  remember,  to  have  regard  to  the  Proportion  of  things,  in  all  the 
parts  of  the  Univerfe.  As  then  in  all  Proportions,  the  given  Numbers, 
'  or  Meafures,  tell  us,  what  the  others  ought  to  be  :  So  in  the  propor- 
tional Relation  of  Things,  by  looking  upon  thofe  which  are  Vifible,  we 
are  to  judge  of  thofe  which  are  Inviiible.  Now  we  fee,  that  as  there 
are  Degrees,  in  the  fame  Species  of  Senfe :  So  there  are  alfo  different 
Species  of  Senfe.  And  as  there  are  Degrees  ,  in  the  fame  Specifs 
of  Phancy :  So  there  are  alfo  different  Species  of  Phancy.  Why  then, 
ftiould  the  Divine  Wifdom,  be  lefs  various,  in  a  much  Nobler  part  of  Na- 
ture, the  Degrees  and  Species  of  Intelledion  ? 

28.  Nor  IS  the  Mode  of  a  more  Excellent  Species  of  Intelledion,  in- 
conceivable.   For  tho'  Dubitation  and  Difquifition,  with  refped  to  their 
End,  the  finding  out  of  Truth  j  and  with  relped  to  the  Creatures  be- 

Chap.  Vlil.        Of  Celejiial  Mini  89 

low  us,  which  make  no  Enquiry  after  Truth  at  all ;  doferve  to  compleat 
and  perfed  Human  Intelled:  :  Yet  confidered  abfolutely,  they  do  evi- 
dently denote  Imperl'ecaion ;  as  in  the  Beginning  of  this  Chapter,  is 
faid.  And  do  therefore  lead  us  to  a  more  Excellent  Mind,  which  enjoys 
the  Knowledge  of  Things,  by  diredt  and  immediate  Intuition  :  a  Way 
of  Intellection,  more  calie,  and  more  pcrfpicuous.  And  therefore  with- 
out any  Inclination,  unto  Moral  Evil.  And  confequently,  accompanied 
with  much  greater  Delight  and  Pleafure. 

19,  And  that  fomewhere  above  us,  there  ought  to  be,  and  therefore  is, 
a  Mind  thus  fpecified;  is  feen,  by  Nature  below.  For  if  Phancy,  com- 
monly called  Inftind,  is  fo  far  ptrfedt  in  Brutes  ,  as  to  operate  without 
Learning  and  Difquifition,  as  we  fee  it  is  :  then  alfo,  by  Proportion,  Un- 
derftanding  Mind,  in  fome  higher  Station  of  Nature,  (hould  be  advan- 
ced unto  equal  Perfection  :  that  is,  Ihould  be  endowed  with  a  fort  of 
Inteliedual  Inftind.  Man  being  placed  in  the  midfl,  with  Phancy  and 
Reafon,  both  improveable.  And  of  this  Order  or  Species  of  Mind, 
which  may  be  called  Intuitive;  we  may  fuppofe,  there  are  feveral  De- 
grees, as  well  as  of  Intelledive,  or  Phantaftick,  or  any  other  Species  of 

30.  Agreeable  to  the  Symmetry  of  the  Univerfe,  we  mufl  yet  climb 
a  Heaven  liigher.  We  mufl  go  above  that  of  Pure  Mind,  which  I  have 
now  defcribed  ;  unto  Simple  or  Uncompounded  Mind.  To  that  which 
is  fevered,  not  only  from  Body  and  Senfe  ;  but  alfo  from  Phancy;  ex- 
ifting,  as  an  Abftraded  Underftanding  Mind  :  Of  all  the  Species  of  Su- 
periour  Mind,  whereof  we  can  have  any  Diftindl  Conception,  the  mofl 
Sublime.  The  former  being  freed,  from  the  Shades  of  Corporeity ;  may 
fee,  what  it  k^s^  Intuitively,  or  at  the  firft  View  :  Yet  in  Conformity 
unto  Phancy,  may  be  obliged  to  fee  things,  either  by  Reminifcence  ;  or 
fome  other  way  of  Succeffion,  one  after  another.  But  the  Supream 
Created  Mind  aforefaid,  may  poffibly  enjoy,  both  an  Intuitive,  and  a  Con- 
temporary View  of  every  Thing. 

3 1.  Of  this  Perfedion,  we  have  the  Shadow  in  our  felves ;  As  in  think- 
ing of  the  Number  zo.  Whereof,  at  the  fame  time,  as  we  know  it  con- 
tains zo  Units,  yet  we  have  not  xo  Conceits ,  but  one  fingle  Con- 
ceit. Nor  have  we  more  than  a  fingle  Conceit  of  any  Genus ;  though  it 
contains  all  the  Species  :  Nor  of  any  Species^  though  it  contains  all  the 
Individuals.  So  likewife  a  Propofition,  though  it  contains  divers  firft  and 
fecond  Notions  of  Things ;  yet  we  afTent  to  it,  as  one  fmgle  Truth. 
Which  is  one  Particular,  as  hath  been  obferved  in  the  Chapter  Of  Intelle- 
tlualMind,  wherein  Human  Reafon  doth  not  only  Gradually,  but  Spe- 
cifically differ,  from  the  Phantaflick  Reafon  of  Brutes :  Which  have  no 
Conceit  of  Truth,  as  an  Aggregate  of  divers  Simple  Conceits,  nor  of 
any  other  Univerfal. 

31.  Yet  even  the  Mind  of  Man,  labours  under  this  Imperfedion  ;That 
we  come  not  to  any  Truth,  or  Univerfal,  but  by  a  fucceliive  View  of  all 
the  Species  or  Simple  Conceits,  whereof  they  arife.  Whereas  the  Mind 
aforefaid,  may  enjoy  a  Comprehenfive  Sight  of  all  it  knows,  at  one  View. 
A  Worm  finds  what  it  fearches  after,  only  by  Feeling,  as  it  crawls  from 
one  thing  to  another.  Whereas  a  Man,  having  Eyes,  fees  in  a  Moment, 
all  before  him.  Now  there  is  no  Proportion,  in  there  being  a  greater 
Diflance  of  Perfedlion  between  the  tw  o  Extreams  of  Senle ;  than  be- 
tween thofe  of  Intelleiftion.    As  far  therefore,  as  the  Senfe  of  a  Worfii, 


84  Of  Celeflial  Mind  Book   11. 

is  beneath  Humane  Senfe :  So  far  may  Humane  Intellediion,  be  beneath 
theComprehenfive,  in  the  Supream  Order  of  Celeflial  Mind. 

33.  And  as  the  Knowlege  of  the  faid  Mind,  isperfedt  in  its  Nature: 
So  ought  it  to  be,  in  its  Extent.  As  then  the  Intuitive  Mind,  by  the 
perfetStion  of  Phancy,  may  have  fuch  a  Perception  of  Senfible  things, 
as  is  Superfenfitive,  as  hath  been  faid :  So  the  Abftraded  or  Compre- 
henfive,  may  have  a  fort  of  Perception  of  things,  uithout  the  help  of 
Senfe,  or  Phancy,  in  a  Superfenfitive,  and  a  Superphantaftick  way.  In 
like  manner,  fo  far  as  can  belong  to  a  Creature,  as  the  Deity  himfelf, 
tho'  he  perceiveth  neither  Pleafure,  nor  Pain,  nor  any  thing  elfe,  as  we 
do :  yet  muft  needs  have  a  Perfedt  and  Tranfcendental  Perception,  both 
of  Pleafure,  and  Pain,  and  of  all  other  things. 

34.  And  the  Perfection  of  the  Will,  in  this  Supream  Created  Mind, 
can  be  no  lefs.  That  is  to  f  7,  having  a  Perfonal  Union,  neither  with 
Body,  nor  Phancy  :  It  is  neither  Inclinable  unto  Evil,  nor,  as  far  as  be- 
longeth  to  a  Creature,  is  capable  of  it.  For  it  is  a  Contradidtion  to  fay, 
that  pure  Intelled:,  can  ever  be  drawn,  from  its  adhefion  unto  Truth 
and  Reditude. 

35 .  Nor  can  the  Felicity  of  this  Supream  Order  of  Mind,  be  unan- 
fwerable,  to  the  Confummate  Perfedion  of  their  Underftanding  and 
Will.  Growing,  as  from  the  Comprehenfion  they  have,  of  Univerfal 
Nature  :  So  alfo,  and  chiefly,  from  their  Knowing,  Loving,  and  Obey- 
ing in  Perfedion,  the  Incomprehenfible  Author  of  it.  Whom  they  fee, 
to  be  as  far  above  therafelves  j  as  they  fee  themfelves,  above  a  Mit?  or 
an  Atome. 

Thus  far,  of  Celeflial  Mind,  and  of  the  Vital  World. 


Chap.  I. 




-  .      -    —  :  -  - — ■- 


Wherein  is  fliewed ,  That  GOD 
Governs  the  Univerfe  which  he 
hath  made  :  And  in  what  man- 

c  H  A  P    I. 

Of   the  Nature   of  GO  Us  Government,    or  of 

Divine   Providence, 

;Rovi(ience,  is  God's  Provifion  or  Forecaft 
of  Caufes,  fufficient  to  the  fulfilling  of 
all  his  Ends.  The  Being  whereof,  is  de- 
monftrated,  from  the  Perfedtion  of  the  Di- 
vine Nature  :  The  Imperfection  of  the 
Creatures  ;  and  the  Conftitution  of  the  U- 
2.  Creation,  doth  neceflarily  infer  Pro- 
vidence. For  the  Being  of  every  thing, 
is  for  thj  fake  of  its  Operation,  Whca 
therefore,  God  gave  Being  to  Things :  he 
could  not  but  provide  for  the  Regiment  of  their  Operations.  For  o- 
therwife,  he  had  taken  care  of  the  Means,  and  over-look'd  the  End  j 
which  is  a  Contradidion. 

3.  God  either  provided  for  the  Government  of  the  World,  when  he 
made  it ;  or  refolv'd  never  to  think  of  it  more,  when  he  had  done.  That 
is,  he  thought  it  an  Effed:,  worthy  of  his  Infinite  Wifdom  and  Power  : 
yet  unworthy  of  his  Care,  of  what  became  of  it. 

4.  Dare  we  fay,  he  cannot  govern  ?  That  were  to  fuppofe  Him,  to  cre- 
ate Witnedes  of  his  own  Imperfeiftion.  And  if  he  can,  and  doth  it  not : 
then  his  Ability  is  altogether  in  vain/ 

5.  The  fame  is  evident,  fj;om  the  Imperfection  of  the  Creature.  In 
that  nothing  can  continue  to  Be,  by  virtue  of  its  firft  Being;  as  in  the 
Chapter  Of  G  0  D^  hath  been  proved.  But  if  the  Divine  Energy  be  necef- 
fary,  to  the  Continual  Being  of  Things :  Then  is  it  alfo,  to  their  Ope- 

Z  ration : 

^5  Of  the  Nature  Book  ill 

radon  :  which  is  a  certain  Manner  of  Being.     And  confequently,  unto 
whatloever  Is,  or  is  Done  in  the  World. 

6.  It  likewife  appears,  in  the  Univerfal  Conftitution   of  Things.     The 
Government ^ep  atnong  Cajhrs,   Bees^  aijtl  other  iBferiortr  Creatures  , 
apparently  flie?(^  its  Origihai,  to  be  from  God.     But  if  founded  in    the 
Nature  of  thefe  Creatures  ;  how  much  rather,  in  that  of  Man  ?  a  much excellent. Creature  j    and  to  wliorait  is  of  much    greater  Ufe 
And  lliould  we  fuppofe  it,  to  come,  in  any  fort  or  degree,  from  Cuftom 
or  td^jcation  'J  yefe.has  it  ftill  the  fame  Pedigree ;  as  Cuftom  it  feJCcoraes 
from  Natures  which  comes  from  God.    k  is  alfo  Vifibic  e\rery  where, 
Thart;  thofe  Tilings,  which  have  more  Power ;  govern  thofe,  which  have 
left '.  Motion,  governs  Matter  j  Life,  Senfe,  and  Phancy,  govern  Motion ; 
aqd  Reafon,  goy^ras  Phancy.     Which  alfo  leads  us  through  the   feveral 
degrees  of  Power,  in  Celeftial  Mind  ;  till  we  come  to  the  firft  Caufe 
and  Pattern,  of  all  regular  Motion  and  Operation,  God  himfelf^  Who 
in  making  all  things  fit  to  govern,  and  to  be  governed  :  hereby  ftieweth. 
That  they  are  both  the  Object,  and  the  Image,  of  his  Nature,  as  their  fu- 
pream  Governour. 

7.  And  therefore,  his  Government  is  alfo  fuch,  as  is  every  way  wor- 
thy of  Himfelf,  viz.  of  that  Extent,  and  Form,  as  is  fuitable,  both  to 
his  own  Nature,  and  that  of  the  Creatures. 

8 .  And  firft,  it  is  in  all  refpeds,  Univerfal.  Reaching  not  only  to 
Celeftial,  but  Terreftrial  Worlds;  and  among  them,  this  we  live  in. 
Not  only  unto  Things  of  greater  Moment :  but  unto  thofe  alfo,  which 
feem  to  us,  to  be  the  moft  Cafual,  and  the  mod  Trivial.  And  fo  unto 
every  Work,  Thought,  Motion  or  Contingent :  or  the  Operation,  as 
well  as  the  Being  of  every  Vital  Principle,  and  of  every  Atom.  And 
therefore  not  only  unto  the  Proximate  Effeds  of  Things  ;  but  unto  all 
otliets,  the  moft  Remote. 

9.  For  it  was  as  truly  the  Ad:  of  Infinite  Power,  to  give  Being,  unto 
onefingle  Aioin  ;  as  to  give  Being,  unto  the  whole  World.  If  then  God 
inten^d  not,  the  particular  and  precife  Ufe,  of  every  fingle  Atom  : 
he  employed  Infinite  Power  to  make  it  in  vain.  That  fingle  Atom^,  as 
fmall  as  it  is,  had  been  no  better,  thtm  a  Piece  of  Lumber.  And  he  might 
as  well  have  employed  the  lame  Infinite  Power,  any  other  way,  invam  : 
as  well  have  made  an  Angel,  as-an  Atom,  or  a  Million  of  Angels,  or  the 
V¥orld  in  vain.  « 

•  lb.  Could  we  fuppofe  God,  not  to  have  regard  to  the  utmoft  Ufe  of 
Things,  or  not  unto  all  Poflible  Effeds  :  we  muft  infer,  That  as  to  fome 
of  their  Effeds,  he  made  them,  he  knew  not  for  what.  And  his  Works 
muft  then  be  efteemed,  partly  Intelledual,  as  thofe  of  reafonable  Crea- 
tures- 'and  partly  Phantaftick,  as  thofe  of  Brutes.  And  fo,  the  Exuberan- 
cy of  his  Power,  would  only  have  ferved,  to  Demonftrate  the  Deficien- 
cy of  his  Underftanding. 

1 1 .  And  the  Suppofal  of  any  Imperfedion  in  his  Underftanding  j 
muft  fuf^ofe  Mm  to  be  Mutable.  As  hereby  he  muft  needs  fee,  lome 
Things  in  their  Effeds  J  which  he  did  not  forelee  in  himfelf,  as  their 
Caule.  And  therefore  alfo  Deceivable,  and  Unjuft  :  As  not  comprehen- 
ding the  Proportions  between  the  Caufes  and  Effeds  of  Ihings.  And 
confequently,  could  not  be  perfedly  Good. 

\TL.  If  then  we  will  allow  tlie Deity,  to  Be,  what  he  Is:  we  muft  alfo  al- 
low the  Nature  of  his  Government,  to  anfwer  that  of  his  Being.  And  that 

-  ■  •  all 

C  H  A  p;  I  of  Providence. 

atlliis  Works,  do  anfvver  one  to  another.  So  that  we  may  as  well  fay, 
there  are  (ome  Things,  -he  did  not  Make ;  as  that  there  are  any,  which 
he  doth  govern. 

13.  Nor  is  theMajePiy  of  the  Divine  Government,  greater  in  its  Ex- 
tent :  than  the  BecomingnL-fs  hereof.  In  its  Manner  and  Form.  T]:e 
former,  fliews  the  Neceiiity  of  the  latter.  For  otherwife,  the  Greatnefs 
of  its  Extent,  Mould  only  ferve  to  make  it,  fo  much  the  more  Monflrous 
and  Deformed. 

14.  Now  the  Form  of  God's  Government,  confifleth  in  Tu^o  things, 
'viz.  The  Mediation  or  Mipiftry  of  Second  Caufcs  :  And  the  Order  where- 
in they  Minifler.  We  are  not  to  thinly  that  God  doth  any  thing  imme- 
diately orbyhimfelf  alone  :  but  that.hedoth  every  thing,  by  the  Medi-i 
ation  of  fome  one  or  more  Infu  uments.  For  it  is  fenfelefs,  to  fupppofe 
he  would  make  any  inflrument,  which  he  did  not  intend  to  ufe.  And 
to  what  F.nd,  lliould  he  have  made  any  Inltruments ;  if  not  all,  that  were 
fit  and  necedary  to  do  his  Work  ? 

15.  As  thefeveral  Parts  of  the  Univerfe,  are  fo  many  leiler  Engines: 
So  the  VVhole,  is  not  a  meer  Aggregate,  or  Heap  of  Parts,  but  one  great 
Engine,  having  all  its  Parts  fitly  let  together,  and  fet  to  work :  or  one  Entire 
Movement  of  Divine  Art.  To  fuppole  it  then,  either  to  ftand  ftill,  or  to 
move  irregularly ,  in  the  VVhole,  or  in  any  the  leaft  Part,  without 
the  fupervening  of  a  New  Divine  PdU'Cr':  is  to  fuppofe  the  Author  of 
it,  not  to  be  his  Arts  Mafter. 

16.  There  is  nothing  therefore  in  Nature,  neither  Miraculous,  nor 
anything  elle  of  the  greatefl^  Moment ;  wherein  God  is  to  be  thought 
a  Solitary  and  immediate  Agent.  But  that  every  thing  depends  upon 
fome  Created  Caufe  or  Caufes,  with  Commiliion  or  Power,  futfici- 
ent  to  produce  it.  But  as  the  Caufes,  which  we  fee  and  contemplate, 
though  of  the  mod  ufual  Effeds ;  do  juflly  merit  our  Adoration  of 
the  Supream  Caufe:  fo  more  efpecially  thofe,  which  are  unknown 
to  us,  and  whofe  Effcils  are  Miraculous. 

17.  We  are  alfo  to  venerate  the  Divine  Government,  as  this  Immenle 
World  of  Iniiruments,  are  ufed  in  due  and  perfed:  Order.  All  Dif- 
order,  being  both  an  Imperfedion  in  it  felf  :  And  implying  (ome  Igno- 
rance, of  the  bed  Ufe  of  Things.  When  we  fay,  that  Reafon  goi 
verns  the  Foot :  we  underftand  ,  That  Reafon,  governs  the  Phancy  , 
which  governs  the  Mufcule,  which  governs  the  Foot.  Reafon,  by  Phan- 
cy, guides  the  Eye,  and  helps  the  Hand,  which  guides  and  helps  the 
Foot.  Whether  then,  we  refpedt  the  Mediation,  or  the  Order  of 
Caufes,  in  the  Divine  Government;  as  Reafon  governs  the  whole  Bo- 
dy; So  God,  the  Supream  Reafon,  governs  the  whole  World. 

18.  Wherefore,  Regularity,  or  the  Order  of  Things,  tho'  we  fee  it 
not  every  where  ;  yet  is  it  every  where  to  be  fuppofed. 

1 9.  But  for  the  mod  part,  whether  we  look  into  the  Corporeal,  or  the 
Vital  World;  into  the  EiTence,  or  the  Operation  of  Things,  it  is  very- 
apparent.  We  (ee,  tliat  albeit  the  Princip-les  of  Bodies,  are  bf  innume- 
rable kinds;  yet  fome  of  them,  have  fo  far  the  Dominion  over  all  the 
red;  that  there  are  but  ilx  or  feven,  which  come  withm  the  Notice  of 
Senle.  And  of  thefe,  there  are  two,  which  alfo  prevail,  v/z.  the  feveral 
forts  of  Salts,  and  of  Air.  The  former,  in  governing  the  Figures  or  Ge- 
nerations of  Bodies :  the  latter,  their  Motions  and  Dilfolutions. 

%o.  So 

88  Of  the  Nature.  .  Book  111. 

»       I  ■"■■  '  I         .        .  !■!  ■'    ■       I     '■■■  .■-■I  ■  '  ■■         I     »l      ■  I         1^       -         I.-— I.—  -  .■.■.^■— ■■■  I     ■.— 

xo.  So  likevvife,  there  are  feveral  forts  of  Motion,  arifing  from  fe- 
veral  Springs,  But  that  which  is  moft  UniverfaJ,  is  mixed  with,  and 
has  a  fort  of  Dominion  over  all  others ;  is  that  of  Gravitation.  Where- 
by, notwitiiftanding  all  the  Varieties  and  Contrarieties  of  Motion  in 
the  World ;  yet,  as  all  the  Leffer  parts  of  the  World,  are  aflbciated  with 
the  Greater  ;  fo  all  the  Greater,  one  with  another  :  As  the  Moon  with 
the  Earth,  and  the  Earth  and  all  the  other  Planets,  with  the  Sun.  Nor 
is  it  unlikely,  but  that  all  thofe  Millions  of  Suns,  or  of  fixed  Stars,  which 
are  in  the  Univerfe,  have  feme  kind  of  Correfpondence  with  one  ano- 

zi.  The  Dominion  which  Celeflial  Bodies,  both  the  Planets,  and  fix- 
ed Stars;  but  chiefly,  the  Sun ancT Moon,  have  over  the  Earth,  and  the 
feveral  parts  of  it,  efpecially  under,  or  near  the  Line;  how  great  and 
wide  is  it  ?  both  by  virtue  of  their  Motion  ;  their  Power  of  producing 
Light  and  Heat ;  and  divers  other  Qualities  and  Powers.  For  though 
their  Diftance  is  great ;  yet  this  is  fufficiently  anfwer'd  by  their  Bulk, 
and  the  Subtilty  of  the  Intervening  Ether.  Which  if  it  ferves  to  trans- 
fer Light  and  Heat ;  why  not  other  Qualities  ?  And  we  fee  in  fadt,  that 
befides  the  Power  of  Gravitation,  there  is  a  Power,  between  Heaven 
and  Earth,  particularly  directive  towards  their  Poles.  And  I  have  fliew- 
ed,  by  an  Experiment  fet  down  in  the  Anatomy  of  Plants^  that  as  the 
Roots  of  all  Plants  do  tend  downward,  fo  their  Trunks  or  Stalks,  up- 
ward ;  thoie,  by  fome  fort  of  a  I  errellriai ;  thefe,  of  a  Celellial  Mag- 

xa.  The  Sun  then,  by  commanding  the  Motion  of  the  Earth ;  gives 
it  a  Dominion  over  every  thing  that  betongs  to  it.  By  its  Diurnal  Mo- 
tion, it  brings  the  Night:  And  by  its  Annual,  fets  the  feveral  Lengths  of 
the  Day,  and  Seafons  of  the  Year.  This,  as  a  neceflary  Recruit  unto 
the  Vegetable  World ;  that,  unto  the  Animal.  And  by  both,  contri- 
butes very  far,  to  the  Making,  and  Variation,  of  Winds,  and  Tides. 

a3.  By  its  Light,  it  exhibits  the  Furniture,  and  conducts  the  bufinefs 
of  the  whole  World.  And  in  (hewing  all  the  varieties  of  Colour ;  becomes 
the  Paint  and  Varnilh  of  Vifible  Nature. 

X4.  By  its  Heat,  hath  the  chief  Controul,  above,  of  Vapors  and  Ex- 
halations :  And  fo,  in  the  Produdion  of  all  forts  of  Meteors.  And  by 
This,  with  other  Qualities,  hath  a  governing  Power,  here  below  :  As  in 
the  Generation  of  the  two  Worlds  of  Plants,  and  Infeds :  And  more 
or  lefs,  of  all  other  Animals,  ^s  alfo  in  their  Growth.  Which  in  moft 
Plants  and  Animals  of  the  fame  kind,  is  not  only  more  Quick  in  Hot 
Countries,  than  in  Cold,  but  far  Greater.  •  Therefore  Women,  which 
with  us,  bear  not  till  the  Age  of  i6  or  17  Years:  In  the  Eaft-Indks^ 
are  prolifick  at  10  or  n.  kx\AVeacocks^  with  fome  other  Birds,  which 
in  Colder  Climates,  lay  but  5  or  6  Eggs :  in  Hotter,  lay  double  the  num- 
ber. And  on  the  fame  Solar  Virtue,  may  likewife  depend,  in  part,  that 
certain  Degree  of  Growth,  unto  which  Man,  and  all  other  Animals  are 
confin'd.    • 

25.  Nor  is  the  Dominion  of  the  Moon,  much  lefs.  By  its  Light,  it 
Conduds  the  Unufual,  as  the  Sun  doth  the  Conflant  or  Ordinary  bufi- 
nefs of  Men.  -  By  its  Motion,  itallifls  in  the  Command  of  Winds,  and 
Tides.  By  thefe,  and  other  Qualities,  in  the  profperity  of  Seeds,  and 
young  Plants,  newly  Sow'n  and  Set.  In  the  filling  of  Shell-filh  ;  a  fort 
of  Animal-Vegetation.    In  the  growth  of  the  Hair;   a  fortpf  Plant  up- 

"■  on 

A  P. 

i,  of  Providence.  89 

on  an  Animal.  And  in  the  growth  of  the  Teeth  :  which,  for  inftance, 
in  a  Horie,  begin  to  appear  within  the  firfl  3  Months;  in  iz  Months, 
he  hath  6  below,  and  6  above ;  in  30,  he  changeth  z  above,  and  %  below ; 
and  in  41,  he  hath  4  new  ones,  on  both  fides.  Asalfo,  inalithofe  Mo- 
tions and  Mutations,  which  are  made  in  the  Humors  of  the  Body  of 
Man.  For  if  it  hath  a  Vifible  Power,  over  thofe  Grand  Fluids,  the 
Sea  and  the  Air,  without  the  Body  :  why  not  over  thefe  within  it,  the' 
another  way  ? 

i6.  There  is  no  other  Caufe  can  be  affigned,  for  the  ufual  Purgation  of 
Women,  by  Monthly  Returns.  Nor  why  they  begin  with  the  New 
Moon,  in  young  Women,  in  whom  the  Humors  are  more  moveable  and 
obedient  to  the  Lumr  Influx :  but  with  the  Old,  in  Elder  Women,  in 
w  horn  they  are  lefs. 

x-j.  It  is  the  Moon  too,  that  is  Miflrefs  of  the  Time  for  bearing  the 
Fxtus^  and  bringing  it  to  its  full  Growth :  which  is  not  left  to  any 
I.ength ;  but  limited  to  a  Month,  or  Months,  or  Parts  of  a  Month,  In 
Elephants^  to  18  Months;  in  Mares  zv\d.  /^Jfes^  to  iz;  in  Camels  and 
Co?w,  to  10;  m  Deer^  to  8;  in»j  ,  to  6 ;  in  Sheep,  to  s  ;  in  ffogs,  to 
4 ;  in  Badgers  and  Foxes,  to  3 ;  in  Hares  and  Rahhits,  to  one ;  in  Chick- 
ens ^  to  zi  Days. 

z8.  And  no  left,  of  the  time  of  Labour.  For  howfoever  it  comes  to 
pafs,  from  Sundry  Caufes,  that  many  Women  are  Delivered  in  the  Day- 
time :  Yet  there  is  not  one  in  a  Thoufand,  but  begins  to  Cry  out,  or  to 
fall  in  Labour,  in  the  Night.  And  as  the  mofl  eafie  Labour,  is  towards, 
and  in  the  full  Moon  ;  fo  the  hardeft,  in  the  New  and  Silent  Moon. 

^9.  Nor  doth  it  only  govern  thefe  things,  which  are  partly  Natural, 
and  partly  againfl;  Nature  :  but  likewifefeveralDifeafes,  properly  fo  called. 
Epilepfys,  and  Maniacal  Lunacies,  do  ufually  conform,  either  in  their 
Periodical  Returns,  or  in  the  force  of  their  Paroxyfmes,  to  the  Age  of  the 
Moon.  Andfo  hkewife  do  the  Motions  of  Ffiji^frj,  towards  their  Crijis. 
More  apparently  in  thofe  Countries,  which  lye  either  under  the  Ecliptick 
IJne,or  near  to  it.  Where,  the  Air,  being  a  much  cleerer  and  thinner  Medi- 
um ;  and  the  Diftance  of  the  Moon,  much  lefs :  The  Lunar  Rays^  the 
Vehicle  of  its  other  Qualities,  defcend  with  fo  much  the  greater  Vi- 
gour, fn  u  hich  Countries,  as  in  Eg^vpt  and  Greece,  the  firfl:  Obfervati- 
ons  of  this  kind,  were  therefore  more  eafily  and  more  exactly  made. 

30.  And  the  fame  Emanations,  which  dired:  the  Motions  of  Difeafes, 
may  likewife  produce  them.  And  confequently,  have  a  deputed  power 
over  Death.  For  what  can  be  more  reafonable,  than  that  the  Genera- 
tion, Motion,  and  Termination  of  Difeafes,  fliould  have  a  dependence, 
upon  the  fame  general  Caufe  ?  And  accordingly,  moft  People,  do  then 
dye,  when  the  Moon  chiefly  reigns :  that  is,  either  in  the  Night,  or  up- 
on or  near  a  Spring-Tide.  The  Sun,  on  the  contrary,  having  the  pow- 
er of  Life,  as  God's  Vice-Monarch  over  the  Corporeal  World.  So  then, 
the  Dominion  of  Bodies,  and  of  Motions,  over  one  another,  and  of 
Heaven,  over  Earth  ;  being  eflablilhed  by  the  Meafures  of  Divine  Wif- 
dom  and  Goodnels  ;  may  properly  be  efleemed,  a  part  of  the  Divine  Go- 

3 1 .  And  as  God  hath  efiabliflied  a  Regiment  of  Bodies  over  one  ano- 
ther :  So  moreover,  of  the  f^ital  over  the  Corporeal  World.  All  Moti- 
on, and  confequently,  all  Bodies  being  govern'd  by  Life,  known,  or 
unlcnown  to  us.     Phancy,  in  ourfclves,  and  other  Animals,  is  able  to 

A  a  move 

^o  Of  the  Nature  Book  111, 

move  the  whole  Body.  And  the  Government,  which  the  Mind  in  Ani- 
mals, hath  over  the  Body:  Sheweth,  that  God  hath  beftowed,  forae- 
where  or  other, ,  upon  Celefiial  Mind,  the  Regiment  of  the  Corporeal 
-World.  For  it  is  Incongruous,  for  God  to  give  more  Power,  to  an  In- 
ferior, than  to  a  Superior  Mind.  So  that  a  Mind,  of  any  Rank  or  De- 
gree, Superior  to  our  own,  having  a  Power  to  command  the  Principles 
of  Motion  :  by  the  fame  Power,  may  command  any  Part  or  Parts 
of  the  Univerfe,  great  or  fmall ;  with  the  fame  eale,  as  a  Man  doth  his 
own  Body.  " 

3  i.  Nor  can  the  Regiment  of  Mind  over  Bodies,  as  afoi-efaid,  upon 
any  folid  ground,  be  deny'd.  By  the  ufual  courfe  of  Nature,  a  Stone 
will  fall  to  the  Ground :  but  by  the  force  of  a  Man's  Hand,  is  made  to 
alcend.  By  the  fame  courfe  of  Nature,  the  Sun-beams  would  never 
burn:  but  by  means  of  a  Convex-Glafs,  they  are  made  to  converge 
into  a  burning  Focus.  With  what  Senfe  then,  can  we  think,  that  the 
World  above  us,  fliould  at  no  time  be  permitted  to  fufpend,  or  promote 
the  Stated  Motions  and  Operations  of  Bodies;  when  we  often  fee  them, 
to  be  fufpended,  or  promoted,   by  our  felves  ? 

^3.  Yet  in  that  the  Principles  of  Bodies,  and  the  Powers  by  which  they 
are  moved,  are  unalterable :  we  are  not  to  fuppofe,  that  any  Order  of  Be- 
ings in  the  fuperior  World,  hath  either  Commiflion,  or  Power,  to  Deftroy 
the  ftated  Courfe  of  tilings,  or  to  Introduce  any  other. 

34.  Neither  is  the  Vital  World,  in  any  part  of  it,  without  Order. 
For  befides  that  which  is  Confpicuous,  in  divers  (orts  of  Brutes;  Mankind 
hath  an  eftabliflied  Dominion  over  them  all ;  as  they  are  deprived,  of 
Human  Reafon,  Shape,  and  Speech.  What  can  be  more  admirable, 
than  to  fee  a  little  Boy,  Dpmineering  over  a  War-Horfe^  or  an  Elephant  ? 
And  it  is  feldom,  that  any  Creature  rebells,  but  to  keep,  or  defend  it 
felf ;  for  Food,  or  Safeguard. 

3  5.  There  is  no  Nation,  of  whatfoever  Climate,  or  Humour,  Vir- 
tuous or  Barbarous,  Learned  or  Rude ;  but  naturally  forms  it  felf  into 
fome  kind  of  Government.  The  Varieties  whereof,  do  all  of  them 
centre  upon  that,  which  in  effed,  is  the  Regal :  As  the  United  Provinces^ 
with  their  Statholder,  and  the  Venetians^  with  their  Doge.  Nor  could 
ths.  Romans  be  without  a  Dictator  ^  upon  great  occafions.  And  both 
the  jews^  for  fome  time,  and  fundry  other  Nations,  in  the  firfl  Ages  af- 
ter the  Flood,  were  govern'd  by  Priells.  The  Termination  of  Power, 
fome, way  or  other,  upon  one  Head;  being  the  Perfediion  of  Human 
Government ,  as  it  is  a  Part ,  and  in  fome  fort,  the  Image,  of  the 

3-6.  Yet  no  Human  Power,  can  be  Abfolute.  Never  was  there  any 
fuch,  of  Right,  or  in  Fad-,  in  the  World:  but  every  where  fetled 
upon  Conditions,  Exprelled  ,  or  Imply'd.  For  the  Nature  of  God, 
being  Incommenfurable  with  that  of  Man;  and  the  Nature  of  Man, 
with  that  of  Brutes :  The  Dominion  therefore  ,  v\  hich  God  hath 
over  Man ,  is  Abfolute ;  and  fo  too  ,  that  which  Man  hath  over 
Brutes.  But  that  which  Man  hath  over  his  own  Species,  never 
was,  nor  can  be  Abfolute:  but  mud  always  be  founded  upon  a 
Realonable  Will.  Which  belongs  not  to  any  one  Man,  but  is 
the  common  Principle  of  Humane  Nature.  And ,  as  fuch,  can  ne- 
ver comply,  but  upon  Terms  regarding  the  Good  of  Humane 
Society.     With  refpedt  to  which,  ^here  is   no  fort  of  Government , 


^ .  C  H  A  p.  J.                of  Providence.  c  i 

II  _ ^- , — _Z1 

but  may  juftly  be  efteemed,  a  Part  of  God's  Dominion  eftabliflied  in  the 

37.  Next  above  Civil  Government,  is  that  of  the  $uperiour  World 
over  the  Minds  of  Men;  and  confequently,  oyer  all  Humaqe  Af- 
fairs. ,_         ,  '.  .,,,1,.,.,.,,'  I  ^ 

38.  Of  this,  there  are  fundry  great  Indications.  'A^'firfl;,  Tlie  Co- 
herent Afcent  or  Advance,  which  is  made  in  the  Nature  or  Eflence  of 
Things,  from  the  meaneft,  to  the  mofl:  excellent.  As  then  Gqd  has 
made  a  Connection  of  all  the  Parts,  in  the  Compofure  of  the  Univerle  ; 
fo  he  hatli  undoubtedly  done,  of  all  the  Operations  in  the  Government 

39.  The  fame  is  further  Indicated  from  the  Regiment  which  is  vifible 
in  the  Corporeal  World.  For  when  we  fee  the  Power  and  Influence, 
which  Celedial  Bodies  have  over  the  Earth,  and  over  our  own,  and  o- 

tlier  Bodies  :  we  mufl:  conclude,   That  the  Power  and  Influencey  which  ' 

Superiour   Minds  have   over  the    Mind    of  Man ,    is    hereunto  ana- 
logous, ,.  .^ 

40.  As  alfo,  from  the  Congruity,  which  cannot  but  be  every  where, 
between  the  Ellence  and  the  Operation  of  Things.  It  is  Incongruous, 
That  the  Empire  of  Body,  fliould  be  larger,  than  that  of  Mind.  That 
all  Bodies,  (hould  have  more  Pdwer,  which  have  more^  Motion ;  and 
not  all  Superiour  Minds,  which  have  more  Underftanding.  And  then, 
to  what  End,  fliould  they  have  a  Power  to  operate  on  the  Mind  of  Man : 
if  neither  required,  nor  permitted,  to  make  ufe  of  it  ? 

41.  Yet  in  the  Ufe  of  this  Power,  we  mufl:  fuppofe  them,  to  ad:  in 
conformity  to  the  Laws  of  Nature,  with  refped:  both  to  the  Patient, 
and  themfelves.  That  as  they  have  a  Power,  to  operate  upon  Bodies  ; 
but  not  to  dertroy  their  Principles,  nor  the  flatcd  Laws  of  their  Motion : 
So  like  wife,  to  move,  and  to  propofe  unto  the  Mind  of  Man;  but 
not  tO'Dcflroy  its  Faculties,  nor  the  fl:ated  Manner  of  their  Ope- 
ration, .  I    \ 

4z.  With  refped  to  their  own  Nature ;  we  mufl:  fuppofe,  that  thole 
Imbodied  Minds,  which  are  in  a  flate  of  Darknefs  ;  will  make  it  their 
[Buflnefs,  either  by  their  Immediate  Accefs  to  the  Phancies  of  Men,  or 
fpthcrwife  to  incline  them  unto  Error  ;  and  with  Pravity  and  Diforder, 
ftoobllrucl:  their  Peace  and  Happinefs.  Neither  are  we  to  think  it 
;  11  range,  That  God,  for  certain  wife  and  jufl  Ends,  fliould  as  well  permit 
[the  Being  and  Operations  of  thefe  Enemies  to  the  Mind  :  as  of  PoiTons, 
which  are  alike  Enemies  to  the  Body.  ; 

45.  That  thofe,  on  the  contrary,  which  being  of  the  Higher  Or- 
ders, enjoy  a  State  of  Light  and  Perfedion :  have  their  Office,  To 
Move  and  Aflift  Men,  in  the  Profecution  of  Truth  and  Goodnefs,  And 
both  of  them  dieir  Commifllon,  fo  far  to  over-rule  all  Humane  Aflairs ; 
asmay  beflfervcthe  Ends,  which  God  hath  propofed  to  himfelf  in  the 
Government  of  the  World. 

44.  It  is  alfo  neceflary,  That  the  Superiour  World,    fliould  have  a 

tcgiment  eflabliflied  within  it  felf.     For  how  can  it  be  fuppofed  fit,  to 

jovern  This,  if  it  hath  no  Government  of  its  own  ?  As  then  Order  is 

ken,  in  all  the  Parts  of  the  Corporeal  World ;  fo  it  is  to  be  fuppofed, 

all  the  Parts  of  the  Intelledual. 


92  Of  the  Ends  of  Providence.     Book   III. 

4^.  And  as  there  are  divers  forts  of  Government  in  the  Vital  here  be- 
low :  So  it  is  to  be  fuppofed,  in  that  above.  Here  below,  is  the  Phanta- 
ftick,  among  Brutes;  the  Arbitrary  or  Defpotick,  of  Man  over  Brutes; 
and  the  Rational,  or  Civil,  among  Men.  And  it  is  reafonable  to  believe, 
That  in  like  manner  above,  There  is  a  Kingdom  of  Darknefs,  limited  to 
certain  Bounds  within  it  felf ;  as  well  as  a  Kingdom  of  Light,  The  for- 
mer, anfwering,  in  fome  fort,  to  that  among  Brutes;  the  latter,  to 
that  among  Men.  And  that  in  the  Kingdom  of  Light,  there  is  alfo  fet- 
led  a  two-ibld  Dominion.  That  which  is  given  it,  over  the  Kingdom  of 
Darknefs  :  And  that  which  is  eftablilhed  within  it  felf.  The  former  an- 
fwering, in  a  fort,  to  the  Defpotick  Dominion,  which  Men  have  over 
Brutes:  the  latter,  to  the  Civil,  which  they  have  over  one  another. 
And  therefore,  that  there  are  as  many  Orders  of  Celeftial  Dominion,  as 
there  are  of  Celeftial  Mind.  And  that  as  God  hath  deputed  the  Sun,  as 
Monarch  over  the  Corporeal  World  ;  fo  likewife  fome  Celeftial 
Mind,  over  botii  This,  and  the  Intelledual,  by  whom  he  adrainifters  the 
Regiment  of  the  Univerfe. 

CHAP.    II. 

Of  the   Ends  of  Providence,       Jnd  firfi, 

in  this  Life, 

I.'  I    HE  Formation,  and  Ends  of  Things,   have  both  been  already 
X.    confidered  in  the  Firft  Book.    I  fliall  here  take  a  further  View 

of  the  Latter;  on  which  fomuch  depends,  the  Veneration  we  owe  to 

God,  on  the  fcore  of  his  Divine  Government. 

X.  VVc  fee,  indeed,  many  things  to  be,  and  to  come  to  pafs,  which 

feem  to  be  Contingent,  or  without  any  End  at  all.    Many,  which  feem 

to  be  Small  and  Trivial,  without  any  Material  End.     And  many,  which 

feem  to  be  Irregular,  without  any  fuch  End,  as  may  be  ftiled  Fit  andjuft. 

Arid  fo,  not  to  come  within  the  compafs  of  any  good  Government,  much 

lefs  tbe  Divine. 

3.  And  theCaufes  of  this  Appearance,  are  diverfe.  For  as  the  Invifi- 
ble  Number,  Diverfity,  and  Operation  of  Principles,  make  it  hard  to  ob- 
ferve  any  thing  well,  of  the  Generation  of  Bodies ;  and  a  full  Account 
hereof  impoffible :  So  likewife,  in  the  Government  of  the  World,  the 
Number  and  Variety,  of  the  Ends  on  Foot,  their  manifold  Subordina- 
tion, and  the  great  Diftance  of  many,  one  from  another,  with  the  Se- 
cret Nature  of  moll  Things  to  which  they  relate ;  muft  needs  make  a 
diftind:  Remark  of  their  Congruity,  in  fome  Cafes,  very  diflficult,  and  in 
fome,  unattainable. 

4.  It  is  proper  to  every  Species  of  wild  Birds,  to  have  their  Specifick 
Colours:  excepting  the 5c^«/>-jD«c^,  wherein  the  Colours- vary,  almoft 
m  each  Individual.  To  Rapacious  Birds,  to  be  Solitary  :  yet  the  Vul- 
tur,  is  Gregarious.  Molt  Animals  move  forward  ,  and  diredly :  but 
Crabs  crawl  backward;  and  the  Echinometra^  in  a  Spiral  Line.  Moft 
have  their  Heads  and  Eyes,  in  a  Dire^  Pofition  :  but  in  fome  Fiflies  of  tiie 


G  H  A  p.    il.  of  Frovide7ice.  ^ 

Flat  kind,  they  are  naturally  made,  to  ftand  awry.  All  of.  therrii  to 
fliew.  That  as  there  are  fonnc  Anomalous  Parts  of  the  Creation  :  fbalfo 
of  Providence:  the  Caufes  of  the  former,  and  the  Reafons  of  the  lat- 
ter, being  placed,  both  alike,  above  our  reach. 

5".  And  as  many  of  them  are  (ecret  in  their  own  Nature :  ib  from  the 
TJnfitnefs  of  Men,  to  think  of  them  in  a  right  manner.  The  Motion 
and  Faces  of  the  Moon,  looked  on  alone,  and  but  in  one  Revolution  ; 
would  feem  to  be  befide  all  good  Rule.  But  feveral  Revolutions  being 
compared  together,  and  with  thofe  of  the  Earth  :  we  then  fee,  that 
nothing  could  be  ordered  to  better  purpofe.  In  like  manner,  fome  may 
fee  that  Red:itude  in  the  Regiment  of  the  Univerfe,  vi'hich  well  be- 
comes the  Author  of  it.  While  the  Reafon  or  End,  almoft  of  every- 
thing, is  a  Secret  to  Unthinking  Men. 

6.  Moreover,  tf  God  hath  given  a  Power  to  Superiour  Minds,  over 
this  lower  World  :  as  in  the  foregoing  Chapter,  it  appears  he  hath  :  we 
muft  alfo  fuppofe  them  to  be  concerned,  in  the  Reafon  and  Ends  of  fo 
great  a  Truft.  And  therefore  in  their  fublime  Eftate,  may  have  a  per- 
fpicuous  View  of  many  things ;  in  the  fearch  whereof,  we  below,  are 
utterly  loft.  And  fome  things,  may  be  above  the  Reach,  of  all  Finite 

7.  Albeit  then,  many  Particulars  of  Divine  Providence,  may  be  inex- 
plicable :  yet  it  behoves  us,  not  to  fay.  How  many.'  This  being  nieafu- 
red,  according  to  the  Underftanding  of  every  Man.  And  fome  which 
^eem  Inexplicable  at  the  firft  j  appear  otherwife,  upbri  a  further  Enquiry: 
from  the  Difficulty  whereof,  we  are  hereunto  the  father  invited.  For 
could  we  comprehend  the  Works  of  Providence,  in  their  full  Extent : 
we  fhould,  for  that  very  Reafon,  conclude  them,  not  to  be  the  Works  of 
God,  And  were  there  no  Difficulties  herein,  requiring  Pains  to  refolve 
them :  they  would  be  le(s  valuable,  than  many  of  the  Works  of  Men. 
If  then,  there  is  fo  great  a  Perfection  in  all  that  we  fee  :  we  muft  con- 
clude, of  there  being  the  fame,  in  whatever  we  fee  not. 

8.  And  firft,  it  is  certain,  that  there  is  no  real  Contingent ,-  whether 
in  Tilings  of  more  or  lels  Moment.  For  albeit  there  are  many  fo  called ; 
and,  with  refped  to  us,  may  be  fo  accounted  :  yet,  with  regard  to  the 
Deity,  there  can  be  no  fuch  thing.  For  if  he  is  Phantaftick  in  nothing  ; 
but  hath  ordain'd  the  Exiftence  and  Operation  of  every  thing,  unto  fome 
certain  End ;  as  in  the  precedent  Chapter  hath  been  proved :  then  to  al- 
low the  being  of  any  Contingent ;  is  to  infer  the  being,  fomewhere  or 
other,  of  a  Contingent  End :  which  is  down-right  Nonfenle. 

9.  Wherefore,  by  Conting^ents,  we  are  to  underftand  thofe  ThingSj 
which  come  to  pafs,  without  any  Human  Forecaft.  Many  of  which, 
God  is  pleas'd  to  ufe,  the  better  to  reprefent  his  own.  So,  the  cafual 
dropping  of  a  Word,  has  been  the  Taking,  and  the  Buying  of  an  infe- 
ded  Coat,  the  Deftrudion  of  a  City.  Brutus  and  Cafius  loft  a  Vidory 
of  the  greateft  Moment,  which  they  had  in  their  Hands ;  Not  for  want 
of  Courage,  or  Skill ;  in  themfelves,  or  their  Army  j  but  by  an  Acciden- 
tal Error. 

.  10.  Unto  this  Part  of  Providence,  belongs  all  that,  which  Men  have 
been  wont  to  call.  Fortune.  Who,  obferving  many  remarkable  Events, 
which  they  could  not  afcribe  unto  any  Human  Condud  :  thought  it  rea- 
Ibnable,  to  refer  them  to  a  Divine. 

B  b  ii.Where- 



Of  the  Nature  Book  IK. 

ii.  Wherefore  alfo,  as  there  can  be  no  Contingent,  with  refpedl  to  the 
Deity  ;  fo  nothing  Minute  or  Trivial.  Quantity,  is  a  Pofitive  Thing  : 
but  Greatnefs  and  Smalnefs,  have  a  Relative  or  Comparative  Being. 
The  fame  Body,  through  an  Optick  Glafs,  is  of  one  Bulk  ;  but  through 
the  Eye,  of  another.  In  like  manner,  thofe  Things,  which  may  feem 
to  us,,  to  be  Small  and  Trivial ;  under  God's  own  Eye  and  Manage- 
ment, may  and  muft  be  Great,  whether  we  are  concerned,  or  furprized, 
or  neither :  they  have  all  a  Place,  fome  where  or  other,  in  their  Tendency 
unto  Wife  and  Juft  Ends. 

iz.  And  as  God  often  fliews  the  Magnificence  of  his  Defigns,  in  ef- 
feding  them  by  Teeming  Accidents  :  fo  in  fufpending  of  all  good  Coun- 
fels,  where  they  ought  chiefly  to  have  been  ufed:  as  in  Fompefs  Cafe. 
Who,  before  he  fought  with  Ca:(ar,  neither  encamp'd  on  a  convenient 
Ground,  nor  had  provided  any  Place  of  Refuge,  for  himfelf,  in  cafe 
ot  a  Defeat.  And  whereas  his  Forces  increafing  daily,  and  being  in  a 
Country  where  he  was  belov'd,  and  furnifli'd  with  Treafure,  and  a  Pow- 
erful Navy,  and  hereby  with  all  Provifions  necCiTary  for  the  War ;  he 
might  have  got  the  better,  by  Delay  :  he  was  ncverthelefs,  fatally  pre- 
cipitated to  a  Battle.  And  being  aftonifli'd  at  the  lofs  of  that  Vidory, 
whereof  he  thought  himfelf  fure  ;  he  was  again  bereaved  of  all  Prudent 
Refolution :  whereby,  with  the  Force  and  Love  of  all  AJia ;  which, 
though  defeated,  he  had  yet  the  Command  of;  he  might  eafily  have  re- 
cover'd  all. 

13.  And  many  times,  in  countervening  all  the  Precaution,  which 
could  be  ufed  or  given.  So  Domitian  was  flain  in  that  very  Hour,  the 
Fifth,  which  he  Ibught  to  decline.  When  Cafar  had  a  Paper  given  him, 
containing  an  Account  of  the  Confpiracy  to  kill  him,  and  the  Names 
of  the  Confpirators,  on  that  very  Day  wherein  he  was  flain :  yet  he 
would  not  fo  much  as  read  it.  He,  whofe  Sagacity  was  wont  to  fearch- 
out  Danger  ;  was  then  fo  Imprudent,  as  neither  to  beware  his  Enemies, 
nor  believe  his  Friends,  when  they  had  fet  it  before  his  Eyes.  And  this 
is  that,  which  Men  have  been  ufed  to  call  Fate.  Which  is  that  Part  of 
Providence,  whereby  God  exhibits  the  Certainty  and  Infallibility  of  his 

14.  There  is  an  Exa6t  Coherence  and 'Harmony,  as  between  the 
Compofures,  fo  between  the  Motions  of  Nature  :  wherein  the  Execu- 
tion of  Providence,  may  be  faid  to  confift.  All  of  them,  as  truly  ma- 
king one  Piece  ;  as  all  the  Members  make  a  Man.  Yet  the  Exadt 
Meafores,  cannt)t  be  difcern'd  in  the  Parts  of  either,  but  by  the  Symme- 
try of  the  Whole. 

15:.  One  in  former  Ages,  might  have  ask'd  with  Wonder,  Why 
the  Habitable  Parts  of  the  Earth  ftiould  be  divided,  and  the  People 
fever*d  one  from  another,  with  fuch  Vafl:  Seas  .•>  Not  knowing,  that  it 
was  a  moft  Excellent  Forecaft,  of  all  the  Improvments  of  Navigation. 
And  confequently ,  that  they  were  divided,  and  fever  d  in  this  ftiaa- 
ner;  fo  much  the  more  eafily,  and  expeditely,  to  bring  them  to- 

16.  The  Earth  was  firft  Peopled,  among  the  Richefl  Minerals 
near  the  Line  :  And  Men  were  hereby  invited  to  the  Arts  of  Managing 
Precious  Stones  and  Metals.  Among  the  greateft  Variety  of  Dleful 
Plants  and  Animals  :  as  Materials  for  Food  and  Phyfick.  Efpecially 
in  Egypt ;  where  by  the  Reign  of  many  Difeafes,    Men   were  obliged 


C  H  A  P.  IL  of  Providence.  o^ 

to  the  Study  of  Medicine.  As  by  the  Inundation  of  the  N/le,  to  that  of 
Geometry.  And  in  ChaUea,  were  Excited,  by  the  Serenity  of  the  Air, 
to  the  Cultivation  of  Aftronomy.  That  the  Remoter  Climates,  might 
Engraft  their  Improvments ,  on  the  Inventions  of  the  Eaftern  Na- 

17.  Nor  are  we  to  look  upon  Providence,  any  other  way  by  the 
Halves  ;  but  to  own  it,  either  in  none ,  or  in  all  Effeds  and  Confe- 
quences.  And  therefore,  in  all  thofe,  which  are  the  moft  Natural. 
And  for  that  reafon,  becaufe  they  are  Natural.  The  Sun  makes  Light, 
and  Mufick  makes  Mirth,  And  who  doubts,  but  that  they  were  de- 
fign'd  to  do  it  ?  In  like  manner,  Earthquakes  and  Thunders,  which 
feme  think,  are  not  to  be  regarded :  Yet  in  that  they  Naturally  cre- 
ate Fear ;  were  therefore,  intended  to  do  it.  And  if  fometimes  tliey 
dodellroy  ;  they  were  then  intended,  fometimes  to  deftroy.  And  if 
Earthquakes,  do  oftener  happen  in  Cities,  than  in  the  Fields :  What- 
foever  Natural  Caufe  hereof  may  be  given  ;  the  fame  alfo  Ihows, 
they  were  defign'd  to  do  it.  And  are  therefore,  to  be  confider'd  and  re- 

18.  Again,  as  God  hath  made  the  Structure  of  the  Body,  naturally 
to  produce  certain  Motions  ;  lb  the  Difpofitions  of  the  Mind,  to  pro- 
duce certain  Etfeds.  If  Lentulus  be  Ambitious,  he  fliall  be  vainly  Cre- 
dulous ;  prefuming  his  Advancement  to  be  decreed,  by  the  Sibylline  O- 
racles.  Let  Men  be  efteem'd  never  fo  Virtuous,  in  fome  refpe(Sts  ; 
yet  if  under  the  Dominion  of  any  one  Vice,  they  muft  expedt  the  or- 
dinary Effeds  of  it  ;  If  Lazy,  to  be  Poor;  If  Intemperate,  to  be  Difeas'd ; 
if  Luxurious,  to  Die  betimes.  Which  Effeds  being  Natural,  do  there- 
fore lie  within  the  Regiment,  which  is  EftabliQi'd  by  the  Author 
of  Nature.  And  plainly  (how.  That  from  the  firll,  he  intended,  That 
Mankind  fliould  fare  vvell  or  ill  from  themfelves. 

19.  We  are,  moreover,  to  efteem  the  Harmony  of  Providence  to  be 
fuch  ;  That  fome  Things,  without  being confiderd  as  Caufes,  may  yet 
be  Coincident  with  agreeable  Events ;  As  Comets,  and  other  unufual 
Fhxnomena^  or  flranger  Accidents.  An  Eclips  of  the  Moon,  preceded 
the  Overthrow  of  Darius^  by  the  Greeks-  Another,  that  of  Terfeus^  by 
the  Romans.  Another,  tlie  Fate  of  Julius  Cafar.  VVhofe  Image  alfo, 
(landing  in  his  own  Houfe,  fell  down  of  it  felf,  and  brake  to  pieces,  on 
the  Day,  in  which  he  was  flain.  A  great  Eclips  preceded  the  Fight  at 
Aliium,  which  put  a  Period  to  the  Roman  Common-wealth.  An  Extraor- 
dinary Comet,  the  Revolt  of  the  Seven  Provinces  from  the  Crown  of 
Spain.  The  Troubles  throughout  the  Empire,  under  Valentinian^  an  U- 
niverfal  Earthquake.  And  if  thefe  Inftances  are  at  a  diftance ;  the  three 
Remarkable  Comets  of  our  own  time,  are  not  forgot.  Two  of  them, 
Fore-runners  of  the  Plague,  and  Fire  of  London  j  the  Third,  of  the 
great  Sufferings  of  the  Reformed  in  France.  Nor  was  the  late  Earth- 
quake, Inarticulate ;  when,  in  giving  all  England  a  Shake ;  and  in  Flan- 
ders.^ over-turning  the  King's  Tfcnt,  it  foretold  the  Death  of  the  Queen, 
wherein  the  King  and  People  were  fo  deeply  concern  d.  And  thus  much 
is  evident  in  fact ;  That  Calamities  very  Grievous,  and  publickly  felt, 
have  feldom  come  to  pafs,  witiiout  fome  Prognoftick  in  tleaven,  or  oa 
Earth.  Though  fome  Men,  either  by  failing  in  their  references  unto  due 
Time  and  Place ;  or  not  conudering.  That  a  Prognoftick,  is  not  to  be 
matched  witii  an  EffedJ,    but  only  a  proper  Event ;  may  injudicioufly 


Of  the  Nature,  Book  lit 

think  othervvife.  For  nothing  can  be  more  reafonabJe,  than  that  he, 
who  projeded  the  Motions,  both  of  Corporeal  and  Intelledual  Nature,* 
whether  Ufual  or  Rare  :  fliould  alfo,  for  as  often  as  he  thought  fit, 
have  projcded  a  Concurrence  between  the  fame  :  and  hereby  have  made 
them,  though  not  the  Caufes,  yet  the  fuitable  Fore-  runners,  of  one 

xo.  From  the  fame  neceflary  Harmony,  between  the  feveral  Parts  of 
Creation  and  Providence,  'tis  alfo  evident,  That  they  are  all  Good  and 
Juft.  The  Natures,  and  the  Ends  of  Things,  equally  concurring,  'in 
making  up  that  Entire  Scheme,  which  anlvvers  to  the  Divine  Idea.  Can 
it  be  porfible  for  a  Vine  to  bear  Acorns,  inftead  of  Grapes  ?  Yet  we 
may  as  well  fuppofe  this  ;  as,  when  we  fee  fo  much  Rectitude,  in  the  Ef- 
fence  of  every  Thing;  That  there  can  be  any  Obliquity,  in  the  Ends  for 
which  they  were  intended. 

II.  And  that  God  cannot  but  be  Juft,  and  muft  be  fo  acknowledged, 
in  all  his  Works  and  Ends ;  further  appears,  In  that  he  hath  made  Man, 
and  other  Creatures  above  him,  unto  whom,  Juftice  is  a  Conceivable 
Thing.  To  fuppofe  then  the  Deity,  to  be  in  any  thing  Unjuft  :  is  alfo 
to  fuppofe,  he  hath  made  fome  Creatures,  who,  upon  a  Right  Judg- 
ment of  Things,  might  juftly  be  Witnefles  againft  Himfelf. 

zx.  Neither  are  the  J4ftice  and  Goodnefs  of  God,  to  be  queftion'd, 
for  his  permitting  of  Evil.  To  ask,  why  he  doth  this  ?  Is  to  ask,  why 
he  was  pleas'd  to  make  fqch  a  Creature,  as  a  Man  ?  or  why  he  doth  not 
compel  a  Reafonable  Creature  ?  That  is,  having  given  him,  a  Reafona- 
ble  or  Intelledtual  Will,  why  he  doth  not  take  away  the  Ufe  of  it  ? 

x^.  To  talk  of  Compelling  a  Man,  to  be  Good;  is  a  Contradidtion, 
For  where  there  is  Force,  there  can  be  no  Choice.  Whereas  all  Moral 
Goodnefs,  confifteth  in  the  Elective  Adt  of  the  Underftanding  Will. 
VV'^ere a  Man  then  compell'd,  to  do  that  which  is  materially  Good;  he 
could  not  be  capable  of  any  fort  of  Virtue.  Nor  therefore ,  of  Praife, 
nor  of  any  thing  elfe  appertaining  to  the  Perfedion  and  Felicity  of  a 
Reafonable  Creature. 

z4.  And  fmce  there  is  a  great  deal  of  Moral  Evil  in  the  World ; 
which  God  forefaw,  jn  the  Univerfal  Idea  he  had  of  it :  Thereiore,  to  fe- 
cure  the  Majefty  of  his  Juftice,  in  ordering  the  due  Proportion  of 
Things ;  he  hath  alfo  forecaft  the  Caufes  of  Penal  Evil.  That  Man 
fliould  be  capable  of  Pain,  as  well  as  I'leafure.  That  the  Air  Ihould  be 
fit,  not  only  to  maintain  Life,  but  to  produce  Difeafes  :  the  Earth,  to 
bear,  not  only  Flowers,  and  Cordials ;  but  Thorns,  and  Poifons  :  and 
that  there  fliould  be  a  ftore,  of  Noxious,  as  well  as  Ufetul  Animals.  That 
as  Man  is  capable  of  Error :  fo  th  e  Principle  of  Generation,  fhould  be 
fo  too,  in  the  Produdion  of  Monfters.  In  iumm,  that  Univerfal  Nature, 
here  below,  fo  far  as  related  unto  Mankind,  the  Lord  of  it  j  Ihould  pre- 
fent  him  with  a  fuitable  Mixture  of  Good  and  Evil. 

25.  But  although  God  has  thus  furnifhed  himfelf  with  the  Means  of 
Penal  Evil,  and  the  Inftruments  of  his  Juftice  herein :  Yet  Men,  the 
Authors  of  Moral  Evil,  are  commonly  the  Caufes  too  of  Penal  Evil  to 
themfelves.  Craffus,  Pompej,  and  Cccfar^  the  three  grand  Invaders  of 
the  Roman  Common-wealth ;  all  died  of  an  Ignominious  Death.  Attilius, 
who  knew  not  how  to  ufe,  with  Temper,  his  Vidories  over  x.\\q- Cartha- 
ginians;  not  long  after,  was  by  them  conftrained  bafely  to  beg  that 
Mercy ,   which  he  had  barbaroufly   deny'd.    Alexander  JamauSj  who 


^HAP.  JL  of  Providence. 



jplay'dthe  Knave  with  P  tolemd^  us  Lath  urns ;  was,  byhini,  moH:  (liamefuJ- 
jy  routed.  And  was  the  firfl;  of  the  Maccabees^  who  rcceiv'd  any  great 
Overthrow.  And  it  is  very  obvious,  That  Wars,  and  moft  other  Cala- 
mities, \\\\\c\\  befal  us,  come  Irom  the  Lufts  of  Men  -,  v\'llich  the  Deity 
makcth  ufe  of,  for  tlieir  mutual  Punilhmeilt. 

i6.  And  fometimes,  in  an  extraordinary  manncf  ;  both  in  punifliing 
the  Offender,  and  adapting  the  Punifliment  to  the  Offence.  A  proud 
//^W,  Uking,artcr  the  Roman  Fadiion  then  pre^'aihng,  to  be  flyled  a  God, 
fliall  be  dellro}'ed  by  Worms.  Selymus,  a  cruel  Tyrant  and  Murderoiis 
Son;  fliall  not  only  die  of  a  moll  painful  and  loathfome  Difcafe;  but  in 
the  very  Place,  where  he  once  intended  to  have  flain  his  Father.  Up- 
on that  very  Day  of  the  Year  ,  wherein  M.  Crajfus  wds  perfidi- 
ouHy  killed  by  Orcdes -,  this  Orocies's  Son  Pacorus  ^  fliall  aho  be 

27.  Cafar,  while  a  Subjed,  not  only  took  a  .Luxurious  Liberty  with 

Women;  but  lubmitted  himlelf    to  be  abufed.     Whereof,  when  he 

would  have  purged   himfelf  by  his  Oath  ;  he  was  but  derided  witii  that 

Sat}'rical  Scoff,  Galllas  Cctjar  fuhegh  ,    Nicotne^es  Cccfarem.      To  ihew 

his' Ambition,  that  Saying  of  Euripides^    That  if  ever  Jujlice  ivas   to  he 

violated,  it  was  for  the  fake  of  a  Croivn ;    was  never  out  of  his  Mouth. 

And  when  became  to  it,  hig  Arrogance  was  as  great,  in  faying,  That 

Men  were  now  to /peak  to  him,  as  owning  his  MlW  dates,  for  Laws.     x'\nd  his 

more  than  tluman  Pride,  in  permitting  of  Temples,  Altars,  and  Priefts, 

to  be  confecrated  to  Iiim  ,•  and   other  like  Honours,  given  him,  which 

Saetonius    calls,    Humana  Fafiigio  ampliora.     And    the  Manner  of  his 

Death,  defcribed  by  Cicero,  de  Divin.  L.  x.  was  agreeable.     He  that  had 

fought  no  lefs  than  fifty  pitch'd  Battles,  and  flain  more  than  a  Million 

of  Men  ;  in  that  very  Senate,  the  greater  Part  whereof  himfelf  had  cho- 

len,  and  there  in  Pompeys  Prefence-Chamber,  and  before  Pompefs  Image,' 

and  many  Noble  Citizens,  and  of  his  Captains,  and  greatell   Favourites, 

lay  wallowing  in  his  Blood  ;  while  not  one   of  his  Friends,    nor  of  his 

Servants,  fo  much  as  came  to  touch,  or  take  care  of  him.    Yet  Divine 

Juftice,  fo  far  again  reveng'd  the  Murder  of  this  Prince,    that  fcarce  any 

one  of  thofe,  who  had  a  Hand  in  it,  efcap'd  a  violent  Death.     And  of 

Brutus  and  Cafius,  Dio  particularly  faith,  That  they  Jlew  themfehes  with 

thofe  very  Swords,  wherewith  they  afjijled  in  making  up  the  Numher  ofQx(zvs 


28.  And  as  God  illuftrates  his  Juflice,  in  the  Congruity  of  Moral  and 
Penal  Evil :  So  his  Goodncfs,  in  over-ruling  of  them  both.  That  is,  in 
hisdifpofing  of  Things  in  fucha  manner;  that  there  is  a  hundred  times 
more  Good  enjoy 'd,  than  Evil  lufTer'd,  in  the  World.  For  one  Man 
that  is  Sick,  or  in  Pain,  or  in  Prifon ;  how  many  hundreds  are  there, 
Free,  and  at  Eafe  ?  How  many  thoulands  of  Regular  Births  are  there,  for 
one  Monfter  ?  The  Body  is  fo  contrived,  as  to  be  well  enough  fecurcd, 
againfl  the  Mutations  in  the  Air,  and  the  leffer  Errors  we  daily  run  up- 
on; did  we  not  in  our  ExcelTes  of  Eating,  Drinking,  Thinking,  Loving, 
Hating,  or  fome  other  Folly,  let  in  the  Enemy,  or  lay  violent  Hands  upon 
our  felves. 

29.  Nor  is  the  Body  fitted  only  to  prevent,  but  alfo  to  cure,  or  miti- 
gate Difcafes,  when  by  thcfe  Follies  brought  upon  us.  In  moft  Wounds, 
if  kept  clean,  and  from  the  Air;  for  which  the  Ufe  of  Plaifters  in  Wounds, 
chiefly  confiOs:  the Flelh  will  glcw  together,  with  its  own  Native  Balm. 

C  c  Broken 

98  of  the  Ends  Book  HL 

Broken  Bones,  are  cemented  with  the  Callus,  which  themfelves  help 
to  make.  What  admirable  Forecaft  is  there,  for  a  Lifeguard  to  the 
Head  ?  By  Haemorrhages,  and  other  Evacuations  at  the  Nofe  :  by 
Catarrhs,  thrown  off  upon  other  Parts  with  lefs  Danger :  by  fpontaneous 
Sneezings,  Vomitings,  Diarrha:as,  and  other  ways :  Whereby  Apo- 
plexies, Phrenfies,  and  other  Difeafes  of  the  Head,  are  frequently  di- 

30.  How  often  arc  Inflamations  of  the  Eyes,  prevented,  by  a  Run- 
ning at  the  Nofe,  or  fome  other  Evacuation  of  Nature  s  own  Motion  ? 
Of  the  Pleura,  and  Lungs,  by  Hamoptoes^  and  other  forts  of  Coughs  ? 
Some  Portion  of  the  Morbifick  Matter,  finding  a  Difcharge  this  way  ; 
which  otherwife  would  have  fallen  fatally  on  thofe  Parts.  And  how 
very  fenfible  is  the  Head,  of  the  Trachaa,  for  its  being  excited,  on  the 
leall  Occafion,  unto  that  Difcharge  ?  The  Urinary  Paflages,  are  not  only 
wide  enough,  to  pals  off  a  lefler  Stone  :  but  fo  very  fenfible  of  any  A- 
crimony,  in  the  Urine  ;  as  to  give  fufEcient  Warning,  would 
People  take  it,  for  redifying  of  it,  before  the  leaft  Stone  could  be 

31.  How  many  Men  have  faved  their  Lives,  by  fpewing  up  their'Be- 
bauch  ?  Whereas,  if  the  Stomach  had  wanted  the  Faculty  of  Vomitionj 
they  had  inevitably  died  of  a  Feaver  or  an  Apoplexy.  Inflammations 
of  the  Liver,  or  fome  other  Bowel ;  are  ^any  times  prevented,  or 
cur'd,  by  a  Tranfition  into  a  Cholera  Morbus,  a  Dyflentery,  or  fome  o- 
ther  Difeafe,  more  fafe,  and  by  the  Phyfician  more  eafily  managed.  Hy- 
flerick  Affections,  are  often  carried  off,  by  a  Flux  of  Urine,  or  of  Tears. 
And  the  mod  fatal  Symptoms  of  the  foul  Difeafe  it  felf,  prevented  by  a 

31.  Nothing  can  be  more  admirable,  than  the  many  Ways,  Nature 
Iiath  provided,  for  Preventing,  or  Curing  of  Feavers.  As  Spontaneous 
Bleeding  at  the  Nofe,  Vomitings,  Diarrha:as,  Copious  and  Thick  U- 
rines,  Sweats,  Eryfipelafes,  Apoftemations,  Salivations.  All  Thruflies, 
Puftules,  Spots,  and  other  Cutaneous  Eruptions,  are  not  only  Symptoms, 
but  partial  Difcharges  of  the  Malignity,  whereby  the  Phyfician  is  better 
able  to  fubdue  the  reft. 

33.  And  whereas  mod  Medicines,  and  chiefly  the  mofl  effectual,  are 
Enemies,  or  but  Strangers  to  Nature  :  Yet  Ihe  being  impowered  with 
Ability  to  expel  them  ;  takes  the  Occafion  ,  to  rid  her  felf  of  the 
Open  and  the  Secret  Enemy,  both  at  once.  In  all  which,  and  other 
like  Inftances,  v\ henfoever  there  is  need  of  the  Phyficians  Skill  j  the 
moll:  prudent  part  hereof,  is  to  follow,  and  govern  thofe  Motions,  which 
Nature  hath  once  begun. 

34,  ,How  feldom  is  the  World  affrighted,  or  challized,  widi  Signs  or 
Prodigies,  Earthquakes  or  Inundations,  Famines  or  Plagues  ?  How  little 
is  the  Mifchief,  which  the  Air,  Fire,  or  Water,  fometimes  doth ;  com- 
pared with  the  Innumerable  Ufes,  unto  which  they  daily  ferve  ?  Befides 
Seas  and  Rivers,  how  many  wholfome  Springs  are  there,  for  one  that  is 
poilonous  ?  Are  the  Northern  Countries  lubjed  to  Cold  ?  They  have 
greater  Plenty  of  Furrs,  to  keep  the  People  warm.  Would  thofe,  under, 
or  near  the  Line,  be  fubject  to  Heat  ?  They  have  a  Conftant  Eaflerly 
lireeze,  which  blow  s  llrongell  in  the  Heat  of  the  Day,  to  refrefli  them. 
And  with  this  Refrefliment  without ,  they  have  Variety  of  Excellent 
F'ruits,  to  comfort  and    cool  them  withui.     How  admirably  are   the 


C  H  A  P.  IL  of  Frovidence.  99 

Clouds  fed  with  Vapours,  and  carried  about  with  the  Winds,  for 
the  Gradual,  Equal,  and  Seafonable  Watering  of  mod  Countries  ?  And 
thofe  w  hich  have  lefs  Rain  ,  how  abundantly  is  the  Want  of  that  fup- 
plied,  with  Noble  Rivers  ?  as  the  Ganges  in  India  ,•  in  Mefopotamia  and 
Egypt^  Euphrates  and  the  Nile. 

'35.  Of  that  great  Variety,  we  have  of  Minerals,  Animals,  and 
Plants  ;  how  few  are  Noxious,  compared  with  thofe  which  are  Friendly 
to  us  ?  And  in  every  Species,  of  thofe  which  are  the  moil  Ufeful,  we 
have  the  .greatefl:  Plenty.  Of  all  Metals,  what  fo  ufcful  and  necefiary, 
in  any  degree,  as  Iron  ?  Nor  is  there  any  other,  of  fo  univerfal  Growth. 
A  great  many  Plants,  will  hardly,  with  Nurfing,  be  made  to  live, 
much  lefs,  to  thrive,  and  to  produce  their  Seed,  out  of  their  Native 
Sol  and  Country.  But  Corn,  fo  neceflary  for  all  People,  is  fitted  to 
grow,  and  to  feed,  as  a  free  Denifon,  all  over  the  World. 

36.  Among  Animals,  a  Sheep,  for  the  fame  Reafon,  feeds  and  breeds, 
in  all  Countries  much  alike.  And  thofe  which  are  Domellick,  or  more 
Ufeful  ;  are  alfo  more  Prolifick,  than  the  Noxious,  or  lefs  Ufeful  of  the 
fame  kmd  ;  as  Hens  are,  than  Kites;  Geefe,  thaj)  Swans ;  Coneys,  thari 
Hares;  Dogs,  than  Foxes;  and  Cats,  than  Lyons.  A  Crane,  which  is 
fcurvy  Meat,  lays  and  hatches  but  two  Eggs  in  a  Year:  And  the  Alka^^ 
and  divers  other  Sea-Fow  Is,  lay  but  one.  But  the  Pheafant  and  Par- 
tridge, both  Excellent  Meat ,  and  come  more  within  our  reach,  lay 
and  hatch  Fifteen  or  Twenty  together.  And  thofe  of  Value,  which 
lay  fewer  at  a  time  ,  fit  the  oitener,  as  the  Woodcock  and  the 

37.  And  what  is  more  admirable,  than  the  Fitnefs  of  every  Creature, 
for  the  Ufe  -we  make  of  him  ^  The  Docility  of  an  Elephant,  anciently 
much  employed  in  War;  the  Infitiency  of  a  Camel,  for  travelling  in 
the  Deferts  of  Africa  and  other  Parts ;  the  Gentlenefs  of  a  Sheep  in  the 
Field,  and  when  Ihe  comes  to  the  Slaughter:  A  Horfe  is  fwift  and 
flrong,  above  mod  other  Aninials ;  and  yet  (Irangely  Obedient,  Both 
Comely,  and  Clean  :  he  breeds  no  fort  of  Vermin ;  his  Breath,  Foam, 
and  Excrements,  Sweat  Urine  and  Dung,  are  all  fweet.  Fitted  every 
way  for  Service  or  Fleafure,  the  meanefl,  or  the  greatefl  Mailer,  And 
as  for  thofe  Bcalls,  which  are  Armed,  and  Fierce  ;  they  are  fo  made, 
rwt  with  Intent  to  hurt  us,  but  to  defend  themfelves,  or  feize  the  Prey. 
Which  they  alio  ufually  feek  in  the  Night,  when  Men  are  retired  from 
their  Buiinefs,  and  fafe  at  home. 

38.  Of  Wild-lowl,  thofe  which  are  the  mofl  ufeful,  fly  not  rmgl}^  as 
otii^  Birds,  but  are  commonly  Gregarious ;  as  the  Partridge,  Lark,  Teal. 
Whereby,  as  they  become  a  more  Plentiful  Game  ;  fo  are  much  more  ea- 
fily  difcovered  to  ijs,    in  our  purfuit :  either  as  more  Vifible,  or  by  a 
Lewder  Confort  or  other  Noite,  they  make  in  ffying.     And  Bees,    by 
that  Society,  wherewith  they  ferve  themfelves,  ferve  us  the  better ;  as 
hereby  we  reap  a  whole  Harveft  together.    And  for  our  quiet  Pofleflioa 
of  Things  ufeful,  they  are  naturally  marked,  where  there  is  need.     So 
Fifhcs,   VVild-  fowl,  and  f  uch  otiier  Creatures,  as  are  by  Nature,  no  Man's 
Property  ;  have  only  fuch  ditlinguifliing  Marks,  as  belong  to  the  wiiole 
Species.    But  of  tliofc  which  are  Domeltick,  as  Horfes,  Dogs,  Poultry  ; 
not  only  the  Species,  but  the  Individuals,  have  their  Marks.    And  though 
Sheep,  which  are  Proprietary,  are  feldom  Marked,  yet  they  are  not  apt 
to  itraggle. 


joo  of  the  Ends  of  Providence.     Book   III. 

39.  Mod  Creatures,  have  fome  Quality,  whereby  tlicy  admonifli  us, 
of  what  is  beft.  OF  NeatneCs,  all  Birds,  which  love  to  be  perpetually 
pruning  themfelves.  Of  Clcanlinefs ,  Cats ,  which  commonly  cover 
their  Excrements,  and  always  wipe  their  Mouths  after  Dinner.  Foul 
Water,  will  breed  the  Pipp  in  Hens  ;  and  Naftinefs,  Lice  and  Scabs  in 
Kine  :  and  all  Creatures,  Swine  themfelves,  which  love  Dirt,  yet  thrive 
befl^,  when  kept  clean.  Of  Forecaft,  the  Sitta,  and  the  Ant ;  which  lay 
up  Nuts  and  other  Seeds,  in  their  Granaries,  which  ferve  them  in  Win- 
ter. Of  Modefty,  Elephants,  Dromedaries,  and  Deer ;  which  always 
conceal  their  Venereal  AcSts.  Of  Mature  Marriage,  all  Animals  which 
beget  the  befl:  Breed,  at  their  full  Growth.  Of  Conjugal  Chaftity, 
Doves  and  PartridgeSj  which  keep  to  one  Husband  and  Wife.  Of 
Conjugal  Love,  the  Rook ;  the  Male  helping  the  Female  to  make  her 
Neft,  feeding  her  while  (lie  fits,  and  often  fitting  in  his  turn.  Of  Mater- 
nal Love,  the  Domeftick  Hen ;  gentle  by  Nature,  and  unarmed ;  yet  in 
defence  of  her  Chickens,  Bold  and  Fierce.  And  the  Tyger  her  felf,  the 
lierceftof  Bealfs,  yet  is  infinitely  fond  of  her  Whelps. 

40.  The  World,  as  thus  furnilhed,  we  are  made  capable  of  Command- 
ing and  Enjoying.  We  have  both  enough,  and  Variety  of  Food :  of  the 
Kinds,  and  for  the  Seafon.  Infomuch,  that  a  good  Cook,  will  give  you 
a  Bill  of  Fare,  for  every  Month,  or  Week  in  the  Year.  And  a  good  Phy- 
fician,  a  proper  Diet  for  every  Age,  or  Temperament,  Palator  Humour. 
What  infinite  Ways  have  we  found  out,  of  managing  the  whole  Stock 
of  Nature,  which  lies  before  us  ?  One  fingle  Metal,  Iron,  fetson  foot,  a- 
bove  a  hundred  forts  of  Manual  Occupation.  And  one  Inied:,  the  Silk- 
worm, near  as  many.  One  Tree,  the  Coco,  affordeth  Stuff,  for  Hou- 
fmg,  Cloathing,  Shipping,  Meat,  Drink,  and  Cann.  And  whole  Books 
have  been  written,  upon  the  Medicinal  Ufes  of  fome  one  Plant.  We  have 
added  to  our  Natives,  all  things  from  abroad  :  Wines  from  Europe,  Gold, 
from  /ifrkk  ;  Spices  and  Jewels,  from  Arabia.,  and  the  Indies.  Whether 
we  ufe  them  for  Profit,  or  Pleafure  ;  we  have  fought  and  found  them 
every  where  ;  and  made  all  the  World  our  Range,  and  our  Ware- 

41.  And  as  we  are  fitted,  to  ferve  our  felves,  of  all  other  Things ;  fo 
likewife  one  of  another,  'viz.  as  we  arc  adapted  for  Society,  in  Conver- 
lation  and  Government.  \w  Converfatiun,  partly  by  the  Similitude  of 
Figure  in  all  our  Bodies.  And  of  Colour;  with  far  lefs  Variation, 
than  in  Domeftick  Animals  of  the  fame  Species.  The  fame  Dam,  fre- 
quently bringing  forth  her  'Young  of  divers  Colours,  fometimes  a  White 
and  a  Black  both  together;  which  a  Woman  never  doth;  but  always, 
either  White, Tawny  or  I5lack.  And  partly  by  the  Similitude  of  our 
Conceits,  and  Senfes.  And  that  which  is  grounded  on  both  thefe,  tiie 
Formation  of  Speech.  For  were  our  Simple  Conceptions  never  fo  Co- 
pious, and  our  Senfes  Exquifite ;  Yet  if  they  were  not  the  fame  in  all 
Men  ;  and  out  of  thefe,  the  fame  Power  of  making  Univcrfais  ;  there 
could  have  been  no  Language,  as  in  the  Chapter  Oj  Intelleilual  Mind^ 
hath  alfo  been  faid ;  but  a  Definitive  Word,  mull  have  been  devifcd  for 
every  particular  Thing  ;  which  had  been  impolijble.  And  as  by  Intel- 
lectual Perception,  we  are  fitted  for  Converfation  :  fo  by  Intelledual  Will, 
for  Rule  or  Government.  That  is,  by  common  Content  to  Order,  for 
the  Common  Good.  Without  which,  all  other  Foundations  of  Civil 
Government,  are  but  Capriccios  and  CalUes  in  the  Air. 



11.  of  Providence.  i:3i 

42.  And  as  Hamane  Society  is  founded,  in  the  Similiti/de  oF  fome 
things :  So  it  is  promotedj  by  fome  certain  DiliimiUtudes.  The  Indi- 
viduals of  each  Species  of  Fiflies,  and  of  wild  Birds,  are  all  of  the 
fame  Figure,  and  Colour:  .And  at^^heir  full  Growth,  of  much  the  fame 
Cize.  And  though  the  Male  is  in  fome  Birds, '  left  than  the  Female  ; 
yet  this  difference  is  not  in  the  Individuals,  but  the  Species;  ds  \j\  Male- 
Birds  of  the  Rapacious  Kind.  Now  it  had  been  as  eafie  for  God  ^tb 
have  given  the  fame  Cize,  or  Stature,  of  the  Body,  and  the  fame  Figure 
-of  the  Face,  and  Colour  of  the  Hair  and  Eyes,  unto  all  Men  and  Wo- 
men. But  he  faw  it  fit,  to  dillinguifli  them,  with  great  Diverfity,  iti 
both  Sexes.  With  this  Intent,  that  Man,  of  all  Animals,  having  the 
moll;  various  Pliancy;  there  might  be  a  variety,  of  Choyce  anfwerable 
to  it.  That  a  Woman,  having  the  Figure  and  Colour  of  her  Body, 
generally  *bclonging  to  all  Women  ;  might  look  the  better,  as  a  Wo- 
man :  And  having  lome  things  peculiar  to  her  felf,  might  look  the  bet- 
ter, as  a  Wife. 

4:5.  And  as  variety  of  FJair  arid  Faces,  is  intended  for  a  more  Luckv 
Bate,  in  order  to  Marriage  :  So,  for  the  better  fecuring  of  Conjugal 
Love  and  Chaftitv  alter  wards.  For  had  all  Faces  been  made  alike  , 
Phancy  having  once  begot  Love;  the  fame  Phancy  which  makes 
a  Man  love  his  Wife,  would  have  made  him  in  LoVe  with  all  other 
Women.  And  had  there  been  the  fame  Likenefs  in  all  Men  and  Wo- 
men, as  fometimes  there  is  in  Twins:  k  would  have  given  bad  Men 
occasion,  to  bring  into  the  World  all  Confufion.  Every  day,  fome 
Title,  VVoman  ,  or  Eftate,  would  have  infpir'd  anotlier  pretending 

44.  As  the  acceptable  Qualities  of  things,  are  diftributed  every  where 
in  Nature ;  fo  alio  among  Men.  Hereby,  to  make  them  the  better 
pleas'd  with  their  own  Eftate ;  and  the-  more  ufeful  one  to  another'. 
Of  the  Oak,  nothing  can  be  more  defpicable  than  the  Fruit ;  nor  more 
ufeful  than  the  Wood.  Of  the  Vine  ,  what  can  be  bafer  than  the 
Wood,  or  more  excellent  than  the  Fruit?  In  like  manner,  fome  Men, 
have  Wifdom  for  Dired:ion ;  others.  Wit  for  Converfation  :  .And  the 
Favour,  which  fome  Women  want,  is  made  up  with  Difcretion  and 
good  Humour.  What  more  ufeful  among  Minerals,  than  the  Lqad- 
llone.  Without  a  Colour  ?  Or  among  Plants,  than  Corn,  without  a  Flow- 
er ?  Such  is  found  Wifdom  in  a  Man,  without  great  Wealth,  or  much 
Ceremony.  Men,  have  Knowlege  and- Strength;  to  fit  them  for  Com- 
mand and  Adtion.  Women,  Atied:ion ;  for  their  better  Coraplyance, 
and  their  Immediate  Care  of  Children.  And  herewith,  Beauty;  tocom- 
penfate  their  Subjeifion,  by  giving  them  an  Equivalent  Regency  over 
Men.  Contemplative  Men,  may  be  without  the  Pleafure,  of  Laying, 
or  Difcovering  the  Secrets  of  State,  at  Home,  or  in  other  Countries. 
And  Men  of  Adfion,  taken  up  with  the  bufmefs  of  the  Wdrld','^are 
commonly  without  the  Pleafure,  of  Tracing  the  Secrets  of  Divine  Art, 
fo  Unfearchable  in  all  the  Apartments  of  Nature. 

4,-.  God  hath  f»  order'd  every  thing,  that  there  is  nothing  which 
one  Man  hath;  but  another  hath,  or  it  is  his  own  fault,  if  he  hath  it 
not,  or  has  not  learned  to  be  without  it.  He'has  made  every  Man  ca- 
pable of  enjoying  the  fubftance  of  all. Good.  F3as  given  all  Men,  the' 
fame  fort  of  Body,  and  of  Mind;  and  the  fameiree  \Jk  of  both.  Has 
furniihcd  every  one,  with  an  Ear  and  a  Tongue  ;  for  the  Charms,  if  not 

D  d  of 

I02  Of  the  Ends  Book  ill. 

of  Mufick,  yet  the  greater  onesof  Converfation,  and  the  common  be- 
nefits of  Speech.  With  the  fame  Means  of  exchanging  Hunger  and' 
Third,  for  delightfome  Vigour.  Hath  fo  adapted  the  Caufes  of  Light 
and  Sight ;  as  to  ftiew  every  one,  «he  Innumerable  Finenefles  of  Sym- 
metry and  Colour,  And  among  them,  thofe  of  a  virtuous  Beauty,  the 
Epitome  of  the  reft.  And  which,  in  his  diffufive  kindnefs,  he  hath 
confin'd,  to  no  Degree,  or  Fortune.  Though  there  are  Thoufands  of 
Spawn,  in  every  Humane  Coition,  and  the  Number  of  Males  and  Fe- 
males, might  feem  to  be  fubjedi  to  the  greateft  chance  :  Yet  he  has  fo 
©rder'd  their  Proportion  ;  that  the  World  ftiould  never  be  overftock't, 
with  the  one,  or  the  other :  So  that  for  all  the  Offices  and  Affairs  of 
Human  Life,  there  is  Provifion  enough  of  both  SexQs :  And  every  Man 
that  will,  may  enjoy  tfie  bleffing  of  a  good  Wife.  And  although  he  is 
pleas'd,  for  the  fake  of  Order,  and  for  Sundry  other  good  Ends,  to  keep 
the  Fortunes  of  Men  in  his  own  Hands :  Yet  he  hinders  no  Man,  from 
becoming  Wife  and  Virtuous,  and  hereby  truly  Happy. 

46.  And  as  God  has  fo  model'd  the  World,  that  notwithftanding  the 
Corruption  of  Minkind ;  there  is  yet,  a  far  greater  fliare  of  Good,  than 
of  Evil  herein:  So  likewife,  that  all  the  Evil  there  is,  or  feems  to  be, 
is  fome  way  or  other  turned  unto  Good.  Do  great  Rains,  bring  Floods  i 
Thofe  Floods,  do  alio  enrich  the  Grounds,  they  overflow.  Doth  the 
North-Wind,  bring  Cold  weather  ?  It  alfo  brings  fair.  Nor  do  we  want 
the  Means,  to  defend  from  the  one,  while  we  make  ufe  of 
the  other.  Nor  do  the  Eaftern  Nations  want  their  Remedies,  againft 
thofe  Heats,  which  are  neceflary  for  the  Produdion  of  the  Nobleft 
Plants  and  Mines. 

47.  Are  fome  of  the  Species  of  Nature  noxious  ?  They  are  alio  ufe- 
ful.  How  many  Rare  Qualities  hath  Mercury^  for  one  that  is  Bad  ?  Doth 
a  Nettle  Sting  ?  It  is  to  fecure  fb  good  a  Medicine,  from  the  Rapes  of 
Children  and  Cattel.  Doth  the  Bramble  cumber  a  Garden  ?  It  makes 
the  better  Hedge:  Where  if  it  chances  to  prick  the  Owner,  it  will  tear 
the  Thief. 

.  48.  Hawks,  Ferrets,  Otters,  and  other  Birds  and  Beafls  of  Prey,  be- 
ing tam'd,-  become  fo  obedient,  as  with  their  Rapacious  Nature,  the 
better  to  ferve  our  Turns.  And  by  the  bold  and  watchful  Fatigue,,  of 
perluing  tlie  Game ;  we  are  better  inur'd,  to  that  of  a  Marflial  Field.  Nor 
are  any  of  their  Parts,  unferviceable  to  us :  The  flefli  of  Vipers,  the 
Alhes  of  Toads,  and  the  Skins  of  wild  Beafts.  Cantharides^  taken  by 
fome  Whores,  to  deflroy  their  Big-Bellies ;  and  wherewith  they  com- 
monly kill  themfelves  to  boot ;  how  many  more  Lives  do  they  every 

■  day  helptofave?  And  every  other,  the  mod  odious,  or  noxious  thing, 
ferveth  in  like  manner,  for  Food,  or  Phyfick,  or  fome  Manufacture,  or 
other  good  Ufe. 

49.  Neither  are  they  of  lefs  Ufe,  to  amend  our  Minds  :  By  teaching 
us  Care,  and  Diligence,  and  fnore  Wit.     And  fo  much  the  more,  the 

.  worfe  the  things  are,  we  fee,  and  fhould  avoid.  Weefles,  Kites,  and 
other  mifchievoui  Animals,  induce  us  to  watchfulnefs.  Thiftles,  and 
Moles,  to  good  Husbandry.  Lice  oblige  us  to  Cleanlynefs  in  our  Bo- 
dies; Spiders,  in  our  Houfcs ;  and  the  Moth,  in  our  Cloaths.  The  De- 
formity, and  Filthynefs  of  Swine,,  make  them  the  Beauty-fpot  of  the 
Animal  Creation,  and  the  Emblem  of  all  Vice.  And  the  Obfcenity  of 
Dogs,  flieweth,  how  much  more  beaftly,  it  is  in  Men.    The  Fox,  teach- 


C  H  A  p,  II.  of  Providence  lo^ 

eth  us  to  beware  the  Thief;  and  Vipers  and  Scorpious,  thofe  more 
Noxious  Creatures,  which  carry  their  Venim ,  in  their  Tongues,  or 
their  Tails. 

50.  The  truth  is.  Things  are  hurtful  to  us,  only  by  Accident.     That 
is,  not  of  Necellity,  but  through   our  own  Negligence,  or  Miftake* 
Houfes  decay.  Corn  is  blafted,  and  the  Weevle  breeds  in  Mault,  fooneft 
toward  the  South.    Be  it  fo ;  it  is  then  our  own  fault,   if  we  ufe  not 
the  Means,  which  Nature  and  Art  have  provided  againfl:  thefe  Inconve- 
niencies.     Stares^  fafely  feed  on  Hemlock ;  Storks,  on  Adders  and  Slow- 
worms.     Which,  and  other  Creatures,  would  be  as  harmlels  to  our  ielves  j 
had  we  always  Caution  enough  to  avoid  them,  or  Wit  enough  to  ufe 
them  as  we  fliould.     Aloes,  hath  the  property  of  promoting  Hemor- 
rhages.    But  this  Property,  is  good  or  bad,  as  it  is  ufed.    If  by  one  that 
hath  the  Green -Skknefs,  it  will  prove  a  good  Medicine :  If  by  one  fub- 
ytSt  to  a  Dyfentery,  or  to  fpitting  of  Blood,  a  pernicious  Poyfon.     And 
it  is  very  probable,  that   the  mofl:  dangerous  Poyfons,  skilfully  raa- 
nag'd,  may  be  made,   not  only  Innocuous,  but  of  all  other  Medicines, 
the  moft  effeftual. 

51.  The  feeming  faults  of  our  own  Bodies,  are  ordained  unto  Excel- 
lent Ends.     Whereas  mod  other  Creatures,  are  furniflied  with  fuitable 
Weapons,  for  their  own  Defence :  Man  is  born,  altogether  unarmed. 
That  inftead  of  one  kind,  we  might  think  of  making,  as  many  as  we 
needed.     But  withal,  to  put  us  in  mind,  of  that  Innocency ;  which  had 
we  kept,  there  had  been  no  occafion  for  any.    Elephants   have  their 
Teeth,   Birds  their  Feet,  and  Fiihes  their  Fins ;  and  mofl  Creatures  can 
Eat,  and  Swim,  and  Run,  as  foon  as  they  are  born.    But  Human  Births, 
for  a  long  time,  are  altogether  helplefs.    To  the  end,  that  Parents,  by 
taking  Care  of  them,    may  be  habituated  to  the  ways  of  Kindnefs  and 
Pity,  both  to  their  own  Children,  and  to  all  Mankind.    In  many  other 
Creatures,  as  Rabbits,  the  Skin  is  mucli  loofer  from  the  Flelli,  than  in 
a  Man;    whereby  it  becomes  their  Garment.     And  every  Creature,  hath 
its  fuitable  Coat,  or  Attire.     But  Man  comes  flark  Naked  into  the  World. 
With  the  forecaft  of  Ornament,  Order,  Chaftity,  Health,  and  all  other 
good  Ufes,  which  are,  or  may  be  made,  of  Cloaths. 

5x.  Neither  are  Irregular  Births  without  their  Ufe.  As  ferving  to  af> 
iiflus,  in  obferving  and  valuing  all  thofe,  which  are  Regular.  It  being 
far  more  wonderful,  that  there  are  fo  many  of  thefe ;  than  that  there 
is  now  and  then,  one  of  the  other.  To  fliew  us  alfo,  the  Power  of 
Phancy ;  and  to  teach  us  the  Regulation  of  it,  upon  this  and  all  other 
accounts.  Nor  are  Difeafes  themfelves,  ufelefs.  For  the  Blood,  in  a 
Feaver,  if  well  governed,  like  wine  upon  the  Fret,  difchargeth  it  (elf,  of 
all  Heterogeneous  Mixtures.  And  Nature,  the  Difeafe,  and  Remedies, 
cleans  all  the  Rooms  of  the  Houle.  Whereby,  that  which  threatens 
Death  7  tends,  in  conclufion,  to  the  prolonging  of  Life. 

5^.  The  faults  like  wife  of  our  Minds,  are  made  to  produce  much 
good  to  us.  Whether  it  was  Pride,  Dillrufl:,  or  both,  which  brought 
the  Confufion  of  Tongues :  The  Earth  was  hereupon,  every  where,  the 
better Tiird,  and  Inhabited,  hs  we  have  no  common  Language;  fowe 
know,  and  ufe,  no  common  Meafure  of  Things^  And  the  gradual  Ad- 
vance we  have  made  in  the  Meafure  of  Time,  the  Improvement  of  Lan- 
guage, and  Trade,  and  of  all  other  Arts  and  Sciences ;  has  been  order'd,the 
better  to  ihew,   That  Man,  by  Nature,  is  an  Improvable  Creature,  and 


io4  Of  the  Enh  Book  III* 

*     '  '  '  I        — ■  . 

capable  of  a  Magnanimous  and  Succefsful  Induftry.  That  being  plac't 
in  themidflof  the  World,  aTheatre,  which  neither  to  our  Eye,  nor 
,  Underftanding,  hath  any  End  :  we  have  no  more  Reafon  to  (lay,  where 
we  are;    than  where  we  firft  began. 

54,  That  we  fliall  always  be  kept  Ignorant  of  fome  Things,  is  out  of 
pure  kindnefs  to  us.  As  the  variety  of  Contingents,  is  fuch;  that  no 
Man  can  forefee,  the  Good  or  Evil  that  fliall  befall  him  :  So  neither, 
is  it  fit  he  fliould.  For  that  his  Know! cge  hereof,  would  certainly  take 
away  ,  all  manner  of  Prudent  Care,  either  to  obtein  the  one,  or  avoid 
the  other. 

55".  The  time  of  Death,  has  a  far  greater  Latitude,  than  that  of  our 
Birth :  Mod  Women  coming,  according  to  their  Reckoning,  within 
the  compafs  of  a  Fortnight;  that  is,  the  Twentieth  part  of  their  Going. 
But  if  we  meafure  the  latter  part  of  Life,  when  the  Difeafes  and  Acci- 
dents of  Minority  are  pad;  there  is  a  far  greater  Latitude,  viz.  from 
60  to  80  years,  or  from  65  to  85,  a  fourth  part  of  the  whole.  And  from 
the  Multitude  of  Difeafes,  and  Accidents,  and  the  Caufes  of  both ;  the 
Manner  of  our  Death,  is  as  uncertain.  And  God  is  good  to  us,  in  that 
from  the  Order  of  Th.ings,  we  mult  be  Ignorant.  There  being  no  bet- 
ter way,  to  induce  every  Man,  to  Hope  the  Beft,  and  Prepare  for  the 
Worfl:,  in  a  Setled  and  Cheerful  Courfe  of  Virtue. 

56.  The mofl  Exorbitant  Phancies  and  Lufls  of  Men,  illuftrate  the 
Beauty  of  God's  Creation.  One  Man,  makes  all  his  Tlioughts  and  Plea- 
lures,  to  centre  in  Meats  and  Drinks ;  Another,  in  Mufick  ;  a  3  bird,  in 
Women ;  or  in  fome  other  Senfe,  or  Phancy,  fo  as  to  think  of  nothing 
elfe.  Which,  as  it  fliews  the  Infirmity  of  Fluman  Nature;  fo  the  Ple- 
nitude and  Perfedfion  of  the  World,  in  being  fitted,  fo  many  ways,  to 
Beatific  Men,  would  they  know  difcreetly  how  to  ufe  it.  And  the  fame 
Lufls  and  Phancies,  are  many  other  ways  turned  to  Good.  A  Covetous 
Hope  of  geting  the  Thilofophers  Stone ;  has  been  the  chief  occafion,  of 
all  that  obftinate  Diligence,  which  hath  been  ufed  to  difcover  the  Na- 
ture of  Minerals.  And  which  hath  iflu'd,  among  other  good  Effeds, 
in  the  Invention  of  many  Noble  Medicines.  The  foollilh  Pranks  of 
Love,  are  made  ufe  of  to  that  moft  ncccfl'ary  End,  the  Propagation 
of  Mankind.  Meer  Avarice  in  a  Phyfician,  may  make  him  watchtui 
over  his  Patient;  Malice  in  a  Judge,  to  do  Juftice;  and  Vanity  in  a 
Minifler,  to  Preach  well. 

57.  The  mofk  High  God,  in  all  things  appertaining  unto  this  Life, 
for  fundry  wife  Ends,  alternates  the  Diftribution  of  Good  and  Evil. 
Sometimes,  he  permits  Bad  Men,  to  efcape.  The  better  -to  flievv  the 
Pravity  of  thofe  Minds,  which  Goodnefs  it  felf  will  not  amend.  Or 
becaufe  he  intends  to  ufe  them,  in  the  puniihing  of  Good  Men  for  their 
Faults.  Or  is  minded,  fometimes, ,  by  Bad  Men,  to  proted  the  Good. 
Hereby  to  lliew.  That  Virtue,  in  the  Judgment  and  Confcience  of  the 
u  orfl  of  Men,  is  Rewardable.  Or  becaute  he  hath  a  purpofe,  to  pun- 
ifliBad  Men,  by  thofe  of  their  own  Kind;  making  one  Haughty  Ty- 
rant, to  knock  down  another.  To  (hew  his -Skill,  m  ufing'all  their  Ig- 
norance, Pride,  and  Malice,  to  ferve  his  own  turn.  And  hereby  aUo 
to  gratifie  the  Good,  agaanft  their  Will.  And  to  fliew  too,  that  with 
refped  to  the  Blellings,  the  World  enjoys,  even  Good  Men,  may  af- 
cribe  overmuch  to  themlelves.  He  forefees  withal,  of  fome,  that  they 
are  not  Incurable :  And  by  Forbearance,  gives  them  Opportunity,  of 


Chap.  Ill,  Of  Providence.  io< 


becoming  fo  hluch  better,  as  they  have  been  vvorfe,  than  others.  And 
teacheth  us,  not  to  be  precipitate  and  fierce;  but  inclinable  to  the  ways 
of  Clemency,  when  we  have  before  us,  fo  great  an  Example. 

58.  On  the  contrary,  he  permits  Good   Men,   for  weighty  Reafons, 
oftentimes  to  fuffer.     To  chaftize  them  for  their  Errors  :  And  convince 
them.  That  the  Bed,  are  not  without.     To  Confecrate  his  Juflice  ;  by 
Correfting  of  Evil,  in  whomfoever  he  fees  it.     And  to  put  us  in  mind, 
That  himielf  only,  holds  the  Ballance,  by  which  all  Men  and  Things, 
are  exadily  wcigh'd.     To  prove  their  VVifdom,  in  managing  fome  Lef^ 
ler  Evils,  fo  as  hereby  to  feafon  their  greater  Enjoyments.     And  by 
greater  Evils,   to  try  their  Virtue.     Whether  they  are  Wind  and 
VVeather-Tite ,  and  have  learn'd  to  Sail  upon  their  Poynt,  though  all 
alone,  and  againft  the  Stream.     To  Illuftrate  as  well  as  prove  their  Vir- 
tue ;  which  Ihineth  bed,  when  they  are  in  the  Dark.     And  to  Refine 
and  Confirm  it.      Leading   them    to   a  Candid    and  Modeft    Senfe, 
of  the  Afflidions  of  others,  while  they  feel  themfelves  to  fmart.     And 
Training  them  up,   with  a  Compafiionate  Skill,   to  Help,   Advife,  and 
Comfort  them.     Exciting  them,  by  a  due  Remembrance  of  all  that  is 
part,  unto  future  Circumfpedion ;  and  a  Serene  Expedation  of  the  fu- 
ture Life.     As  believing,  that  He,  who  in  Making  the  World,   brought 
Light  out  of  Darknefs,  and  all  things  out  of  nothing:  Can   never  tail, 
in  the  Government  hereof,    to  bring  Good  out  of  Evil ;  yea,  the  Great- 
eft  Good,  out  of  the  Greateft  Evil. 

CHAP.    in. 

of  Providence  over  Publicly  States. 

1/  I  "H  E  Divine  Providence,  which  hath  a  vifible  refped:  to  theBe- 
J^     ing,  and  Condition  of  every  Man  :  is  yet  more  obfervable,  in 
its  Superintendency  over  Societies  or  Publick  States. 

X.  With  each  of  thefe,  as  it  is  united  in  all  its  Parts  into  one  Polt* 
■^tick  Body;  God  is  wont  to  deal,  as  with  one  Man.  Wherein  there- 
fore, if  any  one  part  fufTers  ;  the  reft  muft  needs  Sympathize  with  it, 
more  or  lefs.  And  the  Iniquities  or  Virtues  of  Predeceflbrs,  as  of  Pa- 
rents; are  fometimes  vifited,  or  Rewarded  upon  the  Succeflbrs,  as 
their  Children. 

^.  In  the  ufe  of  Sundry  Means  fortius  purpofe;  among  which,  the 
Counfels,  a'nd  EfFeds  of  VVar,  have  ever  been  the  Chief :  The  Deity 
fails  not,  to  exhibit  his  Juftice  and  Benevolence  to  the  World.  Shewing,' 
the  Diipofal  of  all  Men  and  Things,  Nations  and  Crowns,  to  be  in  his 
own  Hands :  And  that  howfoever  oppofite  Men  may  be,  in  their  De- 
figns,  either  to  Himfelf,  or  one  to  another ;  nothing  ftiall  hinder  the 
efteding  of  his  Own.  The  Proof  whereof,  tho'  beft  deduced  from  Scrip- 
ture Prophecies;  of  which  hereafter:  Yet  mayalfo  be  gather 'd,  from 
thofe  Accounts  of  Things,  which  have  been  given  us  by  Profane  Au- 

E  e  4.  Sparta^ 

io6  Of  Providence,  Book  UL 

4,  Sparta^  whole  Government  was  founded  in  Jufticc;  giving  the 
Prince,  Nobility,  and  People,  all  their  Shares;  and  was  adminiflred  by 
Good  Laws:  Became,  and  continu'd  five  hundred  years,  the  Flower  of 
all  Greece.  Whereas  the  Efiatcs  of  the  Alejfemj,  and  the  Argives,  ha- 
vinp-  Injuflice  in  their  very  Form  and  Foundation  ,•  were  but  fliort  Liv'd, 
and  Unhappy.  And  Sparta  it  fclf,  when  the  !^cop!e  began  to  be  Vici- 
ous, and  theMagiftrates  Perfidious,  and  to  violate  their  ancient  Laws  ; 
fell  a  pace  from  its  Glory,  till  it  became  a  Prey. 

5.  The  Athenians,  by  an  unjufl  Pr(  jedt,  of  Rifing  higher ;  laid  the 
beginning  of  their  Fall.  For  (ending  their  Fleet  to  Sicily,  upon  pre- 
tence, only  to  afllft  the  Leontines  againft  Syracufe,  Cicer.  in  Fer.  5-, 
but  with  an  intent,  to  make  themfelves  Mailers  of  that  Ifland,  and  there- 
by, the  better  of  2\\  Greece:  Their  Fleet,  which  confillcd  of  ^co  Sail, 
being  then  overcome ;  made  the  firft  Shipwrack  of  their  VVcalth, 
Power,  and  Glory. 

6.  VVhen  the  Bahjlonians  had  deflroyed  the  Jews,  wiio  had  done 
them  no  wrong ;  and  had  utterly  forgot  the  Divine  Hand,  which  ap- 
peared againfl  that  People  ;  and  with  their  Impiety,  had  given  them-  , 
felves  over  to  all  manner  of  Vice:  it  was  time,  for  the  fame  Lord  of 
the  VVorld,  who  had  fet  up  that  Empire,  to  pull  it  down.     For  which 
purpofe,  Cyrus^  a  Man  every  way   Qualify 'd,  was  raifcd  up.     His  ve- 
ry Name,  which,  in  the  Perfean  Tongue,  as  Plutarch  notes  ,  fignifies, 
the  Sun ;  befpake  a  higli  Opinion  of  him.     His  Genius,  which  was  ex- 
traordinary, mucli  more,     VVhen  his  Playfellows  chofe  him  their  King  ; 
he  fpake,  and  Did,  fays  Herodotus,  Lih.  i,  thofc  things  in  Jeii,  which 
would  have  become  a  King  in  Earneft.     And  no  lefs,  his  Education  ;  as 
being  a  Flower,  feleded   out  of  Perjia ;  at  that  time,  the  Nurfery  and 
Garden,  of  the  bed  and  truefl:  Morals  in  the   Vi'orld.     Where  they 
lent  their  Children  to  School,  not  as  we  do,  to  learn  Languages ;  but 
to  be  throughly  bred  up,  in  the  Rules,  and  Praftife  of  Virtue:  In  one 
of  which,  Cyras  had    his  Inllitution,    among  the  reft.     To  this  folid 
Foundation,  the  Superftrudure,  which  was  after  added  in  his  Uncle's 
Court,  among  the  jWe^w,  fucceeded  the  better.     So  as  in  a  fliort  time^ 
he  became,  what  Vlato,  de  Leg.  :}.  owns  him  to  have  been,  aCompleat 
Mafter,  both  of  the  Civil  and  Military  Arts,  and  a  Friend  to  his  Coun- 
try.    Evidently  fingled  out^   not  only  as  the  Inftrumenr,    but  the  Favo- 
rite of  Fleaven,  for  the  feting  up  of  the  Perfian  Empire.     The  Medes^ 
who  remember'd  his  fweet  Converfation  among  them,    in  his  Youth  ; 
were  ambitious  of  him.     And  with  thefe,   the  Egyptians  -,  as  alio,   the 
Balylonians,  Syrians^  Arabians,   Indians,  and  many  other  Afiatick  Nati- 
ons,  were  ready  to  receive  a  Prince,  who,  they  believed,  would  efteem 
and  cheriQi  them,  as  his  Children.    So  by  D/odonis,   in  Excerp.  Hen. 
Valles.  he  is  delcribed,  tt^ 35  t«5  r;VoTgTa}//-'ya5  zKj-^vdi)fj.(>>v  xoj  (fjAaVBfwTroj.. 
So  by  Trogus  Pompeius;  Frontinus,  and  others :  who   fpeak  of  iiim,  as 
of  one,  who  was  herein  anfwerable,  to  whatever  Xenophon  hath  put  in- 
to hisCharader. 

7.  The  Perjians,  though  once  a  virtuous  People;  yet  intermixing 
with  the  Babylonians ;  became  with  them,  efpecially  after  the  Reign  of 
Cyrus,  equally  Vicious,  throughout  the  Empire.  Having  once  debauch- 
ed their  Senfes,  with  the  Pleafures  of  other  Nations ;  they  devoted  them- 
felves  unto  all  wickednefs.  The  Court  of  Darius,  in  Alexanders  time, 
was  become  a  Neft  of  Tyrannical  Tools  of  State,  Sodomitical  Eunuchs, 


Chap.  IIL         over  Fublic^Eflates.  iq^ 

and  Impudent  Whores.  Even  his  Cimp  was  fiU'd,  with  all  fofts  of 
Caterers  for  the  Belly,  and  Barbars  of  Pleafure :  as  is  witneiled  by  He- 
rodotus^  Xemphon^  and  others,  from  whom  wejiave  the  Perfian  Story. 
Whereupon,  it  became  neceflary,  as  before,  to  chailize  and  refornl 
t\\t Babylonians ^h\  the  Perfians :  fo  now,  t\\Q  Perfians^hy  ih^Greeks. 

8.  In  order  to  which,  it  was  forecaft  by  >:he  Divine  Wifdom,  Th^.t 
Philip  ,  having  treacheroufly  dellroyed  his  Kindred  and  Allies-  divers 
of  the  Gra:cijn  Commonwealths,  fliould  fir(l  unite  under  him,  as  thd 
Macedonian  Monarch.  That  by  his  obferving,  how  Xenophon\  and  A~ 
geftlaus  King  of  Sparta,  one  after  another,  had  pafled  through  many  of 
the  Neighbouring  Nations,  belonging  to  that  Empire,  unrelifted  ;  their" 
Nakednefs  ihould  hereby  be  difcover'd  to  him.  That  having  Peace  at 
home,  his  People  in  Military  Plight,  and  well  afteded  to  him;  and 
forward  withal  to  be  in  Adtion,  in  hope  of  Spoil ;  he  iliould  be  able  to 
make  a  Judgment,  as  of  their  Impotency,  fo  of  his  own  Strength.  And 
that  after  the  barbarous  Ufage,  fome  of  his  People  had  met  with,  from 
the  Perjians  i  Jurtice  too,  with  all  the  forementioned  Motives  to  a  War, 
fliould  meet  on  his  fide. 

9.  What  the  Father  hereupon  began;  the  Son,  was  in  all  points,  fitted 
to  go  through  with.  Courage,  and  Ardent  Ambition,  he  had  enough 
of,  from  his  Blood,  and  Youth.  From  his  Fathers  Example,  and  fhe 
Inftrudions  of  his  Mafler  Ariflotle,  Military  Prudence.  Which  was  alio 
aflociated,  with  Temperance,  Benignity,  Clemency,  in  a  high  degree. 
With  a  great  Love  to  all  Philofophers,  not  only  for  the  fake  of  his  Ma- 
iler, but  of  Wifdom  it  felf.  But  all  this,  not  without  a  Tindture  of 
Barbarity,  from  the  Fury  Olympian,  his  Mother.  Tho',  like  fome  Heredi- 
tary Difeafes,  it  was  later  before  it  difcover'd  it  felf. 

10.  God  having  fliarpen'd  this  Sword;  was  refolved,  nothing  fliould 
break  it,  before  he  had  done  with  it.  Alexanders  Fortune,  fhall  yet  be 
greater,  than  his  Virtue.  He  was  every  where,  in  danger ;  and  often 
wounded.  By  the  l/lyrians,  Phrygians,  Cilicians  ;  at  Gaza,  in  India,  and 
at  other  times.  The  Wounds  he  received,  not  only  in  his  Foot,  Thigh, 
and  Shoulders ;  but  in  his  Breaft,  and  Elead ;  given,  both  with  great 
Stones,  and  all  forts  of  Weapons.  Molt  of  which  Wounds,  by  a  Imall 
Miflake,  or  Negled,  in  any  part  of  the  Cure ;  might  have  turned  to 
aFeaver,  or  a  Gangrene.  And  the  Weapons,  as  well  have  gone  through 
his  Heart,  or  ftruck  out  his  Brains.  But  nothing  fliall  be  fatal  to  him. 
Nor  any  thing  Invincible :  He  (liall  march  forward,  through  all  Dan- 
gers, and  againft  all  Oppofitions,  with  a  fmall,  and  fometimes  a  Mu- 
tinous, and  ill  provided  Army,-  till  he  is  Mailer  of  Babylon,  and 
the  World.  Which  he  was  made  to  poflefs ;  not  to  deftroy,  but  amend 
it.  .4s  he  alfo  did,  in  building  more  than  Seventy  Cities,  among  the 
Conquer'd  Nations;  and  Planting  them  with  the  Griecian  Learning  and 
Laws,  to  extirpate  their  own  Barbarities,  and  compel  them  to  be  Men. 

n.  When  God  had  now  done  with  him,  having  manag'd  both  his 
Virtue,  and  Ambition,  to  his  own  Ends :  to  make  it  appear,  he  had  fliew'd 
himfelf  to  one,  who  after  all,  would  not  know  him  7  he  withdrew  his  ' 
Protedion,  and  left  him  to  himfelf.  Who,  thereupon,  looking  upon  all 
his  Vidories  round  about,  quickly  grew  giddy.  With  the  profound 
Relfoeds  of  the  Jewilli  Priefts,  and  the  Elatteries  of  thofe  in  Egypt,  was 
putfed  up  with  infinite  Pride.  Of  a  Stay'd  and  Virtuous  Prmce,  be- 
came Intemperate  and  Ditfoluie.    Infolent,  and  Arrogant,  in  the  higheft 


of  Providence^  Book   III. 

Degree.  Guilty,  and  therefore  Jealous.  Bafe  and  Ungrateful  to  the  beft 
of  his  Friends ;  and  barbaroufly  Cruel,  beyond  the  worft  of  thofe  Nati- 
ons he  had  fubdu'd.  And  having  procured  himlelf  to  be  worlhipped 
as  a  God :  was  then  permitted  to  pcrifli  of  a  Drunken  Feaver,  like  a 
Beaft.  Nor  was  it  long  after  his  Death,  before  his  whole  Race  wasex- 

IX.  But  there  is  no  Profane  Story,  which  affbrdethus  more  confpi- 
cuous  Marks  of  the  Benevolence,  Juftice,  and  Sovereignty  of  Divine  Pro- 
vidence, than  that  of  the  Roman  State.  Once,  of  all  others,  the  mod 
celebrated  for  their  Virtue  :  as  the  Graved  of  their  o\\  n  Writers,  and 
of  Strangers,  Livy,  Polyiius,  and  others,  do  bear  them  witnefs. 

I -J,  Romulus  began  with  a  Publick  Adt  of  Piety,  in  him,  very  fingu- 
lar ;  viz.  The  Dedication  of  his  firft  Spoils ;  not  to  Mars,  or  Bellona,  or 
Hercules,  or  other  likeFIeroe;  but  to  Jupiter.  Whom  he  ftyles,  in  his 
Addrefs  to  him,   Deum  Hominumq-,  patrem :  That  is,  the  mofl:  High  God. 

14.  Their  Temperance  was  fo  great,  that  as  the  Men  drank  very  lit- 
tle Wine :  So  it  was  unlawful  for  the  W^omen,  antiently,  to  drink  any. 
And  their  Moderation  and  Parcimony  in  other  refpedts,  may  be  judg'd 
of,  from  the  Bill  of  Fare,  to  which  their  Princes  themlelves  were  li- 
mited, by  the  Sumptuary  Laws.  Their  Chaftity,  was  admirable.  The 
Diflionour  done  to  Lucretia,  was  the  chief  occafion,  of  laying  afide  the 
Regal  Power,  yirginius  flew  his  only  Daughter,  efpoufed  to  a  young 
Roman  Gentleman,  to  prevent  her  being  defiled  by  Appius  Claudius.  And 
Appius,  though  in  great  Authority,  yet  was  dealt  with  according  to  his 
Merits.  In  all  refpeds,  they  were  fo  Modeft;  and  either  in  the  Wars, 
or  at  home,  fo  well  employ 'd ;  that  it  was  near  500  years,  before  they 
had  any  Plays. 

15.  They  perceived  that.  Dignity  to  be  in  Virtue  itfelf;  that  the  wait 
of  great  Wealth,  leflen'd  not  their  efleem  of  any  Man.  Numa,  to 
whom  they  reckon'd  themfelves  as  much  beholden,  as  to  any  of  their 
Kings,  was,  when  called  to  the  Kingdom,  a  retir'd  Philofopher ;  Tullus 
Hojtdius,  a  Shepherd ;  and  Cmcinnatus,  a  Husbandman,  when  chofen 
General  of  their  Army.  Their  Commanders,  Regulus-,  jEmilius,  and  fuch 
others,  contenting  themfelves  with  the  Honour  and  Succeft  of  Vi- 
dory ;  frankly  left  the  Spoil,  to  be  put  into  the  Publick  Treafure. 

1 6.  Seeing  all  this  Beauty  in  their  own  Country ;  their  Love  to  it,  in- 
fpir'd  them  with  a  True  and  Invincible  Valour.  By  the  great  Examples 
of  Scxvola,  Curtius,  Decius,  Falritius,  and  fuch  others,  in  a  manner  Confe- 
crared  to  Pofterity.  Though  fometimes  they  were  overpowr'd ;  yet  in 
no  Jufl  War,  did  they  ever  turn  their  Backs,  but  were  rather  anima- 
ted by  ill  Succefs. 

17.  And  their  Prudence,  was  always  anfwerable  to  their  Courage. 
They  knew  when  it  was  a  fit  time  to  yield  a  little,  as  well  as  to  Con- 
quer. Their  Difcipline,  wliich  they  found  to  be  necefiary,  was  fo  flridt; 
that  Manlius,  when  Conful,  caus'd  his  own  Son  to  loofe  his  Head,  for 
fighting,  though  Succefsfully,  againft  his  Edid.  They  always  made  ufe 
of  fome  Friend,  among  their  New  Allies,  or  Neighbours  to  them ;  ei- 
ther to  hold  them  fafl,  or  put  them  into  their  Hands,  upon  a  jull  occa» 
fion.  Nor  did  their  Wit,  make  them  too  Proud,  to  learn  of  others. 
Iwitari,  quam  invidereBoms,    makhant:  was  the  Charader,  which  Ca- 

far  folemnly  and  publickly  gave  of  them.     Many  of  their  firll  and  befl 
Laws,  were  borrow'd  of  the  Greeks ;  the  Arts  of  Shiping,  of  the  Cartha- 

I  gtneans  : 

Chap.   ill.  over  Publicly  Efl ate s,  loc; 

ginians :  and  fcarce.  any  Nation,  though  their   Enemies,  but  (erved  to 
Improve  them,  in  their  Encampments,   Weapons,  Husbandry,  orfomcJ- 
thing  elfe  which  was  ufeful  to  them.     When  after  mature  Counfels,  the^r 
refolved  upon  a  War ;  they  were,  for  the  mofl  part,  the  firft  Aflailants. 
In  order  to  which,  they  prepared  themfelves,  with  ah-nofl  Inimitable 
Diligence  and  Refolution,     In  the  firft  Carthaginiait  War,  they  built  a 
Navy  of  i6o  Sail,  in  todays,  after  the  Timber  was  fell'd.     And  ano- 
ther afterwartjis,  of  izo,  in  :;  Months.     And  C^r  in  the  Gj///cjf  Wars, 
palled  his  Army  over  the  Rhine,  fo  broad  and  fwift  a  River^  with  a  Bridge 
made  in  ten  days. 

1 8.  But  there  is  no  virtue,  wherein  they  more  excell'd,  than  that 
of  Juftice  and  Honefty.  A  Client,  once  taken  under  Protedion,  they 
would  defend  againft  their  nearefl:  Kindred,  When  the  Roman  Soldi- 
ers Quarter'd  at  Rhegium,  had  perfidioufly  taken  poflelTion  of  it  for 
themfelves :  The  Confuls,  by  other  Soldiers,  Befieged,  and  Took  the 
City,  and  reftored  it,  with  the  Lands  and  Goods  belonging  to  it,  to 
their  Owners.  ■  Juftice  was  eminent  among  them,  in  Private  occafi- 
ons :  but  more,  in  their  Wars.  We  find  not,  that  Agefilaus  made  art 
Inroad  upon  the  Perfians,  for  any  other  Caufe ;  but  meerly  to  provoke 
them,  and  to  make  proof  of  his  Arms.  Nor  were  the  Tyrrhenes  ex- 
pell'd  Campania ,  for  other  reafon,  but  becaufe  the  Gauh  had  a  mind, 
themfelves  to  enjoy  To  fertile  a  Country.  And  it  is  plain,  that  mod 
other  Nations,  £(s  Publick  Thieves  and  Robbers,  have  only  preyed  up*- 
on  one  another,  in  th6ir  Rapacious  Wars.  But  thofe  of  the  Romans^ 
were  not  fuch.  It  doth  not  appear,  for  a  long  time,  that  they  ufed 
them  with  Ambition,  to  enlarge  their  Dominidns ;  but  only  to  kee^ 
a  Quiet  Pofleilion  of  what  they  had.  Much  lefs,  that  they  were  Li- 
centious herein.  For  it  was  a  Bufinels,  which  they  were  bound  by 
their  LawSj  to  commit  unto  the  Arbitration  of  the  Fecial  Priefts.  Who 
held  their  Trufl:  herein,  to  be  fo  Sacred ;  that  they  never  allowed  of 
any  War,  but  upon  good  Caufe,  and  after  they  had  firft:  fought  Peace, 
and  no  hopes  were  left  of  obtaining  it  with  Juftice  otherwife. 

19.  The  firft  they  had,was,I  think,  with  the  Fidenates :  whofe  Daughters, 
the  Roman  Youth,  had  taken  at  a  Publick  Dance,  for  their  Wives.  Vet 
were  thus  far  excufable,  in  that  they  took  them  not,  till  after  the  fair- 
eft:  Offers  which  could  be  made,  were  refufed :  and  when,  without  thofe 
Wives,  their  State,  if  not  their  Nation,  had  been  extindt.  Of  thofe 
which  follov\ed,  their  Enemies  ftill  gave  the  firft  Occafiori.  The  Sa^ 
lines,  by  unjuftly  furprizing  the  Capitol.  The  G^Si  Senones,  by  killing 
their  Embaftadors.  The  Tarentines,  by  deftroying  their  Navy  witliout 
Caafe,  and  their  Admiral.  Pyrrhus,  and  the  Carthaginians,  by  giving 
them  their  Afliftance.  The  lllyrians,  by  dealing  injurioufty  with  their 
Merchants,  and  killing  one  of  their  Amballadors,  fent  to  complain  here- 
of. The  Macedonians,  by  aflaulting  the  Apolloniates  their  Friends,  and 
joyning  with  tlieir  Enemies,  the  Carthaginians.  The  Lacedemonians,  by 
putting  the  Argi  under  their  Tyranny ;  one  of  the  beft:  Cities  of  Greece, 
and  which  the  Romans  had  before  reftored  to  their  Liberty.  Nor  did 
they  hardly  ever  make  War  with  any,  but  uponjuft  provocation.  So  truly 
did  Cami/lus  the  Didtator,  fpeak  the  fenfe  and  way  of  this  People  j" 
Belli,  Jicut  Pacis,  Jura  funt  j  jufteq-,  ea,  non  minus  quam  fort  iter,  didici- 
mus  gerere. 

F  f  afo.Nbjf 

no  Of  l^rovidence^  Book  111. 

xa.  Nor  did  they  ufe  more  Juftice,   in  Waging  their    Wars;  than 
Goodoefs  and  Moderation,  with  their  Victories.      As  no  Adverfity, 
when  they  were  Innocent,  could  abate  their  Courage  :  fo  the  greateft 
Succefles,    did  not  make  them  Infblent.    They  oftener  punilht  thofe, 
.who  profecuted  a  Vidiory  too  far,  and  beyond  their  Order;  than  thofe, 
who  forfook  their  Colours.     They  defired  to  win  their  Allies,    if  it 
might  be  done,  rather  with  Kindnefs,  and  Fear.     As  they  refufed  no 
Friendfliip,  which  was  offer'd ;  fo    neither  any  Peace,  defir'd :  though 
by  fome,  as  the  Carthaginians,  after  they  had  more  than  once,  made  an 
ill  ufe  of  it.     By  their  Agreement  with  Teuca,  Queen  of  Illyrium,  they 
not  only  fecured  their  own  Trade ;  but  provided  for  the  fafety  of  O- 
thers,  who  were  in  fear   of  her.    So  ready  were  they,  to  help  their 
Friends  and  Allies;  and  even  unasked,  to  do  them  good.    This  Eagle, 
did  not  fpread  his  Claws,  but  his  Wings,  over  them.    How  great  were 
they  in  that  Adl,  than  which,  nothing  on  Earth  could  be  nearer  to 
Divine  ;  when,  at  Corinth,  with  the  Authority  of  the  Senate,  Flaminius 
the  General,  and  Ten  Embafladors  then  prelent ,  Liberty  was  proclaim- 
ed unto  all  Greece  >  What  is  taken  notice  of,  in  one  Man,  I  think,  An- 
tigonns,  as  praife-worthy  towards  the  Spartans ;  the  Romans  always  did , 
viz.  In  permitting  thofe  they  had  fubdu'd,  to  enjoy  their  Home-Laws. 
Choofing  to  amend  them,  where   they  were  Corrupt,  rather  by  Leni- 
ty, and  their  own  Example,  than  by    force.     Domi  Induflria,  forts  Ju- 
Jium  Imperium ;  were  fome  of  the  Virtues  mention'd  by  Porcius  Cato^ 
upon  a  great  occafion,  as  the  Glory  of  ancient  Rome. 

XI.  If  we  confider  their  Story,  we  fliall  fee  too.  That  Divine  Pro- 
vidence, would  not  let  fo  many,  and  fo  Publick  Vertues,  to  go  unre- 
warded. Their  Affairs,  were  almoil  every  where,  attended  with  Suc- 
cefs  and  Honour,  Not  only  fuch,  as  was  the  Natural  effed  of  their 
Virtue;  but  many  times,  altogether  Independent  upon  it;  as  them- 
felves,  the  bell  Judges  hereof,  have  always  acknowleg'd.  Conflat,  Ro- 
manes, non  Fortunci,  Jed  propria  virtute,  tantum  Imperium  conjecutos  fu- 
ijffe :  Is  the  moft  unadvifed  Speech  in  all  Polyhiiis.  Servius  Tullius,  who 
was  a  wife  and  valiant  Man,  and  advanced  the  Roman  Power,  more  than 
all  the  other  Kings :  Yet  owned  his  Kingdom,  to  be  the  Bounty  of 
Fortune.  Whereuntoalfo,  he  built  a  Temple,  though  not  to  Virtue.  Nor 
had  any  of  the  Romans  learned  to  do  it,  before  Marcellus,  upon  his 
taking  of  Syracufe.  Fortunam,  in  omni  Re  dominari ;  was  the  Senfe,  not 
only  of  Sallujl,  but  of  the  reft  among  them,  who  obferved  the  Courfe 
of  Things,  to  be  conducted  by  aSupream  Power  in  their  Favour.  It 
was  this,  and  not  the  Roman  Virtue,  which  took  Alexander  out  of  the 
way,  when  they  had  neither  Treafure  nor  Horfes,  nor  Engines,  but  on- 
ly Men  and  Hand-Arms :  and  fo,  had  otherwife,  undoubtedly  fall 'n  a 
Vid:im  to  his  boundlefs  Ambition.  It  was  this  Power,  which  proted- 
ed  i^uma  and  the  City,  when  tl:iey  had  Enemies,  Spiteful,  Envious,  and 
Jealous,  round  about,  and  kept  them  in  Peace  all  his  Reign,  Which  fo 
order 'd  Things  on  all  hands,  that  they  were  very  feldom  engaged,  in 
more  than  one  urgent  War  st  the  fame  time.  I  he  JEciui,  the  Sam- 
nites,  the  Latines,  the  Hetrurians,  and  the  rcll  of  their  Enemies,  came 
fucceflively  upon  them,  that  they  might  not  Overfet,  but  Improve 
their  Virtue.  It  was  this  Power,  which  fo  disjoyned  the  two  Potent 
Armies,  of  the  Ctmhri  and  the  Tutons,  in  the  T  ime  and  Place  of  their 
March ;  that  one  Roman  General,  might  dpftroy  them  both.     That  which 


C  H  A  P.  III.        over  Tuhlick  Efiatef  i  §  | 

I  r  made  them  overcome  Antiochus,  was  a  great  fhowr  of  Rain,  which 
fpoyl'd  the  Strings  of  the  Perfian  Bows.  The  Caftle,  wherein  Ju^,r*- 
thas  Treafure  was  keptj  was  taken,  not  by  Mariiu's  Forecaft,  who 
had  undertaken  a  Rafli  Auault :  but  the  Curiofity  of  a  certain  Ligurian 
Soldier;  who  chanced  to  efpye,  the  only  undefended  Part,  while  he 
was  gathering  of  Cockle-fliells. 

^2.  But  nothing  could  be  more  wonderful,  than  their  prefervation 
from  that  Ruine,  to  the  Brink  of  which  they  were  twice  brought  j 
firfl:,  by  the  Gauls^  and  after  that,  by  tlft  Carthapnians.  When  the 
^  Gauls  had  taken  the  City,  and  were  ready  to  feize  the  Capitol-  it  was 
not  faved,  by  the  watchfulnefs  of  their  Officers,  Soldiers,  or  Citizefis  j 
but  of  filly  Geece.  And /4x'^rrof/?£'j  arid  his  great  Hoft,  were  afterwards 
Overthrown,  by  falling  ,  accidentally,  between  two  Roman  Armies. 
Whereunto,  no  manner  of  forefight,  in  either  of  the  Generals,  clid  in 
the  leafl:  contribute.  As  being  wholly  ignorant,  of  each  other's  Moti- 
on, till  they  were  juft  upon  the  Enemy.  Of  whom,  they  hereupon  flew 
40000,  and  lb  became  Mailers  of  Gaul. 

23.  Neither  fliall //"(jwwi^df/,  with  all  his  Sagacity,  Courage,  and  match- 
left  Succefs ;  and  the  daily  encreafe  of  his  Friends,  and  Army  ;  be  able 
to  prevail.  The  mofl:  prudent  of  Captains,  lliall  foolifhly  march  a- 
gainfl:  Cojfa^  an  ordinary  Fort :  when  by  his  Vidtory  at  Cama,  he  had 
ipade  his  way  cleer  unto  Rome.    He,  and  his  Army,  Ihall  wallow,  in  all  ,7  ^ 

kinds  of  Luxury;  till  they  are  nwre  weakcn'd  by  the  Pleafures  of  M^^<^  ^^^^r^(^ 
Capua '^  than  they  had  been  before,  by  all  the  Severities  of  the  ^'^'Cca ; tJ</tiJi^y 
Alps.  And  when  he  comes  at  length,  with  a  Refolution  to  take /?<>wf ;  ^^(jc*u>£l.^ 
Heaven,  which  hitherto  had  been  on  his  fide ;  now  fought  againfl:  him.  '''*  fffT^ii^cAfejutt, 
For  both  the  Armies  being  drawn  up,  and  juft  engaging:  they  were  fo  ti/^x  ^  iUlrji^tJiA, 
heavily  pelted  -with  a  Storm  of  Hail ;  that  hardly  holding  tlieir  Wea-  ifi^^'(  cU  ax- 
pons  in  their  Hands,  they  retreated  in  haft,  unto  their  feveral  Camps.  '^  '^  ^ 

And  the  next  day,  being  both  prepared  to  fight,  in  the  fame  Place ; 
they  were  driven  afunder,  by  fuch  another  Tempeft.  And  no  fooner 
were  they  got  again  into  their  Camps ;  but  the  Tempeft  was  over,  and 
the  Skies  Cleer.  In  fo  much,  that  Hannibal  himfelf,  obferved  it  to  be 
a  Fate  upon  him,  either  at  one  time,  not  to  have  a  Mind,  or  at  ano- 
ther, not  the  tortune,  to  win  Rome.  Nor  did  he  ever  after,  make  an  , 
Attempt,  with  equal  likelyhood  of  Succefs. 

14.  After  the  Romans  had  efcaped  once  again ;  they  rofe  ftill  higher, 
till  in  their  Empire,  as  well  as  their  Virtues,  they  were  above  all  others. 
F^or  that  of  the  Perjians^  though  it  was  very  large;  yet  was  never  fet- 
led  in  any  part  of  Europe.  The  Macedonian^  comprehended  Ajia^  and 
all  between  the  Gulf  of  ^f^c^-  and  the  Danuhy.  But  as  they  had  little  in  A- 
frica^  fo  the  Remoter  Parts  of  Europe,  were  hardly  fo  much  as  known 
to  them.  Whereas  the  Romans.,  if  we  reckon  from  their  firft  Naval 
Expedition,  in  the  ix^th  Olympiad,  did  in  the  fpace  of  53  years,  be- 
come Lords,  of  the  greateft  part  of  the  known  World.  So  apparently 
did  the  Divine  Favour,  co-operate  with  their  Virtue  all  along,  to  make 
them  a  Great  and  Famous  People. 

z^.  But  the  Romans,  who  had  learned  to  do  (b  well,  and  were  fo 
highly  favour'd :  The  Crimes  they  were  guilty  of,  were  therefore  the 
greater.     For  which,  neither  their  Virtue,   nor  any  thing  elft,  could 

IB  prevent  their  being  feverely  punilh'd.     For  two  efpecially;  oiie,  in  re- 
lation  to  the  Gauls,  the  other,  to  the  Carthaginians.    The  Three  Fahij^ 



112  Of  Pro'vidence^  Book  III* 

being  fent  to  Mediate  a  Peace^  between  the  Gauls  and  the  Clujines ; 
forgot  their  Errand,  and  againft  the  Law  of  Nations,  took  up  Arms, 
in  defence  of  the  Clujines^  againfl  the  Gauls.  Whereupon,  being  com- 
plained of,  by  the  Gallic k  Embafladors,  to  the  Senate,  and  one  of  them 
demanded :  whilfe  the  Fecial  Priefts,  were  contending  with  the  Senate, 
for  his  being  deUvered  to  them  ;  he  fled  for  Protedion,  to  the  People. 
And  fo,  was  not  only,  not  given,  nor  punilh'dj  but  by  their  means, 
was  made  a  Tribune  with  Confular  Power. 

Z64  But  this  leud  Injuflice,  coft  the  i?owdf«j  dear.  They  who  had  fome- 
times  given  Ear  to  vain  Predidtions ;  fliall  now,  take  no  notice  of  the 
warning  given  them  by  M.  Ceditius^  of  the  coming  of  the  Gauls,  which 
proved  too  true.  They  who  were  wont  to  furprize  their  Enemies,  and 
to  Attack  them  afar  off :  Now,  as  if  they  were  rather  to  receive  their 
Friends,  hardly  met  them  more,  than  ten  Miles  from  Rome.  They  who, 
upon  far  lefs  occafions,  were  ufed  to  take  the  befl  Counfels,  and  em- 
ploy their  beft  Strength:  Now,  befides  that  their  Preparations  were 
mean  ;  they  had  neither  a  Did:ator,  nor  other  General,  more  than  thofe, 
who  had  wickedly  drawn  them  into  this  War.  Who  had  neither  the 
Wit,  to  give  them  a  juft  Account  of  their  Enemies  Forces ;  nor  Skill, 
to  Condud:  their  Own.  But  took  the  Field  in  a  Tumultuary  way, 
without  any  Encampment,  or  choice  of  Ground,  or  DKpofition  of  the 
Army,  according  to  the  Roman  ^oxm.  Nothing  was  done,  worthy  of 
the  Romans,  either  by  the  Captains-,  or  the  Soldiers :  who  ran  away,  not 
being  Beaten,  but  before  they  fought.  Nor  did  the  Feij,  whether  moft 
of  them  fled,  fend  any  fupply  to  Rome ;  or  fo  much  as  notice  of  their 
Overthrow.  And  the  Senate  it  felf,  was  in  fo  great  a  Fright ;  as  to 
negledt  the  Gates,  when  the  Enemy  was  ready  to  enter  into  the  City. 
So  far  did  the  favour  of  Heaven,  and  herewith  their  accuftomed  Wif- 
dom  and  Valour  fail  them ;  till  the  Barbarous  Nation,  by  whom  they 
were  to  be  punifli'd,  became  every  way  Superior  to  them.  And  brought 
upon  them  thofe  Defolations,  which  made  the  Didator  who  reftor'd 
them,  to  cry  out,  ViHi,  Capti^ue,  ac  Redempti,  tantum  Posnarum  Dijs 
Hominihufq;  dedimui  ;  ut  Terr  arum  Orhi  documento  ejfemus. 

xy.  Their  other  great  Crime,  was  their  Injurious  dealing  with  the 
Carthaginians.  'Tis  true,  the  firfl:  War  the  Romans  had  with  them;  had 
this  plaufible  Pretenfe ,  of  being  only,  Se  defendendo :  To  hinder  the 
Carthaginians,  who  were  then  Lords  of  the  Sea,  of  Spain,  Sardinia^ 
and  a  great  part  of  Sicily ;  from  making  that  Ifland  a  Bridge,  to  pafs 
over  into  Italy  at  their  pleafure.  Yet  the  occafion  they  took  for  en- 
tering into  it,  by  affifting  the  Mamertines,  who  being  Quarter'd  at  Mef- 
fana,  had  perfidioufly  and  barbaroufly  taken  pofleflTion  of  it ;  was  bale 
and  unworthy.  And  was  foefleemed  by  themfelves,  when  they  firft 
deny'd  the  Afliftance  which  was  defir'd.  Nor  could  any  meer  length 
of  Time,  take  away  the  Turpitude  ,  of  what  they  refolved  on  after- 
wards. But  that  wherein  they  were  chiefly  Guilty,  was  their  breaking 
the  League,  which  was  afterwards  agreed  upon,  between  themfelves 
and  the  Carthaginians.  For  although  it  be  true,  that  Hannibal,  in  paf- 
fing  the  Iberus,  and  taking  Pofleflion  of  Saguntum,  a  City  alTociated  to 
the  Romans,  did  tranfgrefs  the  Articles  agreed  upon :  and  that,  omit- 
ting the  true  Caufes  of  his  fo  doing,  he  alledged  thofe  only,  which 
were  falfe  and  frivolous:  and  that  he,  and  the  Senate  of  Cartha<ie,diA 
both  refufe  to  give  the  Satisfadlion,  which  the  Reman  Ambafladors  did 

demand , 

C  H  A  p.  I V ,       over  Publicly Eftater.  i  i 

demand :  Yet  none  of  all  this  was  done,  till  the  Romans  thcmfelves,  had 
made  the  firll:  Violation  of  that  League.  For  notwithftanding  that  the 
Carthaginians,  had  thereby  granted  them  a  yearly  Tribute ;  and  ReleaP 
ed  to  them,  ail  their  Captives  without  Ranfom :  Yet  the  Romans,  ta- 
king them  at  an  Advantage,  when  they  were  in  Streights;  compeU'd 
them,  contrary  to  allFosderal  Right  and  Juflice,  by  New  Articles,  both 
to  part  with  Sardinia,  their  Lawful  Territory,  and  alfo  to  pay  them  for 
the  future,  a  Double  Tribute. 

z8.  But  if  the  Romans,  will  have  what  they  have  a  mind  to,  right 
or  wrong  ;  they  fliall  pay  enough  for   it.     Hannihal  fliall  come,  with 
Invincible  Rcfclution,  and  the  Perfection  of  Military   Wit  and  Skill ; 
to  take  his  Countrey's,  his  Father's,  and  his  own  Revenge  upon  them. 
Having,  with  incredible  Fatigue,  pafled  the  Alps  in   1 5  Days ;    he  .^rfl 
encountred  Scipio  :  and  fo  orders  his  Bufinefs,  that  with  a  wafted,  wea- 
ther-beaten, and  founder^  Army,  he  puts  him  to  flight.     And  in  two 
more  Battles  afterwards,  at  the  F</,  and  at  Trebia,  was  fuperiour  to  liim. 
PafTing  next,  with  equal  Labour,  and  three  Days  and  Nights  continual 
Watch,  through  all  the  Severities  of  the  Apemtinc  ^\\\s,  and  the  Lakes 
beneath  them ;  near  that  of  Trajtmene,  he  fet  upon  Flaminius  the  Con- 
ful,  and  overthrew  him.     And  not  long  after,  Centeniiis  the   Prsetor. 
AnAztCanna,  with  an  Army  confifting  only  of  50000;   he  routed  /E- 
mitlius  znd  Varro,  with  fo  great  a  Slaughter,  that  of  86000,  there  fell 
/GOOD,  and  among  them,  fourfcore  Senators.     After  which,  fcarce  any 
Man  dared  to  ftand  againfl  him.     Minutius,  Sempronius,   Marcejlus,  znd 
Fahius  himfelf,  were  either  deftroyed,  or  deluded  and  defeated  by  him. 
The  Lofs  which  the  City  alone  hereby  fuftain'd,  was  fo  great ;  that  of 
X70000  Heads,  number'd  therein  a  little  befdre  the  fecond  PunickWafJ 
upon  another  Luftre,  made  about  ten  Years  after,  there  were  not   a- 
bove  1:57000;  a  Number,  very  near  by  one  half,  lefs  than  the  former. 
And  all  the  Gauls  within  the  Alps^  with  many  other  Nations,  under  the 
Roman  Government,  feeing  HannihaFs  Succefs,    fell   away  to    him.     So 
evidently  did  their  Guilt,  deliver  them  into  their  Enemies  Hand.      And 
this  Infamy  will  for  ever  lie  upon  them.  That  Hannihal,  after  all  Them- 
lelvesuere  able  to  doinoppofing  him;  had  yet  been  Matter  of  Rome^ 
if  Capua  had  not  been  his  Miftrefs. 

11,.  After  this,  they  were  tried  once  more :  and  fo  far  fucceeded   in 
their  Victories,  as  to  become  Great  above  all  all  other  People,  as  hath 
been  faid.     But  fo  foon  as  they  became  Lords  of  Ajia ;  their  Armies  ha- 
ving continued  there  for  fome  time,  and  letting  loofe  the  Reins  of  thfeir 
Ancient  Difcipline,  grew  diffolutc.     Living  in  Drink  and  Dalliance,  till 
they  had  learn'd  to  ruine  all  things  Sacred  and  Profane.      And   to  be 
more  wicked  in  deflroying,  tlian  once  they  had  been  jufl  in  cherifliing, 
thofe  they  overcame.     So  that  the  Rewards  of  their  Virtiies,    and  the 
Puniihment  of  their  Crimes,  being  both  forgot ;  they  were  let  alone  to 
deftroy  themfelves,  by  dafliing  upon  the  fame  Rock,    as  Hannihal  had 
done  before  their  Eyes.     The  fatal  Infedion,  which  firfl  under  Manlius, 
but  chiefly  under  Sjlla,  was  taken  in  the  Camp  ;  was  thence  carried  into 
the  City  ;and  the  Riots  of  the  Sword,  were  committed  and  patronized  by 
the  Gown.  The  Proconfhls,  and  Pra£:tors,ofthe  feveral  Provinces, were  from 
time  to  time,  accufed.'  of  Avarice  and  Cruelty.-    Complaints  whereof, 
were  feht  continually  up  to  Rome,   and  rang  all  over  the  Empire.     And 
tlie  MiferieSj  which  began  and  increafed  with  thefe  Crimes,  were  as  great. 

Gg  In 

iiA        Uj  Providence,  over  Publicl\  hftates.    Book  Hi. 

Infomuch ,  that  Cicero,  cited  by  D.  CaJ/ius,  doubted  not  to  fay,  That  all 
the  Evil,  they  had  ev^r  done  their  Enemies,  or  fufTered  from  them  ;  came 
iliort,  of  what  they  had  brought  upon  themfelves.    For  befides  that  Mi- 
thridates^  was  of  a  long  time,  become  a  Potent  and  Mifchievous  Ene- 
my ;  in  Sicily^  even  the  Roman  .Slaves,  to  the  Number  of  70000,  were 
provoked  to  form  a  Rebellion.    Many  of  the  Italian  Nations,    the  Af- 
culani,  Marfi,  Maruceni^  Picentes,  and  others,  Revolt,  and  enter  into  a 
Social  War,  againfl:  the  Romans.     The  Citizens,  mov'd  more  and  more 
with  the  Pride  of  the  Senate ;  grew   themfelves  more  Proud.     When 
they  had  got  their  Tribunes,  they  were  not  contented,    that  one  of  the 
Confuls  fliould  be  a  Commoner ;    but  they   would   have   both.     And 
with  thefe,  the  Cenfor,  the  Prxtor,  and  all  other  Dignities,  which  were 
of  Note  in  the  City.    Chufing  thofe  efpecially,  who  had  Stomach  e- 
nough  to  oppofe  the  Nobility.     By  fome  of  thefe,  many  pernicious  Laws 
were  put  in  force.     Gracchus,  Cinna,  and  others,    raife  Seditions.     Unto 
which,  great  Numbers  of  Slaves  being  invited,  and  made  Free  ;  ran  a 
robbing  from  Houfe  to  F3oufe,  and  killing  all  that  came  in  their   Way, 
and  in  the  firft  place  their  own  Mafters.     What  Havock  was  made,  by 
Carlo,  Marias  and  Sy/!a>  The  laft  of  whom  alone,  flew  15  Confuls,  90 
Senators,  1600  Knights,  and  above  looooo  Common  Soldiers  and  Peo- 
ple.   Yet  this  Man,  after  all,  laying  the  Didatorfliip  afide ,    liv'd  and 
died  in  Peace,  and  was  honour'd  with  a  Golden  Statue  after  his  Death. 
This  People  hereby  ftiewing.  That  in  the  Judgment  of  their  own  Con- 
fciences,  they  deferved  all  that  he  had  made  them  feel,  for  their  great 
V  Vickednefs.    After  this,  Catiline,  through  the  general  Corruption  of  the 
City,  met  with  Rakes  enough,  by  whom  he  was  incourag'd  to  form  his 
Conspiracy  :  and  herein,  came  but  a  little  fliort  of  Succels,    In  contem- 
plation of  all  which;  as  Vice  is  catching  from  any  Example;  Pompey  and 
Cafar,  at  lall  engage  the  whole  Empire  in  a  War,    for  their  own  vain 
Glory.     Which  Occafion,  the  Senate  taking  hold  of,  chofe  rather  to  put 
all  their  Power  into  the  Hands  of  one  Man,  and  he  of  theirown  Order, 
the  Prevailing  General ;  than  any  longer  to  endure  the  Infolencies  of  the 
Commons.    So  plain  it  is,    that"  by  grafping  at  more,  than  belonged  % 
to  them  ;  in  the  end,  they  lofl  all.     And  yet  from  the  total    Abolition 
of  the  Popular  Power,  may  be  dated  the  Ruine  of  Rome.    For  had  the 
reducing  hereof  to  its  ancient  Condition,  propofed  by  ^grippa,  been  ac- 
cepted, inflead  ofMecanas's  Model ;  that  State  might  have  continued  un- 
to this  day.     But  after  the  Government  became  Imperial ;  and  Auguftus's 
SuccelTors,  were  far  from  being  the  Inheritors  of  his  Virtues :  VVhat 
brutifli  Enormities  were  continually  adted  among  that  People  ?  and  what 
incredible  Miferies  were  daily  brought  upon  them  >  Yet  allowed,  nay, 
many  times  contrived,  and  rewarded,  by  thofe  they  had  chofen  to  rule  o- 
ver  them.    To  be  wealthy,  or  virtuous,  was  become  fo  great  a  Crime  ; 
fo  dangerous  to  have  even  a  Bofom-Friend  :  that  no  Man  could  be  fafc, 
but  in  his  Choice,  of  Poverty,  Vice,  or  a  Defert.     God  in  his  Righteous 
Judgment,  permitting  that  People,    which  he  had  once  made  the  Glo- 
ry,   to  .become    the  Shame  of  all  others ,  and  of  Eiuniane   Nature 
it  felf. 


"        — " — —  •"  •  '  I     . . .  ^  I  ,  „  ,  

Ch  A  p.    IV.  Ij^ 

CHAP.     IV. 

Of  the  Celeflial  Life, 

i.T  71  7E  have  feen  in  fome  part,  the  Forecaft  and  Ends  of  Providence, 

V  V  ^'^^^  refpeil:  to  this  prefent  Life.  And  whether  we  confider 
the  Corporeal  or  the  Vital  World  ;  or  the  Author  and  Ruler  of  both :  We 
have  hardly  greater  Evidence  of  any  one  thing,  than  we  have  of  the  Being 
and  Condition  of  the  Life  to  come. 

X.  For  in  the  Corruption  of  Bodies,  there  is  no  Annihilation,  fo  much 
•  as  of  one  fingle  Atome^  but  the  Stock  of  Matter,  is  always  the  fame. 
For  if  tliere  were,  then  in  every  Generation  of  Bodies,  there  would 
alfo  be  a  New  Creation.  And  fo,  the  Deity  would  be  employ 'd,  in  In  ■ 
finite  Places  at  once,  and  every  Moment,  in  the  doing  of  that,  which 
needed  not  to  have  been  done,  more  than  once.  And  for  the  fame  rea- 
fon,  the  Stock  of  Motion  in  the  World,  is  likewife,  without  diminution, 
always  the  fame. 

;.  Neither  is  the  Nature  of  Matter,  nor  of  the  Principles  of  Bodies, 
any  more  alter 'd,  than  the  Quantity.  That  is,  the  Generation  and 
Corruption  of  Bodies,  proceedetb  not  from  any  Alteration  in  the  Prin- 
aples  themfelves,  but  only  in  their  Mixture :  as  in  the  Chapter  Of 
Trinciples^  hath  been  proved.  Nor  doth  the  Nature  of  Motion,  fuffer 
any  Alteration. 

4.  If  then,  there  be  no  Diminution  of  Quantity,  nor  Alteration  of 
Principles,  in  the  Corporeal  World ;  nor  of  the  Laws  of  their  Motion : 
To  fuppofe  any  Diminution  in  the  Vital,  is  very  abfurd ;  or  any  Alte- 
ration in  the  fubftance,  or  in  the  Eflential  Ad:s,  of  any  fort  of  Vi- 
tal Principle :  Eipecially,  of  fo  Noble  a  Species,  as  the  Intellectual 

'  J.  It  is  alfo  evident,  from  that  convenient  Tranfition,  which  the 
Principles  of  Bodies  do  make,  from  one  Eftate  of  Mixture  to  anothee. 
When  the  Principles  which  exift  in  the  Water,  Air,  and  Earth,  at 
large,  do  meet  together  to  Make,  or  Feed  a  Plant  j  They  pafs  into  a- 
nother  State  of  Mixture,  or  Relation  one  to  another.  But  fuch  as  is  fuita- 
ble  to  their  own  Nature,  and  that  of  a  Plant;  and  to  all  the  Ufes,  which 
are,  or  may  be  made,  of  any  Plant.  And  fo  too,  when,  upon  eating 
of  any  Plant,  by  which  we  are  Nouriflit ;  the  fame  Principles  do  ex- 
change the  Vegetable,  for  the  Animal  Mixture;  and  fuitably  to  the  Ufe, 
^  which  is,  or  may  be  made  of  it  in  an  Animal.  And  in  whatfoever  Eflate  the 
faid  Principles  are ;  they  are  ftill  witliin  fome  Province  of  the  Divine  Re- 
giment ovef  the  Corporeal  World. 

6.  And  we  cannot,  without  a  great  deal  of  Phantaftick  Nonfenfe, 
fuppofe  otherwifeof  the  Mind  of  Man,  a  Principle  no  left  Subftantial,  • 
but  much  more  Excellent  and  Regardable,  upon  the  Tranfition  hereof, 
from  its  prefent  Eftate.  It  being  no  way  Credible,  That  He,  who  dif- 
pofethof  t!ie  Eftate  and  Ufe,  of  every  Senfelefs  Atome:  ftiould  omit  to 
forecaft  the  further  \Jk  and  Difpofal  of  a  Principle,  endowed  with  Intel- 
ledlual  Life. 

7.  The 

;i5  Of  theCelejiial  Life,       Book   111. 

7.  The  fame  is  further  evident,  from  the-Cleer  and  Strong  Concep- 
tion, which  the  Mind  of  Man  hath  of  Futurity.  Pillars,  Statues,  and 
other  Memorials,  are  a  fort  of  Shaddow  of  an  Endlefs  Life ;  and  iliew, 
an  Inextinguirtiable  Defire,  which  all  Men  have  of  it.  Could  we  fup- 
pole  any  Man,  to  be  enfur'd  the  Enjoying  whatever  he  would,  to  his 
entire  Satisfadion,  only  for  an  Hour;  upon  condition  of  his  being  anni- 
hilated in  the  next :  He  would  not  accept  of  it.  If  Man  then,  were 
not  intended  for  a  Future,  and  that  an  Endlefs  Life :  His  Faculties  would 
have  been  an  Over-match  to  his  intended  End.  And  fo,  there  would 
have  been  Untruth  or  Difproportion  in  God's  Ideas  of  Things,  and  in 
his  Works :  As  having  made  a  Creature,  with  Faculties  to  no  anfwera- 
ble  End.  That  is,  a  Creature,  Capable,  Senfible,  and  Defirous  of  a 
Life,  he  never  intended  him  for.  We  have  therefore  as  great  aflurance, 
of  a  Future  Eftate  of  Being ;  as  that  God  is  moft  Wifely  agreeing  with  . 
Himfelf,  in  all  his  Works  and  Ends. 

8.  And  if  we  confider  the  Nature  of  Man,  we  muft  alfo  believe,  That 
the  Future  Life,  vvillfome  way  or  other,  be  Superior,  to  our  prefent 
Eftate.  For  whereas  other  Animals,  have  a  Faculty,  to  Adt  Regularly, 
without  being  Taught:  Man  is  made,  much  more  evidently,  an  Im- 
provable Creature.  Partly,  to  fliew,  that  the  feveral  Degrees  of  Im- 
provement, which  we  pafs  through  in  this  Life  j  are  in  order  to  a  higher 
Advance,  in  the  next. 

9.  It  is  alfo  Congruous,  that  this  Advance,  fliould  be  fuch,  as  is  con- 
fident with  our  being  ftill  Inverted  with  a  Body.  That  we  may  be  fo,  who 
can  doubt  .■>  For  how  can  He,  that  gave  us  the  Body  we  now  have  ; 
compofed  with  Unfearchable  Art,  in  every  part  of  it;  want  any  Power  or 
Skill,  to  give  us  another,  when,  and  how  he  pleafes  ? 

10.  And  we  ought  foto  be.  For  being  there  is  an  Orderly  Connedri- 
on,  between  the  feyeral  Species  of  Mind ;  as  in  the  C  hapter  0/C(r/(?/?/W 
Mi>i(/,  hath  been  (hewed  :  It  is^hereunto  agreeable,  that  the  Tranfition 
appointed  unto  Humane  Mind,  from  one  Eftate  of  Being  to  another, 

■  fliould  be  Orderly.  That  is,  not  fo  as  to  be  made,  per  Sa hum;  but 
unto  that  Degree  or  Order  of  Superior  Mind,  which  is  Invefted  with 
a  Body. 

11.  Yet  we  are  not  to  think,  whatever  Body  we  may  have  for  fome 
time,  that  the  Body  to  be  given  us  for  Duration,  will  be  fuch  an  one, 
as  that  we  now  have ;  and  much  lefs,  the  fame.  For  we  fee  in  the  Ge- 
nerations daily  made  before  our  Eyes,  That  there  is  a  Tranfition,  from 
a  lefs,  to  a  more  excellent  fort  of  Body.  The  Seed  which  is  Sown,  to 
which  we  may  compare  the  Body  lay'd  in  the  Grave;  hath  indeed  a 
Root,  and  alfo  Leaves.  But  the  Body  it  produceth,  hath  moreover. 
Flowers,  Fruit,  and  Seed.  The  Animal,  among  Infeds,  which  is  firft 
produced  of  an  Egg  ;  is  a  Blind  and  Dull  Worm.  But  that  which  hath 
its  Refurredion  thence,  is  a  Quick-Eyed,  Volatil  and  Spright!^'  Flye. 

II.  And  why  lliould  we  think,  that  God  intends  to  work  a  Con- 
.  tinual  Miracle,  in  making  that  a  Durable  Body,  which  of  its  own  Na- 
ture is  otherwife?  And  this  Continual  Miracle,  muft  be  done  too,  in 
vain.  For  the  Body  which  we  now  have,  is  adapted  unto  Eating,  Drink- 
ing, -Nutrition,  Coition,  and  otherways  of  Repletion  and  Exoneration. 
Things, ,  no  way  agreeable,  to  the  Life,  for  which  we  are  intended, 

13.  We  are  therefore  to  believe,  That  our  Minds,  in  palling  from 
theijT  prefent  State  of  Being,  to  that  Above,  carry  the  Emlrio  of  their 


Chap.   IV.  Of  the  Celeftial  Life.  117 

own  Body  along  with  them.  The  Body  which  we  leave  behind,  in  this 
Viflble  World,  being  as  the  Womb  or  Slough,  from  whence  w6  IfRie 
and  are  Born  into  the  other. 

14.  But  we  cannot  be  fuppofed  to  have  a  Body,  of  howfbever  fine  a 
Make,  without  fome  fort  of  Senfe.  It  being  as  wonderful,  that  dny 
Body,  as  that  any  other  fort  of  Body,  befides  that  we  now  have,  (houid 
become  the  Medium  of  Senfe,  And  this  Senfe,  may  alfo  be  of  divers 
Kinds,  analogous  to  the  feveral  Species  of  Senfe,  we  now  have. 

If.  Nor  to  have  Bodies,  and  Senfe,  without  Pharicy.  It  being  be- 
fides all  good  Order,  That  in  a  Superior  Eftate,  a  Body  fliould  be  re- 
teiri'd ;  and  that  Phancy,  fo  much  above  a  Body,  iliould  be  lay'd  afide. 

16.  And  fince  the  Body  we  Oiall  then  have,  will  be  finer:  The  Ope- 
rations alfo  of  the  Phancy,  may  then  be  cleerer  and  more  flrong.  If 
then,  we  can  now  See,  and  Hear,  in  a  Dream,  without  Light,  or  Sound: 
V  Vliy,  in  the  Eftate  above,  may  we  not  be  able  to  See,  without  Eyes  .-> 
And  to  Hear,  without  Ears  ?  That  is,  have  fuch  Perceptions,  as  are  a- 
nalogous  to  Seeing,  and  Hearing,  and  other  Senfations,  without  the  Or- 
gans belonging  to  them,  in  our  prelent  Eftate?  And  confequently, 
our  Intellectual  Operations,  may  fome  way  or  other,  be  ftronger,  and 
more  Extenfive. 

1 7.  Yet  in  that  there  will  be  no  change  in  the  Subftance  either  of  the 
Corporeal,  or  the  Vital  Part,  as  is  before  proved  :  Therefore,  the  fame 
Capacity,  and  Inclinations,  unto  Good  or  Evil,  wherewith  Men  leave 
the  prefent  Life ;  they  will  carry  with  them  into  the  other.  With 
this  difference.  That  the  Inclinations  which  are  the  fame,  in  Specie,  in  ■ 
both  Eftates ;  being,  in  the  other,  in  Conjundion  with  a  more  Potent 
Phancy ;  will  be  fo  much  the  ftronger,  whether  unto  Good  or  Evil. 

18.  And  we  cannot  doubt,  but  that  God  will  deal  with  Men,  in  the 
Future  Life,  as  he  finds  them  to  be  Inclin'd.  If  a  Man  makes  but  a 
Clock,  will  he  not  fee  how  it  goes  ?  How  much  more,  will  the  Author 
of  the  Univerfe,  having  made  an  Automaton,  which  can  Wind  up  it  felf, 
fee  whether  it  hath  ftood  Stilly  or  gone  True  ?  If  he  animadverts  upon 
Men  here  below  ;  how  much  more,  will  it  become  him  to  do  it,  upon 
their  entrance  int«  a  Higher  State  of  Being  ?  If  he  maintains  the  Be- 
ing, and  hath  forecaft  the  XJk,  of  every  fingle  Atome:  How  much 
more,  having  made  the  Mind  of  Man,  hath  he  alfo  forecaft  the  Difpofal 
of  it,  unto  fuch  a  Condition,  here  and  every  where,  as  it  is  fit  for  ?     . 

19.  Nor  is  it  podible,  that  a  Judgment  ftiould  be  made,  in  order  to 
this  DifpofaL,  by  any  but  Himfelf  That  any  Man,  fliould  comprehend 
all  the  exail  Mcafures  and  Proportions  of  Good  and  Evil.  Or  any  Creature, 
be  an  InfalHble  Judge,  of  all  our  Inclinations  unto  either.  So  that  there  is 
a  necefiity  of  ftanding  at  his  Tribunal,  who  is  Infinitely  Wife  and  Juft. 

xo.  But  for  as  much,  as  other  Men,  and  Beings  of  the  other  World, 
have  more  or  lefs  been  concerned,  in  aliifting  or  hindering  what  we 
have  done:  It  will  therefore  be  fit,  the  better  to  fliew  the  Divine  Ju- 
flice  and  Goodnefs,  that  Judgment  fliould  be  given  before  all.  When 
there  will  be  that  entire  Reminifcence,  and  adequate  Conception  of 
Things,  as  to  agree  with  the  Judgment,  which  will  be  made  of  them,  whe- 
ther m  order  to  a  Sad,  or  Happy  Eftate. 

II.  In  the  former,  we  may  fuppofe,  that  the  Corporeal  Part,  which 
in  Conjundion  with  the  Vital,  will  have  a  Power  of  producing  Senfe  j 
will  beufedto  caufe  the  Senfe  of  Pain.    The  Phancy,  which  will  then  be 

H  h  High 

j,^  Of  the  Celefiial  Life        Book  ill. 

Higli  and  Strong,  and  Unchanged  in  its  Incliriations  unto  Evil ;  to  re- 
prefent  the  Horror,  of  being  forfaken,  as  of  every  Creature  which  is 
Good  ;  lb  cfpecially  of  the  Deity,  who  is  Goodnefs  it  felf.  And  the 
Intejlo^:,  while  it  fees  its  own  Subjcdion  unto  Phancy ;  to  demonftrate 
)k(y  'it-  felf,  the'Jufticeof  all  this. 

■■  XI.  They  who  are  difpoied  of,  to  a  Happy  Eftate,  their  Capacity  for 
it,  will  lye  in  the  Ennoblement  of  their  whole  Compofure.  The  Cor- 
poreal Part  it  felf,  may  be  fited  to  produce  fuch  a  fort  of  Pleafure,  as 
will  be  fuitable  to  an  exalted  Eflate.  But  the  Mental  Pleafures  of  this 
Eftate,  will  be  the  moft  Excellent.  For  if  the  Pleafures  of  Pure  Mind, 
are  to  be  fuppofed  greater,  than  thole  of  a  Mind  in  a  Lower  State  of 
Being,  that  is,  in  Union  with  a  Body :  We  mufl;  then  fuppofc,  the  Mind, 
to  be  capable  of  greater  Pleafures,  from  its  own  Operations,  than  from 
thofe  of  a  Body.  And  therefore  alfo,  that  God  hath  provided  the  Means, 
in  a  Superior  State  of  Being,  fufficient  to  produce  them. 

xj.  Andfirft,  the  Phancy  may  be  fo  Cleer  and  Strong,  as  to  prelenti- 
ate  upon  one  Theatre,  all  that  ever  it  took  notice  of  in  time  paft.  The 
power  of  Phancy,  in  prefentiating  any  one  thing  that  is  paft  ;  being  no 
lefs  wonderful,  than  having  that  power,  it  Ihould  alio  acquire  the  Per- 
fedlion,  to  prefentiate  them  all.  And  by  the  power  of  Arbitrary  Com- 
pofition,  may  be  able,  moreover,  to  reprefent  in  their  due  Time  and 
Place,  thofe  Things,  which  we  never  Saw,  nor  Heard  of.  Conceiving 
by  thofe,  we  once  had  keii  and  heard ;  what  thofe  mull  needs  ha\*e  been, 
which  we  never  did. 

24.  And  without  this  Perfedlion,  the  Phancy  will  but  Imperfedly  mi- 
nifter  to  the  Intellectual  Mind.  The  Operations  whereof,  will  then  al- 
fo be  fo  far  Improved,  as  fliall  be  neceffary  unto  Compleat  Happinefs. 
Which  Happinefs,  with  refpedt  to  the  Time  pall,  will  very  much  con- 
fill,  in  a.  Comprehenfion  of  the  Power,  VVifdom,  Jullice,  and  Good- 
nefs of  Divine  Providence  over  the  World.  Which  cannot  be  had, 
w  ithout  an  entire  view,  of  all  its  parts  from  end  to  end. 

x§.  With  refped:  to  Things  then  prefent,  it  will  confill,  partly,  in 
a  more  Extenfive  and  Profound  Underllanding.  And  partly,  in  the  Redi- 
tude  of  the  Will.  And  by  means  of  both,  m  the  Ebjoyment  of  the  So- 
ciety, feleded  to  the  fame  Ellate.  And  of  all  other  Societies,  in  any  Su- 
perior Ellate  of  Celeftial  Life.  But  chiefly,  in  the  Enjoyment  of  God 
himfelf.  Who,  by  Creating  the  World,  and  prefenting  it  even  here, 
but  much  more  hereafter,  to  our  better  prepared  Minds,  as  his  Image : 
•Giveth,  and  will  give,  us  great  aflurancCj  That  notwithflanding  the 
Immenfe  Dillance  between  us,  yet  .as  far  as  we  are  capable,  he  is  very 
willing  to  be  Enjoyed. 

z6.  Now  nothing  can  be  Enjoyed,  any  further  than  it  is  known ;  and 

•  being  known,  appears  to  be  agreeable.    Therefore  our  Enjoy  merit  of  God, 

as  it  doth  in  this  Life,   (o  will  it  in  that  to  come,  depend  upon  our 

Knowlege  of  him',  and  our  Imitation.    Upon  our  Seeing  him,  as  he  Is  j 

and  our  being  Uke  unto  him. 

z-j.  The  Knowlege  we  Ihall  then  have  of  him,  will  be  very  Excel- 
lent in  Sundry  refpeds.     We  lliall  know  him  to  be  the  Fullell  Good, 
the  Nearell  to  us,  and  the  moll  Certain.     And  confequently,  the  mod 
•    Beatifying,  of  all  others. 

i8.  The  World  is  fo  thick  fet,  with  the  Numerous  Perfedions  of 
the  Creatures  5  that  bcfides  the  apparent  Beauty  of  things,  viewed  by 
;'  all  J 

Cha  r  IV,         OftheCelefiiat  Life  iig 

•'— ^-^ = — -7-^ -# ^ 

all;  there  are  thofe  Secret  Graces,  in  every  Part  of 'NrtUt"^,  ullicji  fome 
few  alone  have  the  Skill  to  difcern.  But  how  many  IbeVer  \Vf  do,  or 
Ihall  fee,  or  conceive  them  robe,  in  any  one,  or  eV^ry  Creat(«fc  apart, 
or  as  altogether  they  make  one  entire  Syfleme^:  Yet' In  that  they  are  all 
derived  from  the  Deity,  it  mud  needs  be,  that  in  Him,  they  did  before, 
and  in  Him,  do  (Jill  Really  and  Truly  Exift. 

'  z9.  We  fh all  then  be  able,  cleerly  to  diftinguiili,  between  the  Man- 
tier  of  their  Exidence  in  the  Creature,  and  in  Himfelf.  Which  we 
tan  never  do,  fo  long  as  we  are  Catechiz'd  by  Sfirife.  To  look  for 
them  in  Him^  as  we  fee  them  in  the  Creatures;  wefe  to  makfe  Him,  a 
Creature  too.  And  we  fliall  be  able  to  diftinguiflij  beiiween  the  Man- 
ner, and  tlie  Reality,  of  their  Exidence.  There  is  not  a  truer  Symme- 
try, Order,  and  Beauty,  in  r.ny  Corporeal  Beings;  than  therfe  is,  in 
our  Mental  Operations,  viz.  the  Ideas  which  We  have  of  th^mt,-  A 
Square,  that  is,  a  Figure  comprehended  within  4  EcJUal  SideSj  makirtg  4 
Right  Angles ;  cannot  be  fo  truly  drawn  upon  a  Slate,  as  in  this  De* 
finition,  it  is  conceived  in  the  Mind.  And  therefore,  in  a  Manner  fuit- 
able  to  the  Nature  of  the  Mind,  mayba  fiiidi  to^kifl:  herein.-- •''A^fb 
likewife,  whatever  elfe  is' attributed  to  a  Body.  From  whence  ifls' evi- 
dent, That  all  Corporeal  and  Senfible  Perfections,  are  in  fortle  Analo- 
gous way,  Exiftible,  in  the  Humane  Mind.  And  if  fo,  how  much  more 
eminently,  muft  they  nee'ds  exid,  in  the  Divind  As  therefote- our 
Thoughts,  -do  mod  Really  exid,  before  we  exptefs  {Mrti  in  Vocal  Sounds  : 
In  like  manner,  the  Excellencies  which  we  fee  in  the  Creatures,  ar6  in  fo 
Real,  but  Tratifcendent  a  way,  Exident  in  Gotl>;  that  their  Exidence  . 
in  the  Creatures,  is  but  the  Utterance  and  Exprdftion  of  them.  A  c\tQ,t 
and  comprehcnfive  Sight  whereof,  v\ill  be  a  great  part  of  our  future 
Happinefs.  To  fee  the  Glories  of  the  whole  Creation,  confpicuoufly  ex- 
prefs'd  and  fummed  up  in  God. 

■50.  We  Iball,  moreover,  then  know  and  enjoy  God,  as  the  Neared 
Good,  or  of  all  others  the  mod  Intimate.  Both  by  virtue  of  his  Lovd 
to  us,  and  of  his  Knowlege  of  our  Love  to  him.  His  Love  to  us,  will 
be  greater,  than  can  be  that  of  any  Creature.*  For  no  Creature  can^ 
or  will  ever  be  able  to  fay,  that  we  are  its  own  Defigned  Work,  But  the 
Creator,  can  fay  this :  And  will  then  take  complacency  in  us,' as  fuch. 

^i.  And  his  Knowlege  of  our  Love  to  him,  will  render  him  defira- 
ble  to  us,  above  all  Creatures.  The  edeem  we  have  for  another,  is 
founded  in  our  Belief,  that  he  is  the  owner  of  what  we  take  to  be  va- 
luable. But  this  edeem  is  advanced,  by  his  taking  notice  of  it.  So, 
the  Adedtions  of  Lovers  and  Friends,  are  enlarged,  by  obferving  the  re- 
ciprocation of  it,  in  one  another.  In  like  manner,  it  will  be  a  great 
addition  to  the  Enjoyment  we  iliall  have  of  God,  above  what  we  can 
have  of  any  Creature ;  That  he  hath  and  will  have,  a  perfe(5t  Know- 
lege of  our  Love,  and  vehement  Defire,  entirely  to  give  our  felves  to 
him.  Which  we  could  not  do,  did  he  not  by  an  Omnifcient  Know- 
lege of  us,  receive  us  wholly  into  Himfelf 

3  i.  And  tliat  which  will  beyond  ExprefTion,  or  any  prefent  Concep- 
tion, advance  our  Enjoyment,  in  all  thefe  refpeds;  will  be  the  Certain- 
ty hereof.  As  depending  upon  the  Immutability  of  his  Love  to  us  : 
Aiid  his  Omnipotency,  in  edablilhing  our  Love  to  Him ;  and  the  Edate, 
he  will  then  put  us  into.    So  as  by  the  Forefight,  which  our  Ennobled 


I20  Oi  the  Celefiial Life,         Book  UL 

— r-iK '■ ' 

Mittds,  will  then  take  hereof;  we  fliallbe  able  to  prefentiate,  all  that 
is  to  come,  and  every  Moment,  to  drink  in  the  Streams  of  endleis  Joy. 

33.  Yet  the  Sight  and  Knowlege  we  fliall  then  have  of  theUniverle, 
and  of  GodHimfelf;  which  may  be  called,  the  Beatifick  Vifion  :  is  to 
be  looked  upon,  but  as  one  Half,  of  the  Beatifick  Life.  Which  muft 
of  necelfity  confift,  not  meerly  in  Contemplation,  as  by  the  School- 
men, and  others,  it  hath  been  ufually  defcribed ;  but  alfo,  in  Adion. 
The  former  part  of  it,  will  follow  upon  the  Perfedion  of  our  Under- 
Handing  :  This,  upon  that  of  our  V Vill,  to  Adl  accordingly.  For  if 
Adiion,  or  the  Ufe  and  Exercife  of  Virtue,  be  the  Noblefl  part  of  our 
prefent  Life :  How  much  more,  muft  it  needs  be,  of  that  above  ?  Where, 
our  Minds,  being  Advanced,  and  lefs  Encombcred,  will  be  much  better 
adapted  to  it. 

34.  I  have  alfo  proved,  That  it  is  the  Perfedion  of  the  Deity,  not 
only  to  have  the  Eternal  Ic/ea  of  things;  but  withal,  to  be  Eternally 
Eiiergetick.  And  therefore  the  Pleafure,  which  he  will  then  take  in  us  • 
muft  fuppofe  our  advance,  unto  that  Energy  of  Virtue,  wherein  we 
ftiall  Imitate  him  moftof  all,  and  which  fhallbcft  become  theCelefti- 
al  Life. 

35.  And  the  Perfedion  of  our  Virtue  there,  as  well  as  here,  will 
confift,  in  doing  every  thing  like  Himfelf ;  that  is  to  fay,  with  Congru- 
ity  unto  the  beft  End.  Which  is,  That  in  Pleafing  of  him,  we  may- 
enjoy  hihi.  Whom  we  ftiall  then  Love,  fo  much  more  than  we  can 
JLove  our  felves;  as  we  Ihallfee  him,  to  be  Infinitely  better. 

36.  And  in  Conjundion  with  the  beft  Order.  VVithout  which,  the 
more  Adion,  the  greater  would  be  the  Confufion.  Whatever  there- 
fore is  done  there,  will  be  done,  as  with  a  Subordination  of  one  Perfon 
to  another ;  io  of  one  Society,  or  Eftate  of  Beings,  to  another  :  and 
with  an  Uniform  Subjedion,  unto  the  Father  and  Lord  of  all. 

37.  And  it  is  therefore  reafonable  to  believe,  That  allthofewho  (hall 
be  placed  in  any  Station  of  this  Blefied  Life :  Will,  by  orderly  Removes, 
be  tranflated  from  one  Station  to  another.  That  being  firft  advanced, 
above  their  Union  with  Corporeal  Nature  ;  and  above  the  Phantallick 
afterwards :  they  fliall  afcend,  at  length,  unto  that  Eftate,  which  en- 
joys the  neareft  Station  to  the  Deity;  viz.  that  of  Abftraded  Intelledu- 
al  Minds.    . 

38.  Which  Eftate,  in  regard  it  will  not  confift,  with  any  Perfonal 
Relation,  unto  Pliancy,  or  Body  :  Nor  therefore,  with  any  Senfible  Re- 
lation, unto  Motion,  and  Time :  it  feemeth  to  be  that  alone,  which 
may  properly  and  ftridly  be  ftyled,  Eternal  Life. 



Chap.  V,  121 

CHAP.    V. 

Of  the  Rules-  of  Providence, 
And  firjl^  of  the  hdw  of  Nature. 

iiT_TAving  feenwhat  God  dothHimfelf,  in  this  Lower  World  ;  and 
X~X  ^li^*^  ^""'^  ^^y  reafonably  believe  he  intends  to  do,  in  that  A- 
bove :  We  are  next  to  enquire,  whit  he  expedis  fliould  be  done  by  his 
Creatures.  Or,  what  Rules  he  hath  given  us,  by  which  we  alio  are  to 
Ad  in  this  prelent  Life,  and  by  which  we  are  to  be  accountable  to  him 
in  the  other. 

X.  And  fir  It,  it  is  evident,  that  God  hath  given  Reafon,  as  one  Rule. 
And  it  is  the  Rule,  by  which  we  are  to  make  a  Judgment  of  any  other 
Rule.  For  albeit  that  Reafon  is  imperfed,  as  to  the  Mealiire  of  its  Com- 
prehenfiort:  Yetfo  far  as  it  goes,  it  is  a  True  and  Exad:  Rule.  For  o- 
therwife,  Reafon  fo called,  were  not  Reafon  indeed :  Which  lyeth  in  the 
Conception  of  exa<5t  Truth. 

\ .  VV^e  cannot  perfedly  comprehend  the  Nature  of  any  one  thing 
in  the  World  •  not  of  fimple  Quantity :  As  in  the  Chapter  Of  Science^ 
hath  been  lliew'd.  Yet  of  Quantity,  Motion,  and  Body,-  we  have 
(o  much  right  Underflanding :  As  hereupon  to  lay  the  Infallible  Grounds, 
of  all  Mechanick  Operations,  fo  much  intermixed  with  the  Bufinefs  of 
the  World.  In  like  manner,  there  are,  it's  owned,  fome  things,  not 
only  in  the  Divine,  but  alfo  in  the  Humane  Nature,  and  confequently, 
in  the  Nature  of  Good  and  Evil,  which  we  cannot  perfedly  compre- 
hend. Neverthelefs,  from  the  Defcriptions  I  have  given  of  them  j  we 
may  learn,  not  the  Phantaftick,  but  the  fure  Grounds,'  of  all  Virtuous 
Adions.  We  are,  from  hence,  certain  of  thus  much,  that  what  we 
call,  Moral  Good  and  Evil,  are  not  founded  in  Cuftom  or  Opinion ;  but 
in  the  Immutable  and  Eternal  Reafon  of  Things. 

4.  And  if  God  hath  given  us  Reafon,  as  the  Rule  of  Good  and  Evil; 
It  is  as  certain,  That  we  are  accountable  to  him,  by  this  Rule.  For  it 
is  abfur'd,  when  we  allow,  that  he  is  the  Author  of  a  Rule  j  to  fuppofe 
withal,  that  he  regardeth  not,  whether  it  be  obferved,  or  no.  If  God 
hath  eftablillied  his  Government  in  the  World,  as  hath  been  proved  :^ 
Our  obligation  to  conform  unto  it  cannot  be  deny'd.  And  by  what 
Rule  can  a  Reafonable  Creature  Conform,  if  not  by  that  of  Right 
Reafon?  Reafon  then,  as  it  Direds  us,  is  a  Rule:  as  it  obliges,  hath  al- 
fo the  Virtue  of  a  Law.  And  being  given  by  God,  is  Virtually,  God's 
Law,  which  he  hath  Infcribed  upon  Nature.  Iri  which  Senfe,  it  may  al- 
io be  called  the  Law  of  Nature. 

5,  Some,  when  theyfpeak  of  Nature,  do  mean  only  Senfe  ;  for  which 
they  undertake  to  plead.  But  in  doing  of  this,  they  (till  whett  the  At; 
gument  againft  themfelves,  .For  no  Man  can  deny,  but  that  as  Reafoff 
is  a  Part,  fo  tlie  Superior  Pairt,  of  Human  Nature.  Whstt  ever  thenj 
is  agairf  11:  Reafon,  is  againft  Nature.  Reafon  is  Nature,  as  wellasScnfe,? 
And  therefore  ought  Ukewife  to  be  obferved.  And  in  regard  that  Rea- 
fon, "i^  able  to  judge  of  Senfe;  but  Senfe,  on  the  contrary,  cannot  judge 

I  i  of 

122  Of  the  Law  of  Nature.  Book  ilL 

of  Reafon :  It  is  fit,  that  Reafon  (liould  be  obferved  in  the  firfl;  place. 
For  Men  may  altogether  as  well  go  upon  their  Heads,  as  with  Reafon 
at  their  Heels. 

6.  Nor  can  the  Pleafure,  any  more  than  the  Authority  of  Senfe,  be 
pleaded  for,  as  the  greater.  That  of  Phancy  it  felf,  is  above  it.  For 
one  that  is  Covetous,  is  not  fo  highly  pleas'd,  with  the  meer  Sight  and 
Fingering  of  Money :  As  with  the  Thoughts,  of  his  being  confider'das 
a  Wealthy  Man.  Nor  do  Men  defire  Drink ;  fo  much  for  the  Taft,  as 
the  Gay  conceits  it  ufeth  to  produce  ;  or  the  glory,  of  having  got  the 
Vidory  of  the  Company.  1  he  Pleafure,  even  of  the  Venereal  Bed, 
lyeth  many  times,  chiefly,  in  Conceit.  For  why  elle,  fhould  not  one 
that  rambles,  be  as  well  pleafed  with  his  own  Wife  ?  Whofe  only  fault 
may  be,  that  ftie  is  not  his  Miflrefs.  Whereby  it  is  evident,  that  fome- 
thing  which  islnvifible,  Intaftable,  and  Intangible,  as  exifting  only  in 
the  Phancy,  may  produce  a  Pleafure,  Superior  to  that  of  Senfe,  How 
much  more,  may  and  ought  Phancy  to  do  it,  under  the  Regulation , 
and  with  the  Harmony  of  Right  Reafon.  Except  we  can  fuppofe,  fo 
great  an  Afymmetry  in  the  Works  of  God ;  as  that  he  hath  made  Dogs, 
and  Swine,  and  other  Inferior  Creatures,  to  be  capable  of  a  Superior 

7.  If  Reafon  then,  according  to  the  Conftiturion  or  Truth  of  Human 
Nature,  be  Superior  unto  Senfe  and  Phancy :  from  hence  it  follows, 
that  in  doing  things  according  to  Reafon,  that  is,  according  to  Nature  ; 
befides  the  regard  we  have,  to  the  gratifying  of  our  felves,  or  others  j 
we  are  alfo  bound  to  do  them,  with  regard  to  the  Deity.  Who,  as 
he  is  the  Author  of  Nature,  mufl  needs  be  a  Judge,  of  what  we  do, 
or  omit  to  do,  according  to  it. 

8.  Wherefore,  as  the  Reditude  of  our  Adlions,  is  our  Virtue,  or 
that  which  is  commonly  called,  Morality :  So  the  owning  of  our  Obliga- 
tion unto  Virtue,  as  aforefaid,  is  properly,  our  Religion :  To  wit,  fo 
much  of  it,  as  is  founded  on  the  Law  of  Nature.  With  refped  to 
which,  it  may  be  ftyled  Natural  Religion.  That  is  to  fay,  a  Devoted- 
nelsunto  God,  our  Leige-Lord,  fo  as  to  ad  in  all  things  according  to 
his  Will,  as  far  as  it  appears  to  us  by  the  Law  of  Nature.  So  that  the 
Adions  of  our  whole  Life ;  thofe  which  relate  only  to  our  felves,  or  o- 
thers,  as  well  as  thofe  which  relate  imn^ediately  unto  God ;  fo  far  as 
they  are  done  with  the  Mind  :  are  all  of  them,  not  only  points  of  Dif- 
cretion,  and  Virtue,  or  the  contrary ;  but  of  our  Religion,  or  Irreligi- 
on.  That  is,  they  are  Adions,  for  which  v/e  are  accountable,  not  on- 
ly to  our  felves,  or  others :  but  being  cither  grounded  upon  Reafon,  or 
done  in  contradidion  to  it ;  do  hereby  become,  ipfo  ja^o^  our  Indifpen- 
fible  Duty,  or  our  Faults,  for  which  we  are  accountable  unto  God. 
For  nothing  can  be  more  certain,  than  that  he  expedeth  we  Ihould  do 
every  thing,  after  the  Becomingnefs  of  Human  Nature,  and  in  Con- 
formity to  the  Relation  we  have  unto  Mankind,  and  more  efpecially, 
to  Himfelf. 

9.  What  can  be  more  Reafonable  and  Becoming,  and  therefore  Indif- 
penfible,  than  to  be  Temperate  ?  Rendering  our  Bodies,  Senfes,  and 
Thoughts,  Vigorous  and  Commandable.  Bounding,  both  the  Appetite, 
and  the  Phancy  j  fo  Troublefom,  Dangerous,  and  Expenfive,  where 
they  are  Wanton. 

10.  Or 

Chap.   V.         Of  ths  Lam  of  Nature.  5-^ 

10.  Or  more,  than  to  be  Sober  ?  When  Excefs,  either  with  an  Apo- 
plexy, knocks  a  Man  on  the  Head ;  or  with  a  Feaver,  like  Fire  in  a 
Strong-Water-Shop,  burns  him  down  to  the  Ground.  Or  if  it  flames 
not  out,  Charks  him  to  a  Coal.  Muddies  the  bed  Wit,  and  makes  it 
only  to  flutter  and  froth  high.  And  trains  Men  up  to  the  worft  of  Ha- 
bits. Teaching  them  to  play  with  thofe  Thoughts,  which  they  flartle  at, 
when  they  are  Ibber.  Till  by  Ufe,  they  become,  like  Witches  with 
the  Devil,  familiar  with  tliem  at  any  time. 

11.  Or  more,  than  to  be  chafl:e  ?  For  who,  that  confiders,  would 
forfeit  his  Eafe,  or  Honour,  and  geld  his  Underllanding  ;  in  lactjuy' 
ing  after  a  foolifli  PaOion  ?  What  Security  or  Troth,  can  that  Man  expedl 
from  a  Whore,  who  is  falfe  to  his  Wife?  defrauding  her  of  that  Love, 
which  is  as  much  her  Right,  as  iier  Joynture.  Who  will  not  exped:, 
that  a  falfe  Husband,  if  he  comes  to  be  try'd,  will  prove  a  Falfe  Wit- 
nels,  or  a  Falfe  Friend  ?  What  Wife  or  Honcft  Man,  would  run  the  ha- 
zard of  a  Contagion  ?  And  all  the  Mifchiefs,  which  may  follow  on  his 
Wife  and  Children  ?  The  Handing  Marks  of  their  own  Misfortunes, 
and  his  Fooleries. 

II.  Or  more,  than  to  be  diligent  ?  When  every  thing  befides,  in 
Heaven  and  Earth,  is  in  conftant  Motion.  When  no  Man  is  more  in 
the  way  to  do  Good,  or  avoid  Evil,  than  one  well  imploy'd.  When  we 
are  all  God's  Servants,  whom  he  hath  fent  into  the  World  to  do  his  T 

Work:  And  for  which,  befides  onr  Arrears,  he  pays  us  in  Hand, much 
more  than  our  Wages.    Do  we  not  make  Drinks,  in  their  kind  the  :; 

Befl:,  of  the  Rougheft  Apples  and  Pears  ?  Are  not  Stones  polifli'd,  Me-  \ 

tais  refin'd,  and  all  things  elfe  amended,  by  Art  and  Pains  ?  So  neither  | 

is  any  Man  not  born  a  Fool,  that  which  Nature  makes  him,  but  what  he 
makes  himfelf.     Moil  Inventions  are  the  Effetfts,  neither  of  Confultati-  ■ 

on,  nor  of  Chance  :  but  of  that  which  is  between  them  both,  a  regular  « 

Induflry.     And  fo  are  moft  Performances,    in  the  prudential  Part    of  •■', 

Life.     While  in  the  Profecution  of  our  main  End ,   we  projCvSt  not, 
but  meet  with  many  of  thofe  Hints,  which  help  to  lead  us  thither. 

1 3.  Or  more  than  in  any  Condition,  to  be  contented  ^  He  that  is  not 
fo,  nourilhes  not,  but  eats  his  own  Fleih.  He  looks  upon  every  thing 
he  hath,  with  a  Moth  in  his  Eye.  Would  we  know,  what  Health  and 
Eale  are  worth  ?  let  us  ask  one  that  is  fickly,  or  in  Pain,  and  we  have 
the  Price.  And  fo  he  looks  upon  every  thing  he  has  not  :  which  appears 
tohisPhancy,  much  finer  at  a  diftance ;  than  when  it  is  pofleit.  Nor 
looks  he  any  better  upon  God  himfelf :  for  being  kind  to  others,  as  near 
of  kin  to  him.  Or,  as  if  the  Ruler  of  the  World,  knew  not  wliat  to 
do  with  one  Man,  but  had  made  a  Miftake  about  him.  And  why  not 
millaken  in  the  Order  of  his  Being  ?  In  making  him  a  Man,  and  not  an 
Angel  ?  Whereas  we  ought  to  know,  that  God  values  no  Man  more 
or  lefs,  in  placing  him  high,  or  low ;  but  every  one,  as  he  maintains 
his  Poft.  Often  repreienting  by  thofe  on  high,  not  the  Worth,  but  the 
Vanity,  of  Human  Nature  :  and  teaching  thofe  below  them,  to  make 
a  great  Game,  with  mean  Cards.  Nor  is  there  any  other  Virtue,  but 
what  4S  Natural,  Lovely,  and  Becoming  us  in  all  refpeds.  And  there- 
fore, what  we  are  obliged  to,  not  only  in  point  of  Prudence,  but  as  a 
real  and  (libllantial  Part  of  our  Religion.     For  we  may  as  well  fuppofe, 

I»God  to  have  ufed  a  falfe  Mcafure  in  the  Make  of  Hum  an  Nature :  as  not 
^to  require  Exad  Truth  and    Proportion,   in   the    Operation  belong- 
ing to  it.  14. 

;24  Of  the  Law  of  Nature.       Book   III. 

14.  But  if  the  Duty  we  owe  to  our  felves,  and  others,  be  an  indif- 
penfible  Part  of  our  Religion :  then  much  more,  all  that  we  owe  imme- 
diately unto  God. 

If.  Thisconfifteth  firft,  In  our  Acquifition  of  a  found  and  diftindt 
Knowledge  of  him  :  So  far,  as  be  is  Intelligible  to  us,  both  in 
himfelf,  abftradly  confidcr'd  ;  and  in  his  Works,  which  we  are  bound 
to  lludy.  For  there  is  that  Coherence,  between  every  thing  he  hath 
made,  and  the  life  of  it  :  That  we  may  as  well  fay,  he  gave  us  Eyes» 
not  to  fee ;  as  Underftanding,  not  to  Think :  and  not  to  Think  moft, 
on  thofe  Things,  which  are  the  moft  Excellent. 

16.  And  if  we  know  God,  as  we  ought  to  do;  we  fliali  alfo  love  him 
whether  we  will  or  no.  For  if  we  know  him,  as  we  fliould ;  we  fhall  fee 
hifli,  to  be  the  moft  Tranfcendent  Being  in  Himfelf;  and  find  him  to  be 
the  Beft  of  Beings  to  his  Creatures,  and  particularly  to  our  felves. 
The  Ocean,  and  the  Fountain  of  Goodnefs,  as  the  Sun  is  of  Light. 
The  Centre,  and  the  Circumference  of  all  Perfediion.  And  therefore, 
beyond  all  Conception,  moft  amiable. 

17.  And  this  Love,  will  oblige  usvigoroufly  to  fupprefs,  every  vain 
and  impious  Conceit,  in  our  felves,  or  others,  to  the  contrary.  As  if  it 
were  below  the  Deity,  to  be  any  way  concerned  about  us  :  either  to  love 
■us,  or  to  value  our  Love.  Whereas,  if  hepleafed  himfelf,  in  giving  us 
our  Being :  it  is  impoftible,  but  he  muft  be  alfo  beft  pleafed,  when  he 
fees  us  ad  according  to  it.  And  fo  all  other  Phantaftick  Conceits,  as 
would  interpofe  and  hinder  our  Love,  from  being  equal  to  our  Under- 

18.  Moreover,  if  our  Knowledge  and  Love  of  God,  be  Sound  and 
True  ;  we  fhall  alfo  fear  him.  That  is,  we  fhall  have  a  reverential  and 
awful  Regard  to  him,  as  Children  to  their  Father,  becaufe  we  love 
him  ;  and  are  afraid  of  nothing  more,  than  of  his  Itfaft  Difpleafure. 
Which  we  know,  he  can,  and  if  contemned,  may  juftly  make,  more 
Terrible,  than  we  are  able  to  conceive. 

19.  Andwefliall  revere  his  very  Name.  As  it  is  the  Verbal  Image 
of  thofe  Divine  Perfections,  which  are  hereby  underllood.  Efteeming 
it  impious,  not  only  to  ufe  it  Lightly  in  our  Talk,  but  to  Think  of  it 
in  vain. 

zo.  It  will  mucli  behove  us,  always  to  think,  That  we  fee  him  ftill 
looking  on,  and  weighing  all  our  Thoughts,  Words,  and  Adions,  in  the 
Balance  of  infallible  Juftice  and  Truth.  And  immediately  pafling  up- 
on them,  the  fame  Judgment,  which  he  intends  hereafter,  judicially  to 

^  -'2,1.  And  in  Contemplation  hereof,  to  fortifie  our  felves,  in  the  con- 
Halite  and  delightful  Practice  of  Religious  Virtue ;  againft  all  Examples, 
Small  or  Great,  Pleas  or  Pretences,  to  the  contrary.  Efteeming  it  there- 
fore to  be  valuable,  becaufe  it  looks  above  the  Stars,  and  (qqs  beyond 
Time,;  and  without  a  great  deal  of  Pains,  is  unattainable. 

-  xa.  As  alfo,  to  admire  his  unbounded  Goodnefs,  which  we  continually 
enjoy  ;  and  fee  running  through  the  World.  Although  for  the  greater 
part,  unmindlul  of  the  Hand,  from  whence  it  comes;  and  which  hith 
given  us  a  Memory,  to  think  of  all  other  things. 

1.T,.  And  to  confolate  our  felves,  againft  all  the  Evil,  which  doth,  or 
may  befal  us.    As  that  which  comes  not  by  chance,  nor  for  our  Hurt ; 

"    — -^  but 


Chap.   V,        Of  the  Law  of  Nature.  125 

but  by  his  Diredlion,  whom  it  will  alwa}^?  become,  to  convert  it  unto  our 
greatefl;  Advantage. 

24.  And  therefore,  to  betrufl:  htm,  with  all  the  Good,  which  our 
own  Capacity  will  allow  us,  or  his  Sufficiency  encourage  us  to  hope 
for,  either  in  this  Life,  or  that  to  come.  Not  in  fitting  dill;  but  in 
the  ufe  of  our  utmoft  Diligence  and  Skill,  to  truft  him  fo  entirely, 
as  if  we  had  no  Motion,  or  Ability  to  ufe.     As  remembring,  that  we  , 

are  obliged  to  ad  the  bell  Part  of  a  Reafonable  Creature  ;  but  with- 
al, at  his  Difpofal,  who  turns  the  World,  and  all  Men  therein,  round  a- 
bout,  as  we  dp  a  Globe,  at  his  Pleafurc. 

z^.  And- in  our  doing  this,  ta  acquielce,  AfTuring  our  felves,  froni 
the  Benignity  of  his  Nature,  and  the  Truth  of  all  his  Works,  as  a  dou- 
ble Rock  to  build  upon  :  That  he,  who  hath  taught  us  a  regular  Trail, 
will  not  fail  to  give  us  the  Equivalent,  of  whatever  we  trufl:  hint 

%6.  Chiefly,  it  is  our  Duty,  to  trufl:  him  for  our  future  Happinels, 
and  to  live  in  a  continual  and  joyful  Hope  of  it.  For  in  making  of 
Wills  and  Laws,  for  the  Benellt  of  Pofterity,  and  many  other  ways,  it 
is  very  evident.  That  we  are  naturally  inclin'd,  to  confider  a  Future 
Eflate.  And  can  wefuppofe,  that  God  has  made  it  Natural,  to  confider 
with  all  the  good  Contrivance  and  Judgment  we  have,  of  the  future  E- 
ftate  of  others,  and  yet  not  of  our  own.'* 

xj.  And  it  is  as  evident,  that  we  are  obliged  to  think  of  this  Efl;ate,  as 
of  a  far  better,  than  the  Prefent  is,  or  is  capable  of  being.  Wherein 
we  fee  every  where,  a  Mixture  of  Good  and  Evil ;  and  Rewards  appa- 
rently referved  to  another  World.  And  the  greater  fliare  of  Senfual 
Enjoyments,  being  beflowed  upon  many  Creatures  below  our  felves : 
direds  us  to  the  Place  of  Angels,  and  their  higher  Pleafures.  Which, 
the  rfarthcr  they  are  out  of  fight ,  become  the  better  Teft  of  a 
raifed  Mind.  And  fo  much  a  fliarper  Spur,  to  the  Higheft  Improve- 
ment it  is  capable  of,  The  Steady  and  Delightful  Expedtation  of  an  Un- 
feen  Felicity. 

i8.  There  is  fo  Natural  a  Connedtion,  in  the  forementioned  Parts  of 
our  Duty  :  that  if  we  acknowledge  it,  in  any  one ;  we  mull  in  all.  It 
is  then  our  Duty,  to  do  all  this,  upon  every  fit  Occafion.  But  chiefly, 
in  the  two  principal  Parts  of  our  reafonable  Service,  our  Homage  of 
Prayer  and  Praife. 

29.  But  wherefore  (liould  We  pray  to  God,  who  ^  is  immutable  ? 
And  therefore  cannot  be  moved,  by  any  thing  or  all  that  we  can  fay 
to  him.  How  vain  a  Queftion  ?  When  as  we  (hould  the  rather  do 
it,  becaufe  he  is  Immutable.  For  when  we  pray  to  God,  if  we  un- 
derlland  our  felves,  in  reprefenting  what  we  defire,  we  profefs 
our  Sincerity  herein.  If  then  his  Will  doth  indeed  accord  to  our 
Defires,  as  bed  :  we  believe  honourably  of  him,  That  whether  our 
Defires  for  the  bed,  iliould  change,  or  no ;  his  VVill  never  doth  nor 
can.  And  if  Men  fometimes  petition  their  Superiours  for  thofe  things, 
which  they  know  beforehand,  will  b^  granted  ;  we  think  it  a  Refpedt, 
Ijiuch  more  due  to  the  Deity.  But  if  our  Requefts  are  fuch,  as  accord 
not  with  his  Will ;  we  then  profefs  our  humble  and  ready  Sub- 
miffion  to  it.  The  doing  of  all  which,  is  fo  far  from  fuppofing  God  to 
be  Mutable :  That  it  is  a  Declaration,  we  believe  the  contrary. 

K  k  30. 

[26  Of  the  Law  of  Nature,       Book  III. 

30.  To  fay,  that  plain  Men,  cannot  pray  thus,  is  as  vain.  For  plain 
Men,  if  honeft,  will  always  mean  the  fame  Things,  howfoever  they  may 
fail  in  expreffing  themfelves.  Wherein  all  Men,  of  the  beft  Under- 
ftanding,  do,  and  mufl  fail,^  more  or  lefs.  For  what  is  more  frequent, 
than  to  fay,  a  Silver  Ink-horn,  my  Head  fwims,  and  to  ufe  a  thoufand 
of  fuch  like  Words  and  Sayings  ?  Should  we  then  never  converfe,  till 
we  could  fpeak  every  Word  properly,  that  is,  with  a  perfed:  Analo- 
gy unto  one  another,  and  unto  Thoughts,  and  Things ;  we  muft  for 
ever  hold  our  Tongues.  And  the  Argument  againft  Praying  unto  God, 
is  no  better,  than  this,  againft  fpeaking  unto  Men. 

:^i.  Befides,  if  no  Man  mufl  Pray,  but  in  manner  and  form  adequate 
to  the  Perfedtion  of  God :  then  no  Man  may  fo  much  as  Think  of  God- 
Becaufe  that  no  Man,  can  think  adequately  of  him.  We  are  therefore 
to  believe  that  he  defpifeth  not  any,  who  doth  them  both  as  well  as 
he  can.  For  fmce  he  is  pleafed  to  rule  us,  in  a  manner  fuitable  to  our 
Human  Capacity :  We  have  no  caufe  to  doubt,  of  the  Propriety  and 
Acceptance  of  our  Addrefles  to  him,  Mare  Humam. 

31.  We  have  then,  as  good  and  great  reafon,  to  pray  to  God,  as  for 
any  thing  elfe  we  do,  as  Men.  In  asking  of  what  we  want,  we  own  our 
abfolute  Dependance  upon  his  Power,  we  comply  with  his  Wifdom,  we 
trufl  in  his  Goodnefs  :  profefTing  our  Subjedion  to  his  Divine  Govern- 
ment upon  all  accounts.  And  in  deprecating  of  Evil,  we  make  an  hun> 
ble  Acknowledgement  of  Guilt ;  and  of  God's  Juftice  in  chaftizing,  as 
■well  as  Clemency,  in  fparing  the  Guilty.  And  if  ever  we  think  or 
Ipeak  fmcerely,  of  our  Duty  to  God  and  Man  ;  it  will  be,  when  we  are 
doing  all  this.  When  upon  fpeaking  unto  God,  we  do  as  much,  as  if 
we  took  our  Oath,  that  all  we  fay,  is  true. 

33.  But  if  Prayer  to  God,  be  one  part  of  ouri  Homage  :  we  can- 
not doubt,  that  to  celebrate  his  Praifcs,  is  another.  Wherein  we  do  all, 
that  we  do  in  our  Prayers,  with  the  Addition  of  our  Thanks.  A  Payment, 
the  more  due,  becaufe  it  cofts  us  nothing.  And  is  fo  far  Advantagious 
to  us,  as  to  help  us  to  rejoice.  Which  God  in  the  Enjoyment  of  what 
he  gives  us,  wou'd  have  us  to  do,  and  to  cherp  and  fing,  while  we  lie 
within  the  Warmth  of  his  chearing  Beams.  And  helps  us  too,  the 
more  heartily  to  wifli,  that  whatever  we  pray,  or  praife  him  for,  may  con- 
centre in  his  own  Glory.  And  to  rejoice  again  in  this,  that  we  know  af- 
furedly,  it  will  and  muft  be  fo.  That  with  the  lower  Parts  of  the  Creati- 
on, Mankind,  and  the  feveral  Orders  of  Superiour  Minds,  fliall  all  of 
them,  havcthctr  Afpeds  upon  him  ;  as  the  Celeftial  Orbs,  have  upon  the 
Sun.  Nothing  being  more  reafonable,  than  that  He  who  is  the  Beginning, 
ihould  alfo  be  the  End  of  all  things. 


G  H  A  P.  VI.  Ijy 

CHAP.   vr. 

^^^  of  Pofitive  Lan^» 

i.Yy  Eafon,  where  it  is  Improved,  and  kept  deer;  gives  a  Light,  fuf- 

J]\^  ficient  to  flievv  us  a  great  part  of  our  Duty;  and  fofar,  to  have 

the  force  and  virtue  of  a  Law :  As  in  tlie  foregoing  Chapter  hath  been 

proved.  ^ 

X.  And  the  Law  of  Nature,  is  that  which  Wife  Men  have  ahvays  pre- 

fuppoled,  as  the  Foundation  of  Pofitive  Laws.     So  Plato^  O'  No/^t©.,  t^ 

ovros  isiv  e^s'jpiati.    That  is,  Law,  is  the  Invention  of  that  which  truly 

Is.    For  by  'ci^vy  Plato   means  ,  the  Eternal  Law   of    Nature,  which 

notwithftanding  the  Mutations  and  Contra;lid:ions,  among  the  Laws  of 

all  Nations,  continues  for  ever  the  fame,  and  therefore  truly  Is.     And 

Cicero  more  exprefly  faith,  Lex,  efi  Ratio  Summa^  injita  in  Natura^  quce 

juhet  ea  quce  facienda  funt^  prohihetque  cent r aria;  de  Leg.  i.  And  fo  all 

others,  of  the  beft  ujiderftanding. 

\.  Neverthelefs,  the.  Declaration  of  a  Divine  Law,  Superior  to  that 
of  Nature,  will  appear  to  be  neceflary :  Whether  with  refpedt  to  the 
corrupt  Eftate  of  Mankind,  or  the  Perfedion  of  the  Deity, 

4.  There  is  a  neceffity  of  anexprel^  Divine  Law,  to  add  Light  unto 
that  of  Nature.  For  there  are  but  few  who  confider,  whether  there  be 
any  Law  of  Nature,  or  no.  And  many,  by  degrees,  bring  themfelves 
to  that  pafs,  as  to  deny  the  being  hereof  And  thofewho  own  it,  yet 
find  it  fo  far  defedtive;  that  except  they  Trim  their  Lamp,  and  look 
clofe,  they  can  fee  nothing  diftindtly  by  it.  And  many  things  are  hereby 
undifcernable,  which  yet  are  very  neceflary  to  be  known. 

5-.  The  Darknefs  and  Diforder,  we  fee  everywhere;  may  fuffice  to 
evidence  the  Truth  of  all  this.    But  if  we  look  upon  the  condition  of 
the  World,  before  the  Settlement  of  Religion  herein,  how  plain  is  it  ? 
•The  Lacedemonians  were  ufed  to  cad  away  every  feeble  Birth,  into  a 
VVhirlpit.  In  many  of  the  Ajiatick  Nations,  Theft  was  taken  little  notice 
of.    In  Perfia  and  other  Countries,  Men  were  marryed  ta  their  Sifters, 
their  Daughters,  and  even  their  own  Mothers.     The  Hircani  and  Tileri- 
wi,  ufed  to  break  their  old  Kindreds  Necks  from  fome  Precipice.    And 
the  Heruliy  when  they  fell  fick,  to  ftick  them  with  a  Dagger.     The 
MedeSy  when  they  faw  People  in  the  fame  Condition,  and  not  like  tQ 
live,  -were  ufed  to  throw  them  to  be  devoured  of  Dogs,  which  they  kept 
for  that  purpofe.     And  many  other  Nations,  as  the  Majfageta;^  and   the 
Derhices^  thought  it  better  to  eat  them  themfelves.     And  fo  did  the  CV- 
naaniteSy  of  whom,  the  Spies   which  Mofes  fent,  reported,  faying,  77;(?   //f  fh/^JfUd^^ 
Land,  is  a  Land  ivhich  eateth   up  the  hhahitants  thereof.     There   was  ^  ff^^^tfof  /^ 
hardly  a  Nation  under  Heaven,  but  was  ufed  to  the  Butchery  of  ^f*^  '^  >^^7 
Sacritices,     And  the  French  were  not  quite  broken  of  it,  until  fome  time  ^M^^*^  fu^  fi 
after  they  became  Chriftians.  hTjih^ 

6.  Nor  were  fuch  Enormities  as  thefe,  done  by  a  few,  but  by  whole  p<:^  iJTUjIL^ 
Nations :  Not  upon  meer  fufferance,  but  by  Law.  Among  the  Geti,  Lege  hCL^j^^^^h^  ^ 
cautum  efi,  faith  Bardefanes^  who  wrote  about  the  time  ot  Adrian^  That  .^^^  r^ftS^  ^ 
the  Women  fliould  be  free,  to  lye  carnally   with  whomfoever  they  T^^I^^^  /j: 

would.  T r"" 

128  Of  Tofitive  Law.  Book  Hi. 

would.  And  the  Affyrians  were  not  contented,  to  leave  them  to  their 
Liberty:  but  every  Woman  throughout  the  Country,  was  bound  once 
in  her  Life,  in  the  Temple  of  Ferns ^  to  proftitute  her  felf  to  any  one,  tliat 
threw  her  a  piece  of  Money,  which  was  given  to  the  Temple. 

7.  And  the  Wifefl  Men  and  Nations,  were  in  many  points,  as  much 
in  the  dark.  Among  the  Greeks^  it  was  no  Difgrace,  for  Phiiofophers 
themfelves  to  have  their  Catamites.  All  People  thought  there  was  no 
Renown  in  the  Tran(ad:ions  of  Peace,  but  only  in  thofe  of  War.  The 
Virtue  of  the  Achat,  fays  Polyhius^  when  they  were  in  fetled  Peace ;  was 
then  a  plaia  homely  thing,  without  any  Military  Glory,  ks  if  it  was 
not  more  glorious,  that  they  were  the  Arbiters  of  Peace,  between  the 
Lacedemonians  and  the  Thehans ;  than  to  have  deftroyed  them  both  by 
force  of  Arms.  Humility,  though  a  Cardinal  Virtue  ;  yet  is  no  where 
mentioned  in  Arijiotle's  Ethicks.  But  inflead  of  that,  he  hath  a  long 
Chapter  of  Magnanimity  :  whereof,  as  if  contrary  to  Humility,  he  gives 
a  falfe  Defcription,  only  teaching  iVlento  be  Lazy  and  Proud.  The  Ro' 
mans  had  never  lefs  Religion  and  Virtue;  than  when  they  had  got, 
with  the  Conqufeft,  the  Gods  and  Religion  of  all  the  World.  Ut'mam, 
fays  Cicero,  tarn  facile  veram  Religionent  invenire  pojfim ;  quam  jalfam  con- 
vincere.  Dux  atque  Imperator  Vita,  fays  Salufl,  Animus  eji,  neque  Fortu- 
vaeget :  Meaning  by  Fortune,  the  Divine  Providence.  ©4a  cT'  tm^oi^ 
T8S  xa;c8s  ivS'a.ifj.ovilv.  That  is,  *Tis  a  Difgrace  to  the  Deity,  for  bad 
Men  to  be  fortunate  :  A  Saying  of  the  fame  Poet,  whom  St.  Paul  cites 
for  a  far  better.  And  Seneca,  with  greater  Pride  and  Ignorance,  flicks 
not  to  tell  us,  Epifi.  45',  That  a  Wife  Man,  in  fome  refped-,  excells  God 
himfelf.  And  why  fo  .■»  J  lie,  fays  he,  Natune  leneficio,  non  fuo,  fa  pi  ens 
eft.  A  mod  confounded  Reafbn;  both  for  his  haughty  non  fuo ',  and  his 
Brutifti  conception  of  the  Deity,  as  if  begotten  of  Nature;  and  of  Na- 
ture, as  if  the  Supream  Numen, 

8.  By  which,  and  the  like  loftances,  tpo common  in  the  befl  Heathen 
Writers,  it  is  moft  apparent,  That  the  Minds  of  Men,  have  in  all  Times 
and  Places,  been  cover'd  with  thick  Darknels :  not  only  of  the  Uulgar, 
but  of  Phiiofophers  and  Legiflators  tliem{elves.  And  confequently,  as 
Thefe  have  ever  found  it  necefTary,  for  the  fake  of  the  Vulgar,  to  ex-^ 
plain  the  Law  of  Nature,  by  Pofitive  Laws  :  ( moft  of  which,  they 
have  yet  but  borrowed  of  the  Mofaick,  as  will  be  proved :  )  So  it  was 
neceflary,  that  the  Deity  fhould  give  his  own  Pofitive  Laws,  in  Condel^ 
cention  unto  both  the  one,  and  the  other.  That  neither  the  Vulgar, 
which  make  the  greater  part  of  the  World,  and  want  the  Means  to  be- 
come Wife ;  nor  Wife  Men,  who  through  the  manifold  Nature  of 
Things,  ^are  feldom  Wife  enough  to  make  a  Right  Judgment  of  them  j 
ihould  want  a  fure  Guide:  but  be  able  in  the  moft  difficult  Inllances of 
the  Law  of  Nature,  to  diftinguilh  with  certainty  between  Good  and 
Evil :  And  fo,  of  whatfoever  is  moft  conducing  to  the  Happinefs  of 

9.  Neither  is  the  Corrupt  Eftate  of  Human  Nature,  more  vifible  in 
the  darknefs  of  the  Underftanding,  than  in  the  Pravity  of  the  Will. 
Nor  therefore,  was  the  Declaration  of  the  Will  of  God  by  Pofitive  Laws, 
more  neceflary  to  give  Light,  than  it  was  to  give  Strength,  unto  the 
Law  of  Nature.  For  as  the  Manifold  Nature  of  Things,  renders  it  ve- 
ry difficult  in  many  Cafes,  to  make  a  Judgment  of  what  is  fit  and  juft  : 
So,  when  that' is  made,  the  various  Affections,    Conditions,  and   In- 



Chap.  VI,  Of  Fofitive  Lan>,  129 

tcrefts  of  Men,  make  it  as  difficult  to  Ad  accordingly;  and  to  concen- 
tre in  their  Refolutions  of  what  is  to  be  done.     It  becomes  a  Philofo- 
pher,  jJiT^iv  C-nl^  r  irYfsi.v  (fpoviT'/j  was  faid  by  Thrajycks^  in  a  found  Senfe, 
but  pradiifcd  in  another ;  being  as  great  a  Debauchee,  as  any  with  whom 
he  JivM.     Who  fees  not  the  difference  every  where,  between  faying  and 
doing?  The  Law  of  Nature,  is  not  always  able  to  fpeak  :  Nor,  when 
it  doth,  is  it  often  heard.     But  as  God    may  do  many  things,  and 
command  many  to  be  dotie,   for  JReafons  which  we  fee  not :  So  where 
we  do  fee  them.  He  who  is  Reafon  it  (elf;  may  have  more  and  greater 
Reafons.    It  was  therefore  neceflary,  that  God  fhould  add  unto  the  Law 
of  Nature,  the  Sandlion  of  his  own  Pofitive  Laws,  which  fliould  al- 
ways fpeak  plainly  and  home,  and  fliould  at  leail  be  heard,  do  what 
we  can. 

10.  It  was  alfo  neceflary,  for  the  giving  of  Strength  unto  Human 
Laws  themfelves.  Civilians  fay,  Voluntas  Le^iJIatoris,  eft  Forma  (S?  Ani- 
ma  Legn.  But  We  cannot  have  that  afl!urance  of  the  Laws  given  by  any 
Man,  or  Seled:  Company  of  Men,  that  they  are  well  intended  ;  as  we 
mud  needs  have,  of  the  VVifdomand  Goodnefs  of  a  Divine  Legiflator. 

11.  ThcCompafs  likewife  of  all  Human  Laws,  is  much  too  narrow. 
Among  Men,  nothing  can  be  truer,  than  Cogitationh  poenam  neminem  me- 
reri.  For  no  Human  Law,  can  be  judge  of  Mens  Thoughts.  But  it 
is  much  more  neceflary  to  the  Welfare  of  Mankind,  that  there  fliould  be 
a  Judge  of  Mens  Thoughts,  and  Laws  for  the  governing  of  thefe,  than 
of  their  Adions.  For  a  Law  which  may  have  force  to  reflrain  one 
Ad,  will  want  the  fame  force  to-  reftrain  another,  where  the  Offender 
thinks  he  is  fafe.  But  Laws,  which  give  bounds  unto  Mens  Thoughts  j 
give  them  not  to  one,  but  equally  to  all  thofe  Adions,  which  they  are 
ufed  to  produce, 

iz.  And  whereas  the  Mind  of  a  Man,  being  always  the  firfi:  in  fault, 
doth  therefore  merit  the  Penalty  in  the  firll:  place  :  Men,  in  the  Execu- 
tion of  their  Laws,  have  no  abfolute  Power,  faving  of  the  Body.  For 
the  Criminal  may  fometimes,  not  only  bear  his  Punifiiment,  but  upon 
ibme  confideration  or  other,  may  therein  conceive  a  Pleafure.  But  he 
that  made  the  Mind  of  Man,  can  punifli  it  when  and  how  he  pleafes : 
So,  as  to  make  a  Mental,  to  be  equivalent  to  any  Senfual  Pain. 

I  ^ .  Neither  can  Humane  Laws,  purfue  Men  beyond  their  being  in 
this  World.  But  the  Maker  of  all  Worlds ,  and  .the  Difpofer  of  all 
Creatures,  in  one  World  as  well  as  another,  can  tdl  how  to  do  it. 

14.  Now  if  Mendd  every  where  Ad,  as  we  fee  they  do,  notwith- 
(landing  that  mofl:  allow  the  Being,  Force,  and  Extent  of  the  Pofitive 
Laws  of  God,  as  aforefaid :  Let  us  conceive,  as  Well  as  we  can,  what 
a  difmal  Place  we  fliould  live  in,-  did  all  Men  believe,  as'fome  do,  that 
there  are  no  fuch  Laws,  as  are  neceflary  to  ellablifli  a  Divine  Government 
over  the  Minds  of  Men.  .    .••^.. 

15.  Again;  the  Declaration  of  a  Divine  Law,  Superior  to  that  6f  Na- 
ture, and  to  all  Human  Laws,  will  further  appear  to  be  neceflary,  if 
with  the  Corruption  of  the  Mind  of  Man,  we  alfo^cjonfide^  the  Tranfcen- 
dent  Excellency  of  the  Deity.  '.,-.. 

;  i6.  And  firil,  it  is  in  conflflient  with  his  Divine  Power  and  Majefly ,  to 
gpvern  thcj|(lelledual  World,  only  by  the  Law  of  Nature,  which  al- 
ways carries  its  own  Realon  along  with  it  felf  :  and  not  to  do  it  alfo,  by 
Pofitive  and  Peremptory  Laws :  that  is,  by  the  exprefs  Declaration  of 

LI  his 

^    .   . I — « 1 -— 1* ' — — — — 

i^o  Of  Pofitive  Laip.  Book  IIL 

his  Will  and  Plealure,  without  giving  a  Reafon  for  it.  Every  Pofitive 
Law,  is  indeed  grounded  upon  Reafon,  or  fuppofed  fo  to  be,  as  an  ef- 
fential  part  of  it ;  without  which,  it  were  not  a  Law,  but  a  Publick 
Wrong.  Yet  LegiflatOrs  are  not  bound  to  declare  that  Reafon,  unto 
thofe  to  whom  the  Law  is  given ;  as  being  Coram  non  Judice.  For  how 
can  the  People  judge,  who  are  to  obey?  but  in  obeying  the  Law  of  Na- 
ture, every  Man  is  bound,  to  fee  the  Reafon  of  what  he  obeys.  To 
fuppofe  then,  that  God  governs  us  only  by  the  Law  of  Nature ;  is  as 
much  as  to  fay,  He  has  bound  Himfelf,  to  tell  us  the  Reafon  of  every 
>  thing  he  bids  us  do.  And  if  fo,  hath  left  himfelf  lefs  Authority  over 
his  Creatures,  than  they  themfelves  find  neceflary  to  be  ufed  over  one  a- 

17.  It  is  congruous,  that  theHighefl  Angels  (hould  be  govern'd  by  a 

Law  :  not  only  that  of  their  own  Nature,  but  Pofitive  Law.    For  tho' 

Reafon  is  its  own  Rule,  fo  far  as  it  goes:  Yet  if  no  Created  Reafon, 

can  match  the  Uncreated  ;  'tis  fit,  that  the  abfolute  and  implicit  Sub- 

jedion  thereof,  fliould  be  proved  by  a  Rule  above  it.    How  much  more 

applicable,  is  the  fame  Rule  to  our  felves  ?  How  fit  is  it,  for  Man,  the 

lowed:  Species  of  Reafonable  Creatures,  under  a  Supream  Lord,  though 

he  were  with  Angels  in  a  State  of  Perfedtion,  yet  not  to  be  his  own 

Rule  in  every  thing  ?  Much  more,  now  he  is  in  a  Condition  fo  far  from 

it.    That  as  Man,  by  his  Reafon,  ufeth  an  Abfolute   Dominion  over 

Brutes :  So  likewife,  and  much  rather,  that  God  by  his  Laws,  fliould  u(e  an 

Abfolute  Dominion  over  Man.  That  is  to  fay,  That  the  Will  of  God,  which 

is  the  Supream  Reafon ;  fliould  be  declared  unto  Man,  as  his  Supream  Rule. 

ij    ^  .  ^      18.  And  as  Reafon  is  Effential  unto  Liaw  ;  fo  likewife  unto  all  Human 

ll-^,  eiJ/n^ -^^^UJ^^'  Laws,  common_Con(ent^I.ex,  faith  Ar'iftotle.y  Rhet.  ad  Alexandrum,  c/^ 

U4  Ui /^  ^tkAii>v  (XT '■'"^*""'^"  ^''^'^^^^^  confenfm.    and  fo  fays  every  Body  elfe :  Or,  which  is 

n-')'^'-      '        all  one,  Legem  non  obligare^  ji  a  Populo  non  acceptetur.     Becaufe  that  all 

^i^P^^i  "^^  '^^  ^^       Men  are  of  one  Species,  endowed  with  a  Reafonable  or  Confenting  Will. 

^MiJlf  9fii/)iM^t%p  •   So  that  all  Human  Laws  and  Powers,  are  but  Agreements,  fome  way  or 

other,  upon  common  confent.     W  hich  is  all  nothing  fA^t^  but  the  Pra- 

<5tick  part  of  the  Law  of  Nature.    Now  it  was  becoming  God,  not  to 

leave  any  Man,  or  Society,  wholly  to  their  own  Will,  any  more  than 

,,  to  their  own  Reafon  :  But  to  govern  them  in  fuch  a  manner,  and  by  fuch 

[j  Laws,  for  which  he  needed,  neither  to  give  them  a  Reafon,  nor  to  ask 

their  Confent. 

19.  Itmufl  alfo  highly  refledt  upon  the  Wifdom  of  God,  to  fuppofe 
h.t.  hath  made  Men  governable  in  fuch  a  way,  as  he  never  defigned  to 
ufe.  If  then  we  fee  fo  great  a  Congruity  in  all  the  parts  of  Creation  ; 
we  mufl  fiippofe  the  like  between  thofe  of  Creation  and  Providence. 
That  as  he  would  never  have  made  Lungs,  if  he  had  not  made  Air  ?  nor 
Eyes,  if  he  had  not  made  Light :  So  neither  would  he  have  made  Man, 
a  Creature  reducible  unto  all  Obedience ;  but  that  he  intended  to  prove 
and  condud  him,  by  a  Suitable  Power. 

20.  Again ;  the  moft  Refined  Wits,  in  all  Ages,  and  Countries,  have 
thought,  and  found  Religion,  that  is,  the  Real,  or  fuppofed  Declarati- 
on of  Divine  Laws,  to  be  neceflary  unto  Government,  and  to  the  Peace 
and  Welfare  of  Mankind.  Had  God  then  omitted,  by  Pofitive  Laws,  to 
give  Religion  to  the  World  :  the  Wifdom  of  his  Providence,  had  been 
impeachable  by  his  Creatures  Wit ;  as  feeing  that  needful  to  be  done, 
which  Himfelf  had  omitted  to  do. 

ai.  More- 


Chap.   VL       Of  Pofitive  Lam,  loi 

%i.  Moreover,  for  God  to  have  made  an  expreis  Declaration  of  his 
Mind,  as  aforefaid,  doth  much  ill uftrate  his  Good  Will  unto  Men.  Rea- 
fon  is  a  Rule,  whereby  the  Creature  is  indeed  obliged  to  A(5t.  But  the 
Creator,  by  the  Declaration  of  his  Laws,  doth  alfo  tranfad  and  corref- 
pond  with  his  Creatures  J  pirelerving  his  Majelly,  and  making  his  condef- 
cention  both  at  once. 

ai.  We  fee,  by  all  the  Tokens  of  Love  and  Kiridnefs,  that  God  doth 
infinitely  more  for  Men,  than  Men  do  one  for  another.  If  then  the 
Governing' Part  of  all  Nations,  have  ever  thought  it  expedient  for  the 
Good  of  the  People,  to  Explain  and  Confirm  the  Law  of  Nature,  by 
Pofitive  Laws :  We  may  much  the  rather  believe,  that  God  hath  done  it. 
But  if  withal,  there  are  many  things  appertaining  to  the  Law  of  Nature, 
wherein  the  VVilelt  of  Men,  in  our  prefent  Corrupt  Eftate,  are  at  a  lofs, 
and  need  to  be  allifted :  We  cannot  conceive  that  God,  who  has  fo 
abundantly  confider'd  our  Neceflities  in  all  other  refpedts ;  fliould,  in 
this,  be  wanting  to  us.  That  He  who  has  enricht  the  World  with  fo 
great  a  Furniture,  to  gratifie  every  Senfe,  and  to  anfwer  every  Corpo- 
real Difeafe :  Should  yet  provide  but  one  only  Remedy,  the  Law  of  Na- 
ture, to  cure  thofe  of  our  Minds. 

■2.-}^.  Sundry  Legiflators,  the  better  to  recommend  their  Laws  to  the 
People ;  have  thought  it  neceflary  to  propofe  them,  as  the  Edidls  of 
fome  Oracle.  If  then  it  be  expedient,  that  Men  ihould  think,  there  are 
certain  Laws'  in  being,  which  come  from  God :  it  is  much  more  agreea- 
ble to  his  Divine  Goodnefs  and  Majefty,  to  have  given  the  World  his 
Laws  J  than  only,  to  have  permitted  Men  to  Counterfeit  them. 

i4.  All  Men  do  admit  of  thefe  two  things ;  That  Religion  is  of  ufe  to 
the  Government  of  the  World:  And,  that  Truth,  is  preferable  unto 
Fallliood.  But  to  fay,  that  all  Religion,  or  fuppofed  Revelation,  comes 
from  Fallhood ;  is  to  affert,  either  that  God  could  not  eftablilh  Religion, 
fo  necelTary  to  the  Government  of  the  World,  by  Truth ;  or  that  he 
chofe  to  do  it  by  Falfliood.  Or,  which  is  all  one,  that  the  World  is  by 
Him  fo  conftituted  ;  as  to  be  better  governM  by  Fallhood,  than  by  Truth. 
Where  asnothing  can  be  more  contrary,  to  all  that  we  can  duly  think  of 
him,  and  to  the  I'ruth  and  Reditude  of  all  his  Works.  We  can  by 
no  means  therefore  doubt,  but  that  he  hath  given  his  Pofitive  or  Exprefs 
Laws,  both  to  this,  and  to  all  others,  Celcftial  and  Terreflrial  Worlds. 


H  M 




Sheweh ,  That  the  'B  I B  L  E,  and 
Firft,  That  the  Hebrew  Code, 
or  <)ld  Teftament,  is  Gods 
Pofitive  Law. 


CHAP     I. 
Of  the  INTEGRITT  oj  the  Hehren>  Code, 

^'  ^■^^^ll^^^i^^l^f^  Aving  fhewed,  by  how  many  and  great 
_^  ■^^^j^fel^^B^^'^  Reafons,  we  are  aflured,  That  God  hath 
^^fc^^^^^^ll^^^^j^t  given  his  Exprefs  Laws  to  the  World  : 
^^B wiili^^  ^^^^^P^^  '  ^^^'^  "°^  prove,  that  thefe  Laws  are 
BP^^^^^^J''     f-T    '  ^^^^  contained    in  the  Writings,    commonly 

■  Wf^^  i^^S^   called,  theB  IB  LE.-  beflowed  on  us  both 

■  ^^^^  L—---— i  J^^^  as  a  Comment,    and  the    Paralypomena^ 
W      '^^^^^^^^^^^^^  ^o  ^^^  L^^^'  °^  Nature.     I    fliall  prove, 

■  '^^K^^^^m^^^^^  That  thefe  Writings,    are  not  Counter- 
m      ^S^^^^^^^v^^  ^^^^^  impofed  on  us  ;  but  Authentick  and 

^^^^^^^  Entire.     And  that   the  Contents  hereof- 

are  True  and  very  Excellent,  and  worthily  entituled  to  a  Divine  O- 
riginal.  And  this,  I  hope,  with  that  Evidence,  That  no  Man  can 
have  better,  to  believe,  there  was  once  l  mofl  famous  City,  called 
Jerufakm  ;  or  that  himfelf  is  indeed,  what  he  is  called,  the  Son  of  his 
reputed  Father.  « 

2,  ril  begin  with  the  Writings  of  the  Hehnvo  Code.  And  prove 
in  the  firfl  Place,  that  they  are  Authentick  and  Entire,  And  firft  it  is 
plain,  That  the  Originals,  from  the  Beginning,  were  kept  under  the 
fafeft  and  mod  facred  Cuftody.  The  Poems  fuppofed  to  be  Homers^ 
were  collected,  either  by  Fiftjlratus^  as  fays  Yaufanias  in  his  Achaka ; 
or  by  Lycurgus,  as  Plutarch^  after  the  Interval  of  a  long  time,  from  we 
know  not  whofe  Hands  and  Keeping,  Yet  upon  the  current  Teftirhorty 
of  Antiquity,  no  body  doubts,  but  that  he  was  the  Author  of  theni., 
And  the  like  may  be  faid,  with  refped:  to  the  Authority  of  many   othe^ 

M  m  Books'; 

'^  Of  the    INI  EGRlir       B^ o k  i V. 

Books.     Whereas  the  Ten  great  Commands,  commonly  called,  the  Moral 
Law,  contained    in  the  Two  Tables  of  Stone  :  fo  foon  as  received  by 
Mofes,  were  immediately  put  into  the  Ark,  Deut.  lo.  5.  and  with  the 
Ark  preferved  i'n  the  Tabernacle    and  the  Temple,  above  800  Years, 
viz.  until  the  Temple  was  robb'd  and  burnt  by  Nehuchadnezzars  Ar- 
my.    When,  as  Polyhi/ior,  cited  by  Ei^fehus,  Pr.  Ev,  9.  39.    as  a  very 
Learned  and  Famous  Author,  and   who  gives  a  large  Account  of  the 
Jewi/h  Affairs,    faith  expredy,    '  The  Babylonians   neverthelefs    left  the 
'     Ark,    with  the  Tables  which  were  kept  in  it,   in  the  Hands  of    the 
Prophet  Jeremy.    As  being  perhaps,  from  what  tliey  had  heard    befcl 
the  Philijlm^  afraid  to  meddle  with  it.    And  the  Judicial  and  Ceremo- 
nial Laws,  contained  in  the  Five  Books   of   Mofes,  were  by  him  alfo 
written  in  a  Book :  And  this  Book  was  laid,  and  kept  by  tiie  Priefts,  in 
the  Tabernacle,  and  in  the  mofl  Holy   Place  within  tlia  Veil,    Deut. 
3I.X4,  X5,i6.    So  aptly  did yawwd'/,  Sat.  14.    (lile  this  m)ok,   Arcanum 
Folumen ;    both  with  refpedt  to  the  Matter  therein  contained,    and  as 
being  preferved  under  the  mofl  Sacred  Cuflody. 

t}.  Nor  was  the  Charge  the  Priefls  had  of  this  Book,  given  privately, 
but  in  the  Prefence  of  the  Elders  of  Ifrael^  viz.  the  70  Elders  before 
inflituted,  and  mentioned  N«w^.  11. 16,  Who,  as  Witnefles  hereof, 
had  either  another  Original,  or  a  Copy,  given  them  of  the  fame,  with 
Authority  to  compare  them  together  at  any  time,  Deut.-^i.^.  Which 
feems  to  be  the  Reafon,  of  the  H.  Priefls  employing  the  like  Number, 
for  Tranflating  it  into  the  Greek  Tongue. 

4.  Again ;  who  is  there  that  doubts,  whether  the  Book  called  Doomf- 
Jay-Book,  be  that  which  William  of  Normandy  appointed  to  be  rnade  ? 
tho'  kept,  as  we  fay,  in  bugger-mugger  for  above  600  Years.  Whereas 
this  Sacred  Book,  which  Mojes  wrote  ;  to  make  it  univerfally  known,  and 
acknowledg'd :  was  read  every  7th  Year,  in  the  Feafl  of  Tabernacles, 
both  to  the  Jews,  and  to  Strangers,  from  all  Parts  of  the  World.  Not 
fome  particular  Law,  but  the  Body  of  the  Law  :  for  the  doing  of  which, 
the  feven  Days  of  the  faid  Feafl,  were  more  than  enough.  For  which 
Caufe,  it  was  alfb  impollible,  the  Priefls  fhou'd  prefume  to  make  any  Al- 
teration herein  :  as  being  fubjed,  both  to  the  Scanning  of  the  70  Elders; 
and  the  Obfervation  of  all  that  heard  it.  And  if  God  was  pleas'd  to 
give  it  fo  great  a  Sandion,  by  punilhing  thofe  in  an  extraordinary  man- 
ner, who  brake  it  by  fome  fmgle  Adls ;  as  Nadah  and  Ahihu,  and  fome 
others:  What  mufl  they  have  expeded,  who  by  falfifying  the  fame, 
fliou'd  have  occafioned  a  General  and  Perpetual  Violation  of  it. 

f .  It  is  alfo  evident,  that  from  this  Original,  many  Copies,  and  from 
thefe,  many  more,  were  taken  through  all  lucceeding  Times.    For  firfl, 
their  Kings  were  exprefly  required  to  take  a  Copy   of  it,  £>?«/.  17, 18. 
Therefore  alfo  Jojhua,  God's  Vice-Roy,  over  this  People,  immediately 
upon  the  Death  of  Mofes,    was  commanded  to  meditate  in  it  Day  and 
Night  J  and  to  do  according  to  all  that  was  written  therein,  Jof:.  1. 1,  8. 
Which  he  cou'd  not  do,  without  a  Copy,  whereunto  upon  all  Occa- 
fions  to  have  Recourfe.    And  from  the  Reafon  of  this  Command,  the 
Succeeding  Judges,  were  all  under  the  fame  Obligation.     Nor  can  we 
think,    that    the  good   Kings,    particularly     David,    Afa,  Johojhaphaty 
Hezekiah,  Jofiab,  did  any  of  them  fail  to  do  as  they  were  required.    Or 
that  any  of  the  aforefaid  Elders,  were  w  ithout  a  Copy  for  their  private 
Ufej  befides  that  they  kept,  as  it's  mofl  likely,  among  the  Publick  Re- 

Cha  p.  J.  of  the  tiebreiv  Code.  I5<- 


cords,  for  their  Ule  in  common.    For  neither  will  any  Judge  or  Juftice 
of  Peace,  be  without  the  Laws  of  his  own  Country.    And  that  many  of 
the  Priefts  and  Levites  had  Copies  hereof,  is  molt  certain.     For  how  was 
it  pofTible  for  them,  pundually  to  perform  their  Office,  according  to  the 
Law  of  Mofei^    xChron.-^o.i6.  and  ^i.z,  5.  and  to  teach  the  People 
their  Duty,  which  was  alfo  their  Office,  Malach.i.  7,    had  they  no  Co- 
pies whereunto  to  have  recourfe,  as  their  Guide  and  Warrant  ?  We  are 
alfo  told,  z  ChroH.  14.  4.  That  Afa  commanded  Judah^  To  do  the  Law, 
and  the  Commandments.     Therefore  the  Priefts  had  every  where  Copies 
whereby  to  teach  them.     And  x  Chron.  %j.  7,  8, 9.  'tis  faid,  That  the  Five 
Princes,  Two  Priefts,  and  Nine  Levites,  which  'jehofhaphat  fent  to  teach, 
in  all  the  Cities  of  Judal^  had  the  Book  of  the   Law  of  the  Lord  with 
them  :  that  is,  a  Copy  of  that,  before  t!ie  Priefts.     And  it  is  probable, 
that  for  the  better,  and  more  fpeedy  Performance  hereof,  the  Kingdom 
was  divided,  according  to  the  Number  of  the  Princes,  into  Five  Circuits  • 
and  that  each  of  them  had  a  Copy.     And  it  feems  to  me,  that  Thefe, 
as  the  King's  Apoftles,  did  appoint  other  Priefts  and  Levites,  by  whom 
y'l/o/fj  is  faid,   Ath  15.  z^.    to  be  read   of  old   time,  upon  the  Sabbath 
Days  in  every  City.     And  thofe  of  the  Levites^  who  applied  themfelves 
to  write  thefe  Copies,  and  to  teach  the  Law ;  are  called  in  the  New  Te- 
ftamcnt,  ypx/itiJfj.Teii  -?«  No'(U,«j  ^  vojuo^i^cia:{gi?,oi.     And  'tis  very  likely 
that  they  wrote  thefe  Copies,  for  others  as  w^ell  as  themfelves ;  chiefly  for 
the  Schools  of  the  Prophets  :  and  that  every  School  had  a  Copy,  as  well 
as  every  com miilion'd  Prophet :  and  that  thofe  were  called  to  be  Prophets, 
who  had  moft  addided  themfelves  to  the  Reading  and  Obfervation   of 
the  Law  ;  both   as  a  fpecial  Means  of  their  Sandtity,  and  the  Founda- 
tion of  all  that  they  were  to  declare  to  the  People.     And  in  the  time  of 
the  Captivity,  befides  fundry  Propiiets,  Jeremiah^  Ezek/el,  Daniel^  and 
others;  there   were  great  Numbers  of  Priefts  and   Levites,  in  all  the 
Provinces  of  the  Babylonian  Empire,  Juft  iVIen,  who  would  not  be  without 
a  Copy  of  the  Law.  And  how  fentelefs  is  it  to  think,  That  the  Prophets, 
Ha^ai  and  Zechary^  and  the  Levites  with  them,  were  without  a  Copy 
upon  their  Return  to  Jerufalem,  where  they  had  fo  much  occafion  for 
it?  asm  building  the  Altar,  and  olfering  Burnt-Offerings  thereon,  and  in 
keeping  the  Fealt  of  Tabernacles,  and  in  doing  all  other  things,  as  it  u 
written  in  the  Law  of  Mofes,  which  they  mention,  Ezra  ■}.  z.  4.  as  the 
Rule  they  went  by.    Or,  to  fay,  that   Ezra  had  the    Law  only  in  his 
Head,  as  fome  Men  have  dreamed  ;  when   he  came  up  with  a  Commit- 
fion  from  Artaxexres^  To  enquire  concerning  jTw^^/^  and  Tifr^/j/ew,  accor- 
ding to  the  Law   of  God  which  was  in  his  Hand^  Ezra  7.14.     Or  when 
afterwards  under  the  Government  of  l^ehemiah^  the  People  defired  him, 
not  to  write  it,  but  forthwith  to  bring  and  read  it  to   them,  which  he 
did  accordingly,  Ezra  8.  i,  2, 3.     Or  that  the  Prophet  Malachi,    would 
have  fo  feverely  reproved  the  Priefts  and  the   People  of  the  jewSy  for 
their  manifold  Breaches  of  the   Law ;  and  exhorted  the  Religious  among 
them,  to  perfevere  in  their  due  regard  to  it,  Mai.  4.  x,  3,  4  ;  had  it  not 
been  a  Book  very  well  known  to  tiiem  all.     And   when  Antiochus,  after 
this,  became  the  Enemy  of  the  Jews,  one  principal  Command  given  to 
his  Army,  was  to  deftroy  all  the  Copies  of  their  Law,  they  could  meet 
with,  I  Mace.  i.  56.  60.  An  evident  Proof,  that  there  were  at  that  time, 
a  great  many  of  them.     And  confequently,  at  all  other  times. 

6.  Nor 

,26  Of  the  INT  EG R  ITT       B o o k  IV. 

'  ~       "  •  ■ 

6.  Nor  may  vve  doubt,  but  that  as  the  Original  Boolft  of  the  Prophets, 
and  the  reft  compriz'd  under  one  Name  of  the  Hagiographa^  were  kept 
among  tjie  Pubhck  Records  .•  So  were  they  alfo  copy'd  into  many  Hands; 
as  many  as  Uke  the  Prophet  Daniel,  9.  x.  lov'd  to  read  and  compare  them 
together.  But  'tis  likely,  there  were  not  many  who  had  compleat  Co- 
pies, till  after  the  Captivity  :  When  by  Ezra,  Ezekiel,  Daniel,  Morde- 
cai,  Zeruhhahel,  Nehemiah,  Haggai,  Zachary,  Malachi,  and  other  emi- 
nent Perfons,  moft  of  them  Contemporaries,  they  were  colledled  into 
one  Volume.  Who  being  many  of  them  Prophets,  and  forefeeing,  that 
after  themfelves,  no  more  would  be  fent ;  as  alfo  by  the  Teftimony  of 
Jofephus ,  againft  AppioK,  it  appears  there  were  not :  could  not  but 
conclude  it  neceflary,  to  fix  th^  Books  of  the  Sacred  Canon.  Which 
Books  were  the  fame,  as  were  ever  after  received  by  the  Jews,  and  the 
whole  Chriftian  Church  unto  this  Day.  As  appears,  not  only  in  the 
great  Agreement  between  the  Copies  among  the  Jews,  and  ours: 
but  alfo  by  the  Tranflations,  which  were  after  made  of  the  Hebrew 

7.  For  firft,  befides  the  moft  Ancient  Samaritan  Pentateuch,  tranflated 
not  long  after  Ezras  time  j  when  tht  Samaritans  had  built  their  Temple 
upon  Mount  Gerizim  :  Arijlohulus,  a  Peripatetick  Philofopher,  and  a 
Jew,  tells  us,  C/.  Al.  Strom.  1.  That  not  only  the  Exit  of  the  Jews^ 
from  Egypt,  but  the  whole  Law  of  Mofes,  ^  oAm  vo/xo^i'^cti  mi^Y,yy.cni,  was 
by  fome  Hand  tranfiatcd  into  Greek,  before  Alexander  s  time  :  albeit 
both  thefe  Verfions  are  now  loft. 

8.  But  in  the  Reign  o^  Ptolemem  Philadelphus,  not  much  lefs  than  300 
Years  before  our  Saviour's  time ;  aTranfl^tion  was  made  of  the  Entire 
Hebrew  Canon,  as  left  by  Ezra,  and  the  Contemporary  Prophets,  w  hich 
quickly  grew  famous  throughout  the  Eaft ;  the  true  Copies  whereof,  are 
likewiie  now  extant  all  over  the  World.     For  that  King  having  colleded 
a  great  Library ;  it  was  fuggefted  to  him  by  Demetrius  Phaleriusy    the 
Keeper  oi  it,  a  Philofopher,  and  once  Govcrnour  of  the  Athenian  Com- 
mon-wealth ;  and  by  Arijlceas,  a  Man  of  Honourable  Place  in  the  King's 
Court  :  That  among  other  Books,  there  was    none  M'ould  more  adorn 
and  enrich  the  fame,  than  a  Greek  Copy  of  the  Mofaick  Law.     And  the 
King,tolliew  how  deftrous  he  was  hereof,  fent  his  Letters  of  Requeft,by 
a  folemn  Embafly,  to  Eleazer,  then   High  Prieft  ;   with   a    Prefent  of  a 
Hundred  Thoufand  Jews,  whofe  Freedom  coft  him,    at  lo  Drachms  per 
Head,  near  660000  Talents.     Whereupon  Eleazer  choofing  jx  Grave 
and  Learned  Men,  Six  out  of  every  Tribe  ;  fent  them  with  a  Compleat 
Copy  of  the  Law  to  the  King.     Who  having  received  them  honoura- 
bly, for  their  better  Retirement  in  the  Work  they  were  to  do,  appoin- 
ted  them    the  Great  Tower    in  the    Ifle    Pharos,     near  Alexandria. 
Wherein  each  of   them  had   a  Study,  with  his   particular  Task,    to 
himfelf.     Which  when  they  had  all  finillied  and  reviewed  together ;  a 
Copy  of  the  whole,  was  publickly  read  in  the  King's  Court,  and  then 
put  into  his  Library  ;  and  the    Elders  difmift  with    Noble  Prefents  for 
themfelves  and  the  High  Prieft. 

9.  Some  Particulars  of  this  Account,  taken  chiefly  from  Arijixoiy 
have  been  doubted  of.  As  how  fix  Men  could  be  chofen  out  of  every 
Tribe,  when  ten  of  the  Tribes  were  in  Captivity  ?  Were  this  fo,  yet 
fomt  of  every  Tribe,  ftill  continued  in  their  own  Countrey.  But  that 
the  Ten  Tribes   always  remain'd    in  Captivity,    is    a  great  Miftake. 


C  H  A  p.  1.  of  the  Hebrew  Code,  '  ^-j 

For  the  return  of  thefe,  together  with  that  of  Judah^  was  predided  by 
mod  of  the  Prophets.  And  we  -are  therefore  informed  by  Ezra  i.  jo, 
that  not  only  the  Priejis  and  Levites,  who  came  along  with  him,  but 
all  Ifrael  dwelt  in  their  Cities.  And  Ch.  6.  17.  that  the  Sin-Offering, 
was  of  II  He-Goats,  according  to  the  Number  of  the  Tribes.  And  fome 
additions  which  have  been  made  to  Ariftceois  Hiftory  by  other  VVri-^ 
ters,  are  certainly  fabulous :  as  the  TranHation  of  the  whole,  by  each  of 
the  71.  Which  cannot  confift  with  the  different  Stile  and  Skill  of 
the  Tranflators,  ufed  in  the  feveral  Parts,  and  obferved  by  fome  Learn- 
ed Men  (  Jerome^  Brought  on  ^  Ujher  )  who  have  taken  pains  to  compare 
them  with  the  Hebrew  Text, 

ID.  But  we  are  not  to  be  guided  in  the  Senfe  we  have  of  that  Book, 
either  by  the  Mifreports  of  fome  Ancients,  or  the  Capriccio's  of  one  or 
two  Neoterkks.  Much  lefs  as  to  the  fubftance  of  the  Hiftor)'.  Con- 
firmed to  us,  by  the  forementioned  Arijlohulus^  Euf.  Pr,  Ev.  i-\.  in  a 
Book  of  his  to  Ptolemy  Philometor,  not  long  after  this  Bufinefs  was  tranf- 
aded.  By  Jofephus,  in  his  Book  againft  Appion.  By  Philo^  in  his  Life  ^  . 
of  Mofes.  By  Ju(iin  Martyr^  in  his  Difcourle  againft  the  Gentiles.  And 
by  the  Egyptian  Annals,  Galefin.  Comment,  de  "jz.  Interp.p.  9.  And  thofe 
alfo,  who  have  doubted  of  the  Book  entitl'd  to  Arifiaas^  have  yet  ac- 
knowleged  the  Subftance  of  it  to  be  Unqueftionable. 

II.  And  that  the  Tr  anflation  made  by  the  7  x  Elders,  took  in  the  whole 
Hebrew  Code,  is  alfo  certain ;  the  Prophets,  and  the  Hagiographa,  as  is 
obferved,  being  ordinarily,  by  the  Rabbis,  comprehended  under  the  Ti- 
tle of  the  Law.  And  is  that  which  Juftin  Martyr,  and  Clemens  Alexandria 
vus,  both  affirm.  And  l\\OM^V*Ierome,  as  Bifhop  Walton  notes,  feems 
once  to  doubt  of  it ;  yet  in  fundry  places,  as  contra  Ruffinum,  z.  and 
Epift.  ad  Suniam  &  Fritelam,  he  plainly  owns  it.  But  the  truth  hereof 
is  evidenced,  by  nothing  more,  than  the  many  Copies,  which  Arijlaas 
and  Jofephus  both  tell  us,  Demetrius  permitted  the  Alexandrian  Jews,  to 
take  from  the  Original.  Which  by  Secundary  Copies,  became  fo  nu- 
merous every  where ;  that  they  were  not  only  privately  ufed  by  the  Jews^ 
who  then  generally  underftood  Greek  very  well ;  but  in  Egypt,  where 
the  Jeiw  that  ufed  them,  were  therefore  called //f//i?«(/?J ;  and  all  over 
Greece,  and  Ajia,  and  even  in  Jerufakm,  were  publickly  read  in  their 
Synagogues,  for  above  loo  years  before  our  Saviour's  Time ;  as  Jofe- 
phus, Philo,  xhtTalmud,  and  many  of  the  firll  Chriftian  Writers,  do  all 

1%.  And  that  the  Copies  we  now  have,  are  the  fame  with  the  moft 
antient,  is  as  certain.  For  firft  it  is  affirmed  by  Juflin  Martyr,  cont. 
Gent.hy  Tertullian,  Apol.  ch.  18.  and  by  Chryfoftom,  Or  at.  cont.  Judaiz.ThiA 
the  Original  it  felf  was  preferved  in  the  Serapeum  in  their  Times.  And 
v^  hat  they  fay,  is  credible,  both  in  it  felf,  and  from  their  Teftimony. 
For  it  might  be  eafily  refcued,  with  fome  other  Books  of  Value,  when 
in  Julius  Cafar's  Time,  Ptolemy's  Library,  wherein  it  lay,  was  burnt. 
And  though  the  Temple  of  Serapis,  the  place  o(  Cleopatra's  Library,  built 
after  the  Deftrudion  of  Ptolemey's,  and  wherein  the  faid  Original  is  fup- 
pofed  to  have  been  put,  in  the  Second  year  of  Commodm  was  alfo  burnt : 
Yet  not  the  whole  Strudure;  as  is  manifcfl:  from  the  fame  Place  'm  Ter- 
tullian.  And  Amm.  Marcellinus,  mentions  both  the  Temple  and  Library 
therein,  as  famous  in  his  time.  And  though  by  the  Command  of  Theo- 
dofius.  This,  and  the  reft  of  the  Idolatrous  Temples  in  £gy/>^,  were  deftroy* 

N  n  cd; 

38  Of  the   INTEGRITT      Book  IV. 

ed ,'  yet  this  was  not  done,  till  the  Year  of  Chrifl:  389  :  Whereas  Chry- 
fqftom  fpake  the  faid  Oration,  as  Bifliop  UJher  oblerves,  Synt.Ch.  ^.  be- 
fore the  Year  -^^6.  If  then  the  Original  it  felf  was  extant  for  fo  long  a 
time,  it  was  eafie  to  compare  the  Copies  with  it,  and  morally  impolfible 
but  that  the  Curiofity  or  Religious  Care  of  many,  {hould  make  them 
to  do  it.  And  whether  it  furvived  the  Ptolemean  Library,  or  no ;  there 
was  Time  and  Opportunity  enough  in  the  fpace  of  zoo  Years,  for  the 
like  Comparifon  to  have  been  made  made  before  it  was  burnt.  And  that 
there  were  Copies  both  of  this  Tranflation,  and  of  the  Hebrew  Code,  in 
the  Library  of  Cleopatra^  is  acknowledg'd  by  all. 

1:5.  The  next  Step  in  proof,  that  the  Copies  we  have  of  this  Tranfla- 
tion, are  True  ;  are  the  feveral  Editions  wiiich  have  been  made  of  it ; 
and  firft,  thofe  of  Origen.  Who  having  got  the  Greek  Verfions  of  A- 
quila,  Symmachus,  and  Theodofion^  three  Judaizing  Apoftates,  and  that  of 
the  Septuagint :  the  better  to  fliew  the  difference  between  them,  placed 
them  together  in  four  Columns ;  which  Work  he  called  Tetrapla.  Then 
having  learned  the  Hebrew  Tongue,  and  procured  a  Copy  of  the  He- 
brew Code,  he  added  two  more  Columns ;  in  one,  the  Hebrew  Text  and 
Letters  j  in  the  other,  the  fame  Text,  in  Greek  Letters :  and  this  he  cal- 
led Hexapla.  After  this,  meeting  with  two  more  Greek  Verfions  from 
the  Hebrew,  and  adding  them  to  the  refl,  in  eight  Columns,  they  were 
called  Oclopla.  Which  Work  was  fo  highly  efteemed ,  and  publickly 
known,  as  Jerome  tellifies,  Praf.  in  Ifaiam^  Ut  omnes  Bibliothecas  impleve- 
rat^  ^  'vulgatumfit  diiium.  Laflly,  he  alfo  publilhed  the  Tranflation  of 
the  Septuagint  by  it  felf :  Having  firfl:  compared  it  with  the  Hebrew,  and 
noted  by  Allerisks  what  was  detedive,  ^nd  by  Obelisks,  what  redun- 
dant therein.  Copies  whereof  being  eafdy  had,  were  kept  in  all,  both 
Publick  and  Private  Libraries. 

14.  With  the  afliftanceof  Origens  Hexapla^  a  Copy  whereof  was  kept 
in  the  Library  at  Cafarea ;  EufeliuSy  Bilhop  of  that  City,  put  forth  a 
Corredt  Edition  of  that  of  Origen^  laft  mentioned  :  many  Errata^  by  the 
Omillion,  or  Miftake  of  Origens  Notes,  having  crept  into  the  Copies  ta- 
ken of  it.  Next  to  whom,  firil  Lucian^  a  Presbyter  of  Alexattdria^ 
and  then  Hefychius^  Bifliop  of  Egypt^  made  two  other  Editions,  with  the 
afiiftancc  of  the  fame  Hexapla^  as  Jerome^  Epifl.  ad  Sun.  ^  Frit,  affirms. 
And  the  Tranflation  of  the  yx,  anciently  extant  in  the  fame  Hexapla, 
has  always  been,  and  is  now  publickly  read  in  the  Greek  Church,  which 
never  had  any  other,  as  Bifliop  Walton  and  others  obferve.  And  that  We 
alfo,  and  all  the  Weilern  Churches  have  the  lame,  plainly  appears,  in  that 
rhilo,  Jofephus,  Origen,  Amhrofe^  Augufline^  Chryfoftome,  and  other  ancient 
Jews  and  Chrillians,  cite  the  Old  Teftament  Scriptures,  according  to  the 
beft  Greek  Editions  now  extant,  viz.  the  Roman,  and  that  of  [the  Alex- 
a«</rw«Maoufcript ;  as  we  arealTuredby  thofe,  who  have  taken  pains  to 
compare  them  together. 

15,  And  that  which  yet  further  fliews  the  Legitimacy  of  the  faid  E- 
ditions,  is  the  great  Antiquity  of  the  Manufcnpts  hereof  now  extant. 
The  Roman,  we  have  from  the  Vatican  Manufcript  ,  the  Venetian,  and  a 
Third,  brought  from  yv/d^«4  Gr^c/d.  The  firft  whereof ,  being  written 
in    Capital   Letters,  witliout  Chapters,  Verfes,   or  any  Diflindtion    or 

"  Diflance  of  the  Words;  without  Accents  or  Afpirations ;  all  Marks  of 
the  greateft  Antiquity ;  is  judged  to  be  written,  near  1400  Years  fmce,  be- 
fore Jerome's  time.    And  between  this,  and  that  from  fliagna  Grcecia^  there 


Chap,  I.        of  the  Hebrem  Code,  159 

is  a  great  Confent.  The  latter  of  the  two  forefaid  Editions,  we  have 
from  a  Manufcript  prefented  to  King  Charles  the  Firft,  by  CyriU^  late 
Patriarch  of  Alexandria.  Who  faith,  it  was  the  Tradition  in  Egyfft^ 
that  it  was  writtenipbout  1300,  now  near  1400  Years  pad,  a  little  af- 
ter the  Council  of  t^ke.  'Tis  written  in  Parchment,  in  the  Ancient 
Capital  Letters,  without  Chapters,  Verfes,  or  Diftindion  of  Words, 
ji  without  Accents  or  Afpirations,  a  is  frequently  put  for  g,  and  the  con- 
trary ;  i  for  «,  fju  for  v,  and  the  like ;  not  by  miftake  of  the  Scribe, 
but  throughout  the  Volume  :  all  Signs  of  equal,  if  not  greater  Antiqui- 
ty, than  that  of  the  Vaticaiv  And  between  thefe  two  Codes,  the  A- 
lexandrian  and  the  Vatican,  there  is  a  great  Accord.  There  is  alfo  a 
Greek  Verfion  of  the  Book  of  Gfwi?/^  in  the  Co//(?»/d»  Library,  very  a-' 
greeable  to  the  former  ;  and  is  fuppofed  to  be  more  ancient  than 
either  of  them.  The  Antiquity  of  all  which,  and  of  fundry  other 
Manufcripts  now  in  being,  fliews  that  they  were  copied  from  fome  one  of 
Origens  Editions,  or  of  the  others  aforefaid,  grounded  thereupon,  tmd 
at  that  time  every  where  known  qnd  difperled. 

16.  Next  to  the  Greek  Verfion  of  the  jx,  fdllowed  the  Targumm^  or 
two  famous  Paraphrafes,  upon  two  feveral  Parts  of  tlie  Old  Tefla- 
ment,  in  the  Chaldean  Tongue,  a  Dialed  of  the  Hebrew.  The  Tar- 
gum  upon  the  Law,  by  Onkelos ;  the  other  upon  the  Prophets,  by  Jo- 
nathan, Scholar  to  Hillel^  Redor  of  the  Univerfity  at  Jerufalem,  and 
Contemporary  with  Onkelos ;  as  both»of  them  were  with  Gamaleel ,  St. 
Paul's  Mafter.  Befides  which,  there  were  others,  upon  the  reft  of  the 
Hagiographa  '-,  except  Ezra._  Daniel^  and  the  Chronicles,  which  needed 
them  not,  a.s  Schickard  notes.  Which  Paraphrafes,  the  two  fk{[  efpe- 
cially,  do  ftrongly  prove  the  Integrity  of  the  Hebrew  Text,  which 
they  are  obferved  to  follow  with  great  Exadnels.  Shewing,  tliat  the 
Differences  now  feen  between  the  Septuagint  and  the  Hebrew  ;  proceeds 
not  from  Erratas  crept  into  the  Hebrew,  wherewith  the  (aid  Para- 
phrafes every  wliere  agree,  and  wherewith  they  equally  dirler  from  the 

17.  Soon  dfter  thefe,  in,  or  near  the  Time  of  the  Apoftles,  the  Hebrew 
Bible  was  alfo  tranflated  into  the  Syriac  Tongue,  another  Dialed:  of  the 
Hebrew.  This  is  Ihewed,  by  Learned  Men  of  later  time ,  Wid- 
manfiadius,  Tremellms^  Troflius,  Gefner.  Teftified  by  Ephraim  Sy-  ■ 
rus,  and  before  him,  by  James  Syrus,  Contemporary  with  the  Nicene 
Council,  both  of  them  Syriac  Commentators  upon  the  Bible,  as  Greg„ 
Nijfen,  and  Zozomen  in  his  Hifi.  j.  15.  report,  and  who  both  mention  this 
Tranflation  as  very  ancient.  And  the  fame  is  obferved  to  be  often  cited 
by  the  Greek  Scholiall  upon  the  Pentateuch,  and  by  Chryfojlome,  Theo- 
doretyznd  other  ancient  Authors.  And  by  Dr.  ^Pocock,  HiJl.Arab.  p.  184. 

is  clearly  diftinguiilied  from  the  Syriac  Verfion,  which  was  made 
afterwards  from  the  Greek.  And  was  difperfed,  and  publickly  read,  in 
the  moft  ancient  Churches  in  Syria,  Mefopotamia,  Chaldaa,  Egypt,  and 
all  over  the  Eart.  And  of  this  Syriac  Tranflation  made  from  the 
Hebrew,  Billiop  IValton  affirms,  that  there  are  divers  Manufcript  Copies 
now  preferved. 

18.  Befides  thefe,  there  were  other  ancient  Verfions.  As  the  Samari- 
tan Pentateuch,  taken  from  the  Septuagint.  Frequently  cited  by  Jerome^ 
and  other  Writers  of  the  fame  lime  ;  and  publickly  read  by  the  Sa- 
maritans in  Sichem,  Damafcus,  and  other  adjacent  Places  at  this  very  day. 


140  of  the  INTE GRIT T      Boo  k  IV. 

The  Mafiufcript  Copies  whereof,  procured  by  Morinus^  Bilhop  UJher^ 
and  others ;  agree  in  every  thing  of  Moment,  both  with  the  Greek  and 
Hebrew  Texts.  And  the  Particulars,  wherein  this  Verfion  is  noted  by 
the  Ancients,  to  differ  from  the  Hebrew,  are  the  fanie  in  the  Copies  we 
now  poflefs.  There  is  Hke wile  the  ^thiopick  Verfion,  taken  from  the 
Syriac,  about  the  time  of  the  Apoftles,  SabeO.  Suppl.  H'tft.  Lib.  8. 
and  now  in  ufe.    And  that  called  the  Vulgar  Latin ;    confifting  partly, •/■ 

*<  ^t-t-ff*^  ^X^<«^  ^^  '^^^''  ^^^^"^  ''^y  1^^°^^  Ixovci  the  Hebrew  ;    and  partly,    of  a  former, 
1  7  1     J        '^y  called  the   Italian^  taken  from  the  Septuagint,  and  by  Flaminius  Noh'd'i- 
tc^  A*  ffi-^Ci^'^   us^  raifed  from  the  Dead,  out  of  the  Writiugs  of  the  Ancient  Dodors. 
i^X^A^  {(Th/i~         The  Agreement  of  all  which  Tranflations  aforefaid,  both  one  with  ano- 
•"^ ther,  and .  with  the  Hebrew  Code ;  may  fuffice  to  latisfie  us  of  the  In- 
tegrity hereof.    That  is  to  fay,  that  the  Sacred  Canon,  which  Ezra  and 
the  Prophets,  his  Contemporaries,  left  to  the  Jeivs^  was  the  fame  with  that 
we  now  enjoy. 

19.  This  will  further  appear,  if  we  confider  the  Guard  vihich  hath 
been  put  upon  the  Original  Text,  by  the  Mafora.  A  certain  Critka  Sa- 
cra^  wherein  are  delivered,  the  Varieties  of  Writing  and  Reading, 
throughout  the  Old  Teftament.  Not  performed  by  any  one  Author, 
but  the  fuccelTive  Labours  of  many,  and  continued  for  fome  Hundreds 
of  Years.  Probably  begun  about  the  time  of  the  Maccabees.  Certain- 
ly, before  the  Jerufalem  Talmud,  a  Hebrew  Comment  on  the  Law ; 
which  is  obferved  to  mention  fome  of  the  Maforetick  Notes,  and  was 
firft  publiflied,  as  faith  Calvifius^  in  the  Year  of  our  Lord,  396. 

lo.  In  this  Work  is  noted  the  Number  of  Verfes  in  every  greater  Se- 
<3;ion  ;  and  the  middle  Verfe  of  every  Book.  Lead  anyone,  through 
Knavery  or  Negledt,  fliould  take  from,  or  add  any  to  them.  As  aUb, 
how  often  Words  of  fliort  or  full  Writing,  are  diverfly  written,  and 
where.  How  often,  and  in  what  Place,  and  Form ,  every  Word  is 
found.  How  often  the  Particles  Eth  and  Vah^  come  together,  fo  as  to 
deceive  a  Copier,  without  a  1  able  of  Diredion  :  that  lb  the  Reading 
might  be  preferved  every  where  Uncorrupt.  They  note  even  the  Num- 
ber of  Letters,  both  in  the  whole,  and  in  every  Book.  Which  are  the 
middle  Letters,  and  which  terminate  the  Fourth  Part.  How  often  each 
Letter  of  the  Alphabet  is  found,  and  how  often  thofe  which  are  called 
Finales.  How  many,  befides  the  ufual  Manner  of  Writing  them,  are  found 
greater,  and  how  many  lefs,  or  changed  one  for  another.  A  very  anci- 
ent Work,  fays  Montanus^  as  is  telti.fied  by  Jofephus ,  againft  Appion. 
Which  Punctualities,  though  fome  of  them  did  not  fo  much  conduce  to 
preferve  the  Text ;  yet  all  of  them  fliow,  The  Infinite  Care  which  was  ta- 
ken, that  there  might  be  no  Millake,  if  it  were  polhble,  fo  much  as  in  a, 
fingle  Letter. 

XI.  To  thele  Notes,  were  added  thofe  of  the  Poll- Talmud ick  Rabbis, 
in  the  famous  School  at  Tiberias^  mentioned  by  Epiphanius^  'Jerome^  and 
other  Chrillian  Writers.  Thefe  were  the  Authors  of  the  Various  Rea- 
dings, called  Keri^  and  Ketib  .-  the  former  fignifying,  Read  j  the  latter. 
Written.  Noting,  when  a  Word  which  was  written  one  way  in  the 
Text,  was  to  be  read,  as  in  the  Margin,  otherwife  :  When,  to  be  read, 
tho'  not  written  3  or  when  written,  tho'  not  to  be  read  :  Where  thofe 
are  joined,  which  fliould  be  feparated,  and  other  Remarks  :  Of  all  which 
Capellus^  in  his  Crit.  Diff]  ;.  gives  an  Account.  Which  very  much  ferve 
to  preferve  the  True  Reading.  ^ 

11.  The 

Chap.  1.         *ofthe  Hebrew  Code.  ^  ia\ 

%z.  The  laft  part  of  their  Labour,  that  is,  the  laft  begun,  was  the 
Hebrew  Pundarion.     Of  this,  neither  in  the  Caldee  Paraphrafts,   nor  in 
Jerome,  nor  other  more  ancient  Chriftian  Doctors,  is  there  any  menti- 
on.    Nor  in  either  of  the  two  Parts  of  the  Talmud,  the  Mifchna^  or  the 
Gamara.     And  is  therefore,  by  the  befl  skilled  in  Hebrew  Learning,  judi- 
cioufly  afcribed  to  the  Rabbi's  of  Tiberias  aforefaid  :  by  them  invented 
about  500  or  600  Years  after  Chrifl:,  and  by  Gabriel  Syo^ita  firll  put  in 
Practice,  the  better  to  fecure  the  true  Reading.     At  firft,  in  the  great 
Mafora,  the  Vowels  were  only  two,  Chamets  and  Tfere- :  under  the  for- 
mer whereof,  was   contained    Patach,    and    Segol    under    the     latter. 
But  the  later  Rabbis,  who  collected  the  Lefler  Mafora  out  of  the  Grea- 
•tcr,  for  more  certainty,  added  and  diftinguifhed  by  Name,  fundry  other 
Notes  of  this  kind  ;  Buxt.Tib.i.  13,     Not  pro  arbitrio,  but  according 
to  the  true  Reading,  fucceiiively  delivered  by  many  Learned  Hebrews  in 
every   Age,  to  their  own   time.     And  have  therefore,   been  of   that 
great  Ufe  to.  following  Ages,  as  to  be  imitated  by  the  Arabians,  Syrians^ 
Terfians,  and  other  Orientals.     So  that  we  have  as  great  Aflurance  of  the 
Integrity  of  the  Sacred  Text,  by  the  joint  Help  of  all  the  aforefaid  Means, 
as  we  can  defire.  '  * 

x3.  'Tis  true,  that  fome  few  Pafiages  have  been  inferted  into  the  Ori- 
ginal. 1\\t  Mafora  nox.t%,  that  thofe  two  Verfes,  Jojh.  2.1.  36,37.  are 
wanting  in  all  the  mod  ancient  Copies.  Which,  and  lome  other  Pat- 
fages,  might  be  added,  either  by  Ezra  and  the  Prophets,  his  Contempo- 
raries, or  by  Malachi  alone,  furviving  all  the  reft.  There  are  alfo  cer- 
tain Alterations  by  the  Rabbi's,  called  Tukkun  Sopherir/i,  or  the  Corre- 
dions  of  the  Scribes,  viz.  Ezra,  and  the  Prophets  aforefaid  :  in  which  the 
mod  ancient  Reading,  is  altered  in  the  Text  it  felf.  So  Gen.  18.  I2. 
In  the  moft  Ancient  Copies,  it  was  read,  The  Lord  fiood  yet  before  Abra- 
ham :  For  which,  fays  the  Mafora,  the  Scfibes  have  written.  But  hhr^.- 
hzm  flood  yet  before  the  Lord :  and  fo  it  is  now  read  irt  all  the  Hebrew 
Copies,  and  in  all  Tranflations.  And  they  count  in  all,  about  16  of  the 
like  kind. 

24.  Nor  is  it  to  be  denied,  but  that  fome  few  Alteratiofis,  not  as  Cor- 
rections ;  but  Errata,  have  flipt  into  the  Hebrew  Text,  As  appears,  by 
the  Difference  between  the  Maforetick  Notes  ,•  both  thofe  of  the  firft  Ea- 
ftern  and  Weftern  Rabbi's,  that  is,  of  Babylonia  and  Taleftine ;  relating 
unto  Words  and  Letters ;  and  thofe  of  Ben  Afcher  and  Ben  Maphtali  after- 
ward, relating  unto  fome  certain  Points  and  Accents.  By  fome  at 
leaft,  feeming  Inconfiftences ;  as  in  z  Kings  iz.  8.  compared  with  xChron. 
zz.  %.  concerning  the  Age  of  Ahaziah  the  Son  of  Joram.  And  by  Tome 
Omilfions :  there  being  no  certain  Catalogue  of  the  Perfons  fucceeding 
Zadoc  to  the  Captivity.  For  in  that  Catalogue,  i  Chron.6.  which  is  the 
perfedeft,  Urias,  mentioned  for  one  in  the  Book  of  King^s  and  the  Chrff- 
nicles,  when  Abaz  was  King  of  Judah,  is  omitted.  Which,  and  fome 
few  alike,  rauft  needs  be  the  £rr<?f^  of  Tranfcribers.  And  although  the 
various  Readings  in  the  Margin,  are  numerous,  counted  by  BroHghton^ 
Epifl.  to  the  Parliament,  to  be  848  :  yet  thofe  in  the  Text,  are  fo  very 
few,  that  Mont  anus,  (Comment,  de  Var.  Le£i.  makes  this  Remark  5  That 
whereas  in  the  Copies  of  all  forts  of  Greek  and  Latin  Authors,  efpecially 
Manufcripts,  there  are  many  Particulars  wherein  they  differ  one  from  ano- 
ther :  between  all  the  Hebrew  Copies  now  known,  whether  written  with 
Points,  or  without,  there  is  a  moil  exad  Conformity.     Which  fliews, 

O  o  that 

Of  the    iNi  EGKlir       Book  iV. 

that  though,  as  fome  have  obferved,  there  are  fome  various  Readings 
in  the  Text  it  felf ;  yet  they  are  very  few :  And  it  is  agreed  by  ali,  that 
thefe  few,  relating  rather  to  the  Orthography,  than  the  Senfe  of  the 
Words,  are  of  no  moment  to  be  regarded. 

.  z5.  And  it  is  impofiible  that  there   fliould  be  many,  or  thofe   mate- 
rial,  if  we  farther  confidcr  ;  Firft,  that  before  the  Invention  of  Points, 
as  the  Aralians  and  Samaritafis^.folikGw'iCethe  Helrews,  did  ufe   three 
of  their  Letters,  called  Matres  Lecfionis,  viz.  Jkphy  Vau,  and  Jod,  inftead 
of  Vowels  :  To  which,  Jerome  adds  two  more.   He  and   Aji».    With 
the  Help  whereof,  they  were  able  perfed:ly  to  read  their  Bibles,  without 
any  Points;  and  fo  continue  to  do  in  their  Synagogues  to  this  Day:  As 
alfo  do  the  Samaritans  and  the  Mahometans^  their  own  Books,  Seal,  ad' 
Buxt.  Sen.  Bpifl.  z45.  Nor  therefore  can  it  be  thought,  that  in  any  Age, 
before  the  Ufe  of  Points,  there  wanted  thole,  who  with  the   Help  of  the 
Vocal  Confonants ,  were  perfectly  skilled  in  the  true   Reading.     But 
when  the  Rabbi's  faw  Learning  like  to  decay  among  them,    and  their 
Language  more  in  danger  of  Corruption,  as  they  were  mixed  and  Mat- 
tered more    and  more  among    other    Nations  ;   the  Pundiatioii   was 
then  thought  of,   as  neceflary  for  the  better  Security  of  the  Text. 
""     1 6.  Nor  can  it  be  thought,  that  they  would  or  could  corrupt  the  Text, 
cut  of  Malice  againft  the  Chriftian  Religion,  as  fome  have  vainly  fuf- 
peded.    Not  when  they  had  the  Bible  in  'their  own  Hands,   before 
Chrift.    For  the  Jews^   and  all  the  Orientals,  took  all  thofe    Prophecies 
relating  to  the  Mediah,  and  State  of  the  Chriftian  Church,  that  is,  the 
Kingdom  of  Chrift,  in  a  Literal  Senfe ;  with  Expedlation  of  a  Worldly 
Kingdom,  whereof  Jerufalem  fliould  be  the  Head.    How  then  could  they 
mincioufly  corrupt  their  Bibles,  againfl  Chrifl's  Spiritual  Kingdom,  and 
the  Chriftian  Religion,  which  they  dreamed  not  of?   Not  could  either 
the  Jews^  or  the  Chriftians,  do  it  after  Chrift,  when  the  Copies  were 
difperfed  all  over  the  World,  and  it  was  become  impoffible,  for  all  of 
either  Religion,  to  agree  herein ;  and  both  of  them  were  jealous  Guards 
upon  each  other.     And   though  ^j-a//^/,  and    the  other  two   Apoftates, 
played  Tricks  ;  yet  was  it  only  in  their  own  Verfions  :  Nor  were  thefe, 
ever  received  in  the  Church. 

xy.  Neither  wanted  rhe  Jewifli  Scribes,  in  any  Age  after  Mofes^    that 
Reverend  Regard  to  their  Law,  which  both  its  facred  Cuftody,  and  the 
exprefs  Command,  Deut.  4.  ^.  not  to  add  nor  diminifti  any  thing  therein, 
were  intended  to  beget  in  them,  fo  as  to  make  them  moft  fmcere  and 
careful  in  writing  the  lame.     And  Arijlaas  tells  us,  that  when  the  Tran- 
flation  of  the  71  Elders,  waspublickly  read  before  Ptolemy^  with  the  Prin- 
ces and  EmbalTadors  then  prefent,  and  the  Multitude  of  the  Jews ;  Impre- 
cations and  Maledidions  were  made,   according  to  the  Cuftom  of  the 
Jews,  againft  thofe,  who  fliould  prefame  to  add  or  alter  any  thing  there- 
in.    How  much  more  ought  we  to  believe,  that  they   always  had  the 
like  regard  to  their  own  more  Sacred  Text  ?  So  as  not  at  all  to  doubt  the 
Veracity  of  Philo,  in  what  he  affirms,  in  his  defence  of  them,  Euf.  Pr.  Ev. 
8. 6.  That  they  had  never  altered  one  Word  therein.     Nor  what  the  fame 
Author  in  the  fame  Place,  and  Jofephns  cont.  Appi.l.\.  do  both  teftifie. 
That  the  y^w'-y  would  rather  fufFer  all  manner  of  Torments,  than  confent 
to  alter  one  Tittle  of  it.    So  that  we  have  all  the  Afliirance  of  the  Inte- 
grity hereof,  we  can  defire.    That  is  to  fay,    that  the  Sacred  Canon, 
which  Ezra  and  the  Peophets,  his  Contemporaries,  left  to  tiie  Jews., 



Chap.  I.  oftheHehrervCode.  t  ij.o 

was  the  fame  with  that  we  now  enjoy :    which  is  what   I  undertook  to 

x8.  Nor  are  thofe  few  and  lefler  Errata  found  therein,  inconfulent 
with  its  being  of  a  Divine  Original.  For  we  are  to  look  upon  it  as 
Divine,  only  fo  far  forth,  as  the  Contents  hereof  were  given  by  God^ 
or  tranfad:ed,  in  fome  extraordinary  way.  But  as  it  was  v/ritten,  and 
hath  been  copied,  it  is,  and  muft  be  called  Humane.  So  that  inftead 
of  any  ground  we  have,  to  expedt  the  Copies  of  a  Divine  Book,  ^Ax\\- 
ovit  Errata:  it's  a  great  Wonder,  there  are  no  more  in  it,  than  thofe  we 
find.  And  argues,  that  the  great  Sandtity  hereof,  and  the  profound  Re- 
gard Men  have  had  for  it,  from  the  Beginning  ;  has  been  the  Caufe  of 
it :  and  that  the  Copiers  of  this  Book,  had  they  been  employed  in  co- 
pying any  other,  would  have  made  Errata  infinite  more. 

^9.  To  look  for  Copies  without  Errata,  is  to  exped,  that  God  fliould 
make  unerring  Scribes,  by  a  continual  Miracle.  And  why  Ihould  he  do 
th.s  to  keep  Men  free  from  Error,  any  more  than  from  Sin  .•*  Since  no  Sin 
can  be  committed,  without  a  Breach  of  the  Divine  Law  :  Whereas 
fome  Literal  or  other  Leller  Faults,  may  be  made  without  the  Corrup- 
tion of  it.  Why  did  God  give  Men  Reafon  and  Virtue,  but  to  ufe 
them  ?  and  wherein  can  they  do  it  better,  than  in  taking  care  of  this 
Book  ?  As  if  they  were  to  be  Men,  in  all  other  Undertakings,  and  meer 
Animals  in  this. 

■\o.  God  may  as  well  permit  Errata  \n  the  Bible,  as  in  Nature:  he  is 
as  much  the  Author  of  the  one,  as  of  the  other.  Is  it  then  impo.Tible  to 
dillinguifli  the  Divinenefs  of  this  Book,  from  that  which  is  Flumane  ? 
Is  the  Defign  or  Model  of  a  good  Piece  of  Architedure  to  be  under- 
valued, becaufe  in  the  Work,  there  is  a  Brick  or  two  broken  by  the 
Workmen,  or  mifplaced  ?  If  God,  for  fundry  Reafons,  hath  made  Na- 
ture capable  of  producing  now  and  then  a  Moniler,  or  of  making 
fome  other  Default  j  iliall  we  difown  the  Divine  Strokes  apparent  in  every 
Beauty  .•=  yea,  in  every  welUlhaped  Animal  ?  Shall  we  deny  the  Glory  of 
the  Sun,  or  from  whofe  Hands  it  came,  becaufe  of  its  Spots  ? 

^^i.  We  are  then  to  conclude,  that  the  Divine  Majelfy  hath  permitted 
fome  lefler  Errata  in  this  Book,  to  give  the  greater  Occafion  unto  Hu- 
mane Induftry.  To  invite  Men  to  Itudy  it  more  throughly,  and  to  com- 
pare the  Contents  hereof,  with  Times  and  Things  more  exadtly.  To 
prove  humble  Minds,  who  look  not  fo  much  at  the  lefier  Faults,  in  this 
Book;  as  at  the  greater,  it  difcovers  in  themlelves.  And  to  (hew  the 
Pride  of  thofe,  who  are  ready  Obfervers  of  any  thing  herein,  which  may 
tempt  them  unto  Evil ;  but  of  nothing  which  tends  to  make  them  better. 
And  if,  with  the  Permiflion  of  fome  leifer  Faults,  h&  hath  fo  difpofed  of 
Humane  Means,  as  to  prevent  any  that  are  dangq^Qus :  We  are  not  to 
wonder,  if  he  thinks  not  fit,  to  make  any  perfeit  and  unerring  Scribes. 
That  is,  if  he  thinks  not  hirafelf  obliged,  to  remove  the  Cavils  of  fome 
Men,  by  altering  the  State  of  Humane  Nature. 



144  Book  IV. 

c  H  A  P.  n. 

Of  thetRVTH  and  EXCELLENCT  of 

the  Hebrew  Code      Andfirfi,  as  they  afpar  from 

i.T  Have  made  it  evident,  That  the  Copies  we  now  have,  of  the  He- 
X  brew  Code,  are  True  Copies.  But  a  True  Copy,  may  contain 
thofe  things,  which  are  Falfe  ;  may  pretend  to  be  a  Hillory,  and  be  a 
Fable.  I  ihall  therefore  prove  in  the  next  place,  that  the  Writers  of  this 
Book,  have  delivered  to  us  the  Contents  hereof  with  the  greateft  Since- 
rity and  Truth.  And  that  thefe  Contents  withal,  are  very  Excellent,  and 
worthily  referred  to  a  Divine  Original. 

z.  For  the  clearing  of  this,  I  Ihall  begin  with  Foreign  Proof,  viz.  The 
Agreement  of  Profane,  whether  Jewifh  or  Ethnick,  with  the  Sacred 
Writings :  and  the  high  Eftimation,  which  the  VVifeft  of  other  Na- 
tions, whether  Hiftorians  or  Poets,  Philofophers  or  Legiflators,  have  ever 
had  of  them. 

J.  Jofephus^  who  purpofely  wrote  the  Story  of  his  own  Nation,  doth 
in  Sybllance  througout  agree  with  them.  And  in  regard  the  Fidelity  of  his 
Accoant,  lb  far  as  relating  to  the  Roman  State,  was  attefled,  as  himfelf 
faith,  both  by  Titus  and  Agrippa^  under  their  own  Hands :  we  have  no 
Caufe,  but  to  believe,  that  he  hath  all  along  ufed  the  like  Sincerity  with 
relped  to  the  Jewifli.  And  many  Particulars,  mentioned  in  the  Bible, 
both  of  the  'jews  and  of  their  Anceftors,  and  of  the  World  from  the 
Beginning  ;  have  been  reported  for  certain  Truths,  or  imitated  by  the 
Hillorians  of  other  Nations :  as  by  Sanchuniathon  the  Vhccntcian^  about 
the  time  of  Sampfap  ;  Manethon  the  Egyptian,  fometime  before  Aa- 
tiochiis  Epiphanes ;  Berofus  the  Bahylonian ;  Herodotus^  Eupolemus^  and 
Tolyhijior^  all  Greeks ;  Cajior  and  Thallus,  alfo  Greeks,  who  wrote  the  Af- 
fairs of  Syria ;  Hellanicus  and  Philochoru^^  who  wrote  thofe  of  Attica^ 
and  Herennius,  Philoti,  and  Hecateusthe  Alderite,  about  the  time  of  A^ 
lexander^  who  wrote  each  of  them  an  entire  Treatife  of  the  'jevcs  alone  : 
with  many  more,  whofe  Works  were  kndwn,  both  to  Jofephus,  and  al- 
fo to  AfricamSy  Origen,  Tattan,  Eufehius,  and  to  fome,  later  than  thefe  : 
who  fpeak  of  them,  as  oi  /ut.oixiq-ci.  S'iaffcvSs,  Men  famous  in  their  own 
Age  and  Countrey,V>|^rom  thefe  I  flialltake  my  Proof. 

4.  Mnfes  faith,  ^^4fH^  r  •  That  in  the  Beginning,  God  created  the  Heaven 
and  the  Earth  '^  an^he  Earth  was  without  form,  and  void,  and  Darknefs 
was  upon  the  face  oj  the  Deep,  and  the  Spirit  of  God  moved  upon  th^  face  of 
theWaterS'  Andthe  Phanician  Theology,  faith  Sanchumiathon,  fuppo- 
feth,  r  -^j  oXm  oi^-)^Ljj,  &c.  That  the  Principles  of  tiie  Univerfe,  were  a 
Dark  Aer,  filled  with  Spirit,  and  a  Deep,  and  confufed  Chaos.  Which 
comes  almofl  to  the  Words  of  Mofes,  a  little  tranfpofed. 

5-,  We  are  told.  Gen.  i.  29,  That  God  gave  Adam,  befides  Herbs,  alfo 
the  Fruits  of  Trees,  for  his  Tood.  And  the  Phoenicians  fay,  r  'Ai>5ia, 
&c.  That  Aien^   by  whom  the  Hiftorian  means  the  Firft   Man  Adam, 



^  H  A  p.  II,  of  the  Hebrew  Code. 

found    out   the  Fruits  of  Trees  for  his  Food.     And  DW(9r»i- receives  it 
from  Antiquity,  that  the  firll  Men  liv'd  upon  Fruits  and  Roots. 

6.  We  have  an  Account,  Gen.  ^.  of  the  Serpent's  tempting  £w  and 
her  Husband,  to  eat  the  forbidden  Fruit.  As  if  thereby  he  would  make 
himfelf  the  Author  of  their  becoming  Gods.  And  Sanchumiathon  faith. 
That  Ta'dntus  did  afcribe  fomething  of  Divinity  to  the  Serpent  ;  and 
that  the  Egyptians  and  Phcetikians  approv'd  of  this  Opinion.  From 
whence  aUo,  fays  Eufehius.,  Pra:p.Ev.\o.  Pherecydes  took  occafion  to 
make  a  Diflertation  concerning  the  Deity,  called  Ophion.  And  "tis 
likely,  he  might  alio  have  refped:  to  the  Brazen  Serpent  in  the  Wil- 

7.  'Tis  faid  G(?».  -^.zi.  That  God  made  Adam  and  his  Wife  Coats  of 
Skins,  and  cloathed  them.  And  in  the  Phoenician  Hiftory,  That  Uforis., 
that  is,  Adam.,  firdwore  Coats  of  Beafts  Skins.  Cam\s  faid,  Ge«. 4.  •5, 
To  hring  an  Offering  to  the  Lord  of  the  Fruit  of  the  Ground.  And  Porphy- 
riiu  receives  it  from  Theophraflus.^  that  hereof  were  made  the  firfl  Sacri- 
fices. The  Heathen  World,  it  feems,  taking  notice  of  Cains  Sacrifice, 
rather  than  of  AheFs,  as  that  which  feemed  left  Natural,  and  of  the 
Younger 'Brother. 

8.  The  great  .Age  of  the  Antidiluvians,  is  pointed  at  by  Manetho,  Be- 
rofus,  Molus,  Hefif<Eus,  Hieronymus  Egyptius^  Hecatceus.,  Hellanicus^  Achu- 
Jelaus,  Ephcrus.,  and  the  Phcenician  VVriters  :  Who  all  affirm,  faith 
yo/^/'/'«j.  That  the  Ancients  lived  1000  Years.  And  as  for  the  Age  of 
the  Poftdiluvians  for  fome  Centuries,  the  Annals  of  Phanicia^  ^i>ypf> 
and  China^  agree  herein  with  the  Tenor  of  the  Sacred  Story.  And 
therefore  as  Mofes  reckons  from  Adam  to  Mizraim,  exclufively,  but 
Ten  Generations.  So  the  Phoenician  Hiftoriao,-  reckons  but  Teh  from 
yEvum^  that  is,  Adam.,  to  Mifor,  that  is,  Mizraim ;  though  indeed  inclu- 
fively.  Very  near  the juft  Number  which  i^i^/ifi"  gives;  but  apparently 
patched  up  of  both  the  Lines  of  Cain  and  Seth.  Yet  he  agrees  with  Mo- 
fes in  making  Fukan  one  of  his  Ten,  and  his  Brother,  the  Inventors  of 

Mufick  and  Alchymy.     Only  the  former,  which  Mofes  afcribes  to  Ju' 
hal.,  that  is,  Apo/Io ;  he,  to  Vulcan. 

9.  But  //i?W<?/^«j,  according  to  the  Account  given  him  by  the  Egyptian 
Priefls,  is  ilrangely  exad:.  He^  tells  us,  that  of  the  Gods,  there  were 
three  Orders.  Of  the  firll;  Order,  were  Eight.  Doubtlefs,  called  the 
Firft,  becaufe  defcended  of  Cain.,  Adam's  Eldell  Son.  For  Adam^  with 
his  whole  Line  by  Cain.,  fo  far  as  it  is  fet  down  by  Mofes.,  Gen,  4. 
do  make  juft:  Eight,  anfwerable  in  number  to  the  Eight  primi  Dii.,  On- 
ly he  mifplaces  Pan.,  for  the  firft:  of  the  Eight,  whom  I  take  to  be  Cain., 
quafi  Kan.  For  the  fame  Lines,  being  differently  produced,  do  make  both 
vr  and  X :  and  fo,  by  the  Negligence  of  fome  Scribe,  xccv  might  eafily 
be  changed  in  vrxv.  And  P^«,  is  old  Latin  ,  -a|  well  as  Greek. 
And  as  the  Latin  P,  is  like  the  Greek  P,  in  Sound :  io  in  Figure,  to  the 
Hebrew  p  (A'o/'/?)  wherewith  Ca/w  is  written. 

10.  Of  the  Second  Order  of  Gods,  he  faith  there  were  Twelve.  And 
it  is  plain,  that  they  were  fo  called,  not  becaufe  thty  were  all  Juniors  to 
the  Dii  Primi :  but  for  that  tliey  vi  ere  of  the  Line  of  Seth^  Adam's 
Younger  Son.  Of  whom,  from  Seth.,  inclufively,  to  Askenaz,  the  laft 
named  of  the  Line  of  Japhet,  Noah's  Eldeft  Son,  Mofes  reckons  juft 
twelve,  according  to  the  Number  of  the  Second  Order  of  Gods. 

P  p  ii.Thofe 


As  th^y  affear  Book  IV. 

1 1.  Thofebf  the  Third  Order,  are  faidty  the  fame  Herodotus^  to  be 
born  of  the  Dii  Secundi.  Of  which  Third  Order,  Diony/ius,  tliat  is,  0- 
fyrisy'is  by  him  accounted  One  ;  and  was  accordingly  dcfcended  of  Noah^ 
one  of  the  twelve  Gods  of  the  Second. 

^  IX.  Of  the  Flood  and  t^oah's  Ark,  mention  is  made,  faith  Jofephus,  by 
all  that  have  wAtenthe  Hiflory  of  tiie  Barbarous  Nations;  as  Berofus^ 
Hierofiymus  Egyptius^  Mnafeas^  Nicholaus  Damajceaus,  and  many  others. 
And  Ahidetius^xn  his  Commentaries  taken  out  of  the  Median  and  Ajjyrian 
i\f chives,  Euf.Pr.Ev.g.  iz.  gives  an  Account  of  Saturn's^  that  is,  No- 
mI/s,  prediding  the  Flood  ;  and  of  his  fending  Birds  out  of  the  Ark, 
after  the  Stormy  Rains  were  over,  to  fee  if  the  Waters  were  alTwaged  ; 
and  that  they  returned,  and  were  Cent  out  again,  and  fo  a  third  time  ; 
according  to  the  Sacred  Story.  And  we  muft  fuppofe ,  faith  P/ato  de 
Legibus^-^.  that  there  were  fome  Relicks  of  Mankind,  who  (aved  them- 
felves  from  the  Flood  upon  the  Mountains.  And  we  are  informed  by  Mo- 
fes^  that  the  Ark  relied  on  thofe  of  Ararat. 

13.  Of  the  Tower  of  Bale  I,  Herodotus^  and  divers  other  Ancient 
Hiftorians,  make  mention.  In  fo  much,  that  Polyhijior  calls  it  ^  iVopa- 
joi«  vov  'TTjpyov^  the  Subjed:  of  every  Hiftorian.  And  Eupolemus  'and  Ahy- 
denus^  EuJ.Pr.Ev.^.id^.  17.  both  aim  at  the  Mofaick  Account  hereof; 
and  the  fcattertng  of  the  Builders  into  all  Parts .  of  the  World ; 
with  the  immediate  Caufe  of  it,  the  Confufion  of  their  Lan- 

14.  Not  long  after,  the  A ffyrianshuWt  Nineveh.  Said  by  Jonah^i,.  3. 
to  be  an  exceeding  great  City  of  three  Days  Journey.  And  by  Na- 
hum  5, 16.  To  have  multiplied  her  Merchants  above  the  Stars  of  Hea- 
ven. Which  agrees  very  well,  both  with  her  ancient  Situation  for 
Trade,  upon  Tigris-^  as  Pliny^  Herodotus,  znd  Ptolemy,  all  confent  :  and 
with  the  Defcription  given  of  it  by  Diodorus,  th^t  it  was  150  furlongs 
in  length,  and  90  in  Breadth ;  and  fo  in  compafs,  480,  that  is  60  Eng- 
lifli  Miles.  Built  with  much  Ground,  both  between  the  feveral  Elou- 
fes,  for  feeding  of  Cattel,  as  Babylon  alfo  was  .•  and  between  the  Houfes 
and  the  Wall,  as  not  only  Babylon,  but  alfo  Rome,  when  altered  by  Au- 

13-.  Diodorus,  Strabo,  Pliny,  Tacitus,  and  others,  take  notice  of  the 
burning  of  Sodom,  by  Fire  from  Heaven,  and  the  EfJeds  of  it.  Longo  ah 
Hierojolymis  recejfu,  faith  Solinus,  triftis  finus  panditur ,  quern  de  Calo 
ta^um,  teftatur  humus  nigra,  ^  in  Cinerem  Joluta,  &c. 

16.  Profane  Story  likewife  gives  a  large  Account  of  fome  of  the  Pa- 
triarchs and  other  eminent  Perfons.  Of  Abraham,  Berofus  in  Jofephus^ 
and  Eupolemus  \n  Eufebius,  fay,  that  he  lived  about  the  Tenth  Age  or 
Generation  after  the  Flood  :  as  the  Scriptures  alfo  fay.  Eupolemus  tells 
jis  his.  native  Plac^  wz.  Ur,  hy  the  Greeks  called  Chaldaopolis,  a  City  in 
Babylonia.  Melo,  cited  by  Polyhiflor,  faith  of  his  two  firfl:  Wives,  as 
he  calls  them,  that  one  of  tliem  was  his  Kinfwoman,  the  other  an  Eg^p' 
tian;  as  we  know  they  were.  That  of  the  former  he  had  one  only  Son, 
by  the  Greeks  called  Tixayra, '  from  Sarah's  faying  at  his  Birth,  That 
God  had  made  her  to  laugh,  Gen.  xi.  And  that  by  Hagar  he  had  twelve 
Sons;  meaning  the  Twelve  Princes,  born  of  IJhmael,  Hagar s  Son, 
Gen.  17.  20.  And  Cleodemus  mentions  alfo  his  Children  of  Kettura,  and 
names  fome  of  them,  'viz.  Afurem^  and  Aferem,  that  is,  Asfhurim  and  £- 
t'^^fr.  Gen.  25.  3,4.     Eupolemus,  \\\%N\QiQxy  overtime    Armenian  Kings, 


Chap.  \l  from  FO  R  El  G  N  T  K  0  0  F.  §47 

and  his  Entertainment  hy  Melchifedeck.  Nkolaus  Damafcetius  and  Ar- 
tapams,  his  going  in  the  time  of  a  Famine,  unto  Pharaoh  King  of 
Egypt,  the  Plaguing  of  the  King's  Court  Ibr  Sarah's  ^zkc,  and  his  Re- 
turn to  Syria  upon  his  receivmg  his  Wife  again.  Polyhiflor,  God's 
commanding  him,  to  offer  up  his  ion,  and  his  oiiering  a  Ram  in  his 
Head.  They  all  agree,  that  he  was  a  very  wife  Man,  and  well 
_  skilled  in  AUronomy.  And  Hecataus ,  wrote  an  entire  Volume  of 
W  his  Life. 

|H        17.  Of  Jaroh,  Theodotus  in  Eufelius,  a  mofl;  excellent  Poet,  tells  us, 
^m   That  the  City  K/kima,  that  is,  Shechem,Gen.  34.  z.  was  by  him  taken  in 
^B    the  time  qf  Emmor^  that  is,  Hamor,  the  Father  of  Shechem.     Afcribing 
IP    that  to  Jacob,  which  was  done  by  two  of  his  Sons,     That  before  this, 
for  fear  of  his  Brother,  he  went  and  lived  with  Lahan  in  Syria,  was  mar- 
ried to  his  two  Daughters,  and  cheated  with  Leah  the   Elder  firfl.     Of  ' 
whom,  faith  he,    he  begat  Eleven  Sons  and  Beautiful  Dina :  coming 
i         within  one  of,  the  Number  of  his  Children,  tho'  but  Six  of  them  begot 
of  Leah.     And  Artapems  gives  an  Account  of  his  going  into  Egypt  with 
all  his  Houlhold,  to  his  Son  Jofeph;  and  his  living  there,  cv  iH  -570a«  Kojo-ai', 
that  is,  Gojhan. 
i  18.  Ariftaas,  in  his  tliftory  of  the  Jews,  faith,  'That  7oiwasthe  Son 

I         *  of  Efau,  by  his    Wife  Bajfura  ;  a  mofl  jufl;  Man,  and    very  Rich. 

*  That  God,  to  try  him,  permitted  his  Eftate  and  Cliildren  to  be  deftroy- 

*  ed,  and  himfelf  fmitten  with  a  grievous  Ulcer.     That  Eliphaz,  King  of 

*  the  Temanites,  BaldaJ,   Tyrant  of  the  Sanchai,  and  Elihu,  the  Son  of 

*  Barechiel,x.\\tTohite,  came  to  comfort  him,  though  in  vain.     But  that 

*  God  exalted  him  afterwards. 

19.  Of  Jojeph,  Artapamts,'m  Ev.  9.23.  gives  a  large  Accouut, 
'  That  his  Ikethren  envying  his  Wit,  and  confpiring   againll  him,  fent 

*  him  away  by  certain  Arabians  into  Egypt,  where  he  was  made  Lieutenant 

*  of  the  Kingdom.    That  he  caufed  the  Land  to  be  furveyed,  divided  and 

*  cultivated  :  Whereby  the  meaneft  of  the  People,  before  opprcffed,   had 

*  their  Ihare :  with  much  more,  well  agreeing  to  the  Sacred  Text.  Philo 
alfo,  among  other  Poets,  in  his  Book^/?  Hierojolymis,  Euf.  pr.  Ev.  9.  24. 
fpeaks  of  his  placing  Jacob  in  a  fruitful  Countrey,  given  him  by  the 
King ;  his  Gift  of  interpreting  Dreams ;  and   his  being  Lord  of  Egypt. 

LK  And  Tragus  Pompeius  makes  the  like  honourable  Mention  of  him,  fay- 
IB  ing.  Ejus  excellens  ingenium   veriti  fratres,    clam    interceptum   peregrinis 
|B^  Mercatoribus  vendiderunt.     And  a  little  after,  Regi  Egypti  percharus  fuit  : 
nam  ^  prodigiorum  Sagacijfimus  erat,   &"  Somniorum  primus  Intelligentiam 
condidit.    Nihilq^ue  Divini  Juris  Humanique  ei  incognitmn  videbatur  :  adeo  ut 
Jierilitatem  agrorum,  etiamante  multos  annos,  provider  it ;  periijjetque  omttis 
Egyptuf  Fame,  nifi  men  it  u  e]us.   Rex  ediilo  Jervari  per  multos  annos  Fruges 
jujjijfet.     Tantaqueejus  experimentafuerunt,  ut  non  ab  Homine,jed  a   Deo, 
Rejponfa  dari  viderentur.     Which   differs  very    little  from   the  Mofaick 

zo.  Polyhijlor  from  Artapanus,  and  he  from  the  Egyptian  Prieffs,^.i-j.  relating  the  Hidory  of  yW^^/^y  at  larg^e,  faith,  'That 
'  he  was  the  Son  of  a  Hebrew  Woman,  but  adopted  by  Merrhin,  Phahna- 
'  mth  the  Egyptian  Tyrant's  Daughter,  That  for  his  Skill  in  all  kinds 
'of  Philofophy,  and  his  great  Wifdom,  they  gave  him  Divine  Honour, 
'and  called  \\\vi\F{ermes.     But  being  envy'd,  and  his  Life  fought ;  killing 


?48  Of  the  J  ruth  and  Excellency      Book  IV. 

'hisincended  Aflafline,  by  his  Brother  Aaron's  Advice,  he  fled  into  Ara- 
^/a,  and  there  married  the  Daughter  of  /^ijgae/,  Prince  of  the  Countrey. 
Where,  in  praying  for  his  People,  appeared,  to  him  a  Fire  burning  with- 
out Fuel,  with  a  Divine  Voice  commanding  him,  to  go,  and  dehvering 
the  Jeivs  from  Egypt^  to  condud'  them  into  their  own  Countrcy.     Then 
he  relates  the   Tranfadion   with  the  King  of  Egypt,    the  Miracles  he 
■wrought,  and  the  Plagues  following   the  King's  Contempt  of  them  : 
And  in  the  End,  the  marching  of  the  Ifraelites  through  the  Red  Sea,  the 
Egyptians   following    them,    being    drowned.      That   after  this,    they 
wandered   in   the  Wilderne(s  Thirty  Years,    and  were  fed  there  with 
Corn  from  Heaven  (as  it  is  alfo  called  /y^78.z4.}   like  Panick,  white 
as  Snow.     Ezekiel  ^\^o,  the  Tragick  Poet,  tells   the    Story  of   Mojes^ 
from  his  Birth,  to  his  March  out  of  Egypt^    very  exacfiy.    The  Op- 
pofition  given  him  by  Jannes  and  Jami>res,  is  related   by  Numenius  the 
Vjthagorean.     'Sot  only  Herodotus,  //!>.  z.  but  Polemo,   Apicn^  Ftolemeus 
the  Menclefian  Prieft,  Hellankus,  and   Thilochorus,  Authorj  cited  by  A- 
fricanus,  Tatian,  and  Juftin  Martyr,  contr.  Gentes,  do  all  witnefs,  that  Mojes 
was  Prince  of  the  Jews,   and  led  them  forth  of  F.gypt^     in  or  about 
the  Reign    of  Amafis,   perhaps   Armais.  Manetho  alfo,  as   cited  by  Jo- 
fephus,  though  lie  tells  a  wild    Story  of    the  Reges  pajtoresy  yet  wit- 
nefles,  that  the  Jews  were    not  Egyptians  born,   but    Strangers,  who 
departed  from  Egypt,    Old  and  Young,    a    great   Multitude,  with  all 
their  Subftance,  and  without  Oppofition,  through  the   Wildernefi,  to- 
wards Judcea,  where  they  built  jerufalem.     When  tlie  Egyptians  purfued 
the  Ifraelites,  Mojes  encouraging  them,  tells  them,  that  the  Lord  would 
fight  jor  them,  Ex.  14. 14,    And  Stralo,  lib.   16.  witnefles    the   fame  of 
him,  dvri'^OTrAaev,  to  Jgg^ -zjrps/SaAAgTo,  X<z/ to  Oftoc.     That  is,   Inllead 
of  Arms,  he  let  before  them  the  Memorial  of  God's  Mercy  to  them 
in  the  Holy  Paflbver,  and  the  Divine    Power.      Eupolemus  will  have 
him  to  be  the  fird  of  Wife  Men ;  that  he  taught  the  Jews  Letters, 
and  gave  them  their  Laws.     And  particularly  that  noted  by  Strabo, 
by  which  Idolatry   is   condemned.     For  which  the  Jews  are  alfo  cal- 
led by  Pliny,  13.4.  Qens  contumelia  Numinum inftgnis. 

21.  We  have  a  large  Account  of  the  Conqucfl:  of  Canaan  by  Jo- 
fhua  in  Procopius.  And  Eupolemus,  in  his  Book  Of  the  Prophecy  of  E- 
lias,  faith,    '  That  Mofes  was  (ucceeded   by  Jefus  the    Son  of  Nava, 

*  (Noivyi)  that  isj   of  Nun  ,•  i,   being  miftaken  by  fome   Scribe,    for  f 

*  That  he  fet  up  the  Sacred  Tabernacle,    cv  l.-nKol,  that  is,   in  Shilow  ; 

*  and  died  no  Years  old;  which  was  his  Age.  And  Strabo  adds  this 
Teftimony  of  him,  That  Mofes's  Succeflbrs  lor  fome  time,  obferved\he 
Laws  he  gave  them,  and  were  truly  Religious.  That  is,  all  the  days 
of  Jo/hua,  and  of  the  Elders  who  over-lived  him ,  as  the  Scripture 

zz.  Canaan,  into  which  Jojhua  brought  the  Jews,  to  reprefent  the 
Fruitfulnefs  of  it,  is  often  called,  a  Land  flowing  with  Milk  and  Ho- 
ney. And  God  by  the  Prophet  tells  the  Jews,  that  with  Corn,  Wine 
and  Oil,  he  had  fuftained  them.  Nor  was  it  in  any  of  thele  Re- 
Ipeds  over-praifed.  For  though  it  be  now  in  a  great  part  barren  ; 
yet  Plin.  13.  4.  tells  us,  That  Judcea  was  then  famous  for  the  choiceft 
Dates,  above  any  other  Place.  And  Arificeas,  That  in  his  time,  it  a- 
bounded  with  Corn  of  all  forts,  and  with  Vineyards,  That  it  was 
impoflible  to  tell  the  Number  of  Palm-Trees,  Olive- Trees,  and  Fig- 


—_, ___ , ___ , ^ , 

Chap.   11.  of  the  Hebrew  Code.  I^b 

trees;  befides  the  Faflurage  for  raifing  innumerable  Cattle;  and  was  the 
great  Market,  for  the  Arabians  and  all  the  Countries  about.  And  be- 
ing Mountanous,  could  not  but  abound  with  Melliferous  Plants  of  the 
beft  kind. 

x^.  Eupokmus  faith,  Eu.f.  pr.  Ev.  9.  ^o.  'That  after  Jo/hna,  aroCe  Sa- 

*  w«e/ the  Prophet,  Saul,  and  Davie/  ;  to  whom  the    laumxans   and  di- 

*  vers  other  Nations,  paid  Tribute,  That  he  fent  Ships  for  Gold  to 
^Urphen^  ivfxpn,  that  is,  Ophir,  an  Ifland  of  the  Red  Sea,  then  abound- 

*  ing  with  Gold  Mines,  That  he  reigned  40  Years:  and  having  been  a 
'  Man  of  Blood,  was  commanded  to  leave  the  Building  of  the  Temple 

*  to  his  Son,  For  which  he  received  Diredtions  by  an  Angel,  whofe 
Name  was  Aiafot^^oiv,  meaning,  no  doubt,  the  Prophet  Natha>i ;  David 
being  faid  z  Cbron.  19.  25.  to  be  inllruded  herein  by  Gad  and  by 

1^.  Theodottis,  Hipficratea,  and  Mochus^  Phs:mcians^  and  Menander  of 
Pergamus.,  cited  by  Tatian  in  Eufehius,  mention  the  League  made  be- 
tween Solomon  and  Hiram^  by  Eupokmus  caWtd  Suron,  King  of  Tyre  and 
Sidon^  and  Vhxnicia.  As  alfo  the  Supplies  of  Workmen  and  Timber, 
which  he  received  from. this  King,  and  from  Vaphres  King  of  Egypt. 
And  the  latter,  gives  a  very  particular  Account,  though  partly  true  and 
partly  falfe,  of  the  Temple,  and  the  Sacred  Utenfils  belonging  to  it. 
He  is  alfo  faid,  zChron.  8.4,  to  have  built,  with  other  Cities,  Tadmor 
in  the  Wildernefs ,  after  called  Palmyra,  but  now  all  in  Ruines ; 
whereof  fome  Travellers  have  lately  given  us  a  very  good  Ac- 

1$.  Berofui  gives  an  Account  of  the  Bahylonian  Captivity.  As  alfo 
Volyhijior^  who  faith,  that  "Jeremiah  having  foretold  the  "jews  of  it,  'joa- 
chim  would  have  burnt  him  alive.  But  that  Nebuchadnezzar  being  in- 
formed of  the  Prophecy,  came  and  took  Samaria  firfl: ,  and  then  Je- 
rufalem,  and  the  King  therein  Captive,  with  all  the  Gold,  Silver,  and 
Brafs  of  the  Temple, 

io.  Of  this  Nebuchadnezzar.,  Jbidenus,  in  his  Hillory  of  the  Ajfyrians, 
faith,  that  Megafthenes  reported  from  the  Chaldaans,    that  he  foretold 
the  Conqueft  of   Babylon  by  Cyrus,  in  an  Extafie,  beginning  with  thefe 
Words,   I  Nebuchadnezzar.      Wherein  the  Hiftorian  aims  at  that  Dream 
of   Nebuchadnezzar,    related  by  Daniel,  i,  32.     which   was    fulfilled. 
And  the  Second  Dream,  which  the  Hiftorian  miftakes  for  the  Firft,  Ch. 
4.  4.  the  King  indeed  begins  with  thofe   Words ,     1  Nebuchadnezzar. 
The   (ame  Megafihenes  alfo  fays,    '  That  when  the    King  had  told  his 
*  Dream  ;  he  was  fuddenly  taken  away,  and  vanifhed  out  of  the  fight  of 
'  thofe  about  him.     By  thofe  Words,  either  ignorantly  mif-relating,  or 
wilfully  concealing,  the  King's  being  depofed  for  a  time  from  his  King- 
dom, and  driven  from  among(t  Men^&c.  as  was  emphatically  predicted  by 
the  Prophet,  Ch.  4. 3 1.31,  ^ 3. 

Z7.  All  agree  with  the  Scripture,  Dan.^.  31,  That  Balthafar,    that  is, 
Belfhafar,  was  the  lad  of  the  Babylonian  Kings.     As  alfo,  that  upon  the  ' 

taking  of  Babylon,  he  was  killed,  Dan.  5. 30.  Telfified  both  by  Bero- 
dotiu,  who  calls  him  Lahinitus ;  and  by  Xenophon,  Injl.  lib.-],  who  calls 
him  Labonidus  ;  and  mentions  the  two  Soldiers,  Gobria  and  Gadara^  by 
whom  he  was  (lain.  And  may  well  confift,  with  what  Berofus  in  Eu- 
febius  faith,  '  That  Cyrus,  to  whom  he  rendred  himfelf,  permitted  him 
to  liveinCaramania.    For  the  Life,  which  that  excellent  Prince  had  mer- 

Q^  q  cifuUy 

As  they  apfear  Book  iV. 

cifully  given  ;  might  yet   be  taken  away  by  thefe  Soldiers,  ignorant 
of  Cyrus's  Grant,  and  hoping  to  merit  by  what  they  did, 

x8.  Daniel  5.  i.  30, 31.  alfo  faith,  '  That  the  fame  Night  wherein  tjie 

*  City  was  taken,  Belfbafar  made   a  great    Feafl:    to  a  Thoufand  of  his 

*  Lords,  and  drank  Wine  before  the  Thoufand.  And  Herodot.  lih.  i.  :}8. 
fays  hkewife,  '  That  the  fij^/o«idt«j,  becaufe  it  was  a  Feftival  Day,  made 

*  themfelves  merry  with  Dancing  and  Caroufmg,  till  the  City  was  ta- 

*  ken.  *Tis  alfo  acknowledged,  that  upon  the  Death  of  Belfhafar^  Da- 
rius the  Mede^  according  to  Dan.  j.  31.  Took  the  Kingdom  :  that  is, 
being  delivered  to  him  by  Cyrus  the  Conqueror.  And  therefore,  as 
Dan.  6. 1,  faith,  That  it  pleaftd  Darius,  to  fet  izo  Princes  over  the 
Kingdom:  Xenophon^Inft.Q.  Mth^That  it  pleafed  Cyrus,  to  fet  Princes  o- 
ver  the  Nations  he  had  fuhdued. 

xg.  'Tis  faid,  Ejih.  1. 14,  'That  there    were  Seven  Princes,  Chief  o- 

*  ver  the  Kingdom.     And  by  Plato,  L.  de  Leg.  3,    '  That  Darius  dividend 
*the  Kingdom  into  Seven  greater  Provinces.     We  arc  told,   Eth.  x.  iz. 
That  the  Women  of  the  King's  Seraglio,  were  brought  to  him  in  their 
turns.      A.ndi{o  Herodotus,  L.  T,.  G<).  'Ev  Tns/TpoTrri  y>    ywcuy^i  poni'dca  roTi 
Vepav'n.    The  Inhabitants  of  Shujhan  and  Elemais,  are  by  Ezra  diftingui- 
flied,  £zr.  4.9.     Andfoby  FlinyG.xj.      Nehemiah  1.1.^.     and   2.1. 
faith,  '  That  he  wept  in  Shufhan  the  Palace,  about  the  Month  ChiJJeu. 
Where  alfo  Athenaus^Dipnof.  L.  iz.  affirms,  that  the   Kings  of  Pcrfia 
ufed  to  Winter.     '  All  Hiftorians,  faith  Africanus,  agree,  that  the  Be- 
'  ginning  of  Cyrus's  Kingdom,  and  the    End  of  the    Captivity   of  the 
'  Jews,  met  together.     Of  whofe  Return  into  Judaa,  Diodes  alfo  gives  an 
Account.     And  Volyhiftor  and  Hecatceus,    of  Cyrus's    Order,    for  Re- 
building the  Temple    at  Jeru/alem.      VVhere    the   Old    Teftaraent 

30.  From  thefe,  and  many  other  like  Inftances  which  might  be  giv- 
en J  the  Confent  between  the  Sacred  and  the  Profane  or  Heathen  Wri- 
ters of  the  Scripture  Story,  is  very  evident.  And  it  would  have  been 
more  fo,  were  it  not  obfcured,'  partly,  by  the  different  Names  given  to 
Perfons  and  Things,  in  the  one  and  the  other  :  So  Belochus  in  the  Scrip- 
ture is  called  Phul ;  EeleJis,Baladan  :  Mardocempadus,  Merodach-Baladan ; 
Minus  Junior,  Tiglath-Pi/efer  ;  Apries,  Pharach-flophra  ;  Camhyfes,  Aha- 
fuerus ;  Cyaxeres,  Darius  •  Jihd  fo  in  many  more,  And  partly,  from  the 
Loft  of  mod  of  thofc  Authors,  Syrians,  Chaldaans,  Phoenicians,  and 
Greeks  before  mentioned  -,  of  thofe  efpecially,  who  purpofely  wrought  the 
Jewifli  Story. 

31.  But  the  Memorials  we  have  of  their  Works,  imperfedt  as  they 
are ;     are   yet  an  Evidence  of  the    Opinion    themfelves  and  others 

'  had  of  thofe  things,  in  the  Report  whereof,  their  Diligence  and 
Curiofity  were  fo  far  employed.  The  Jews,  JeruJ'alem,  and  the 
Temple,  having  been  always  fo  Celebrious ;  that  when  after  their  Cap- 
tivities, they  were  defpoiledof  their  Glory:  even  then,  the  Affyrians, 
Greeks^  and  Romans,  honoured  with  Sacrifices,  the  Moft  High  God, 
whom  that  Nation  worlliipt ;  and  their  Temple  with  Gifts.  Even  then,  > 
as  Straho  fays,  there  was  a  great  Veneration  paid  to  that  Sacred  Place. 
Then  it  was,  that  Appianus  in  Syriacis,  fpeaking  of  Jerufalem,  fliles  it 
The  Great  and Mojl  Holy  City.  And  as  the  Pfalmiit,  Pf.  48.  z.  'calls  it  the 
Joy  of  the  whole  Earth  ;  and  Pf.  50.  z.  the  Perfedion  of  Beauty:  So 
Plin.  5-.  1 4.  though  he  pompouilydefcribes  Alexandria  and  Babylon,  yet 


Chap    11.    from   FOREIGN    PROOF.  15, 

prefers  Jerufalem  before  them  both,  calling  it,  Longe  Clarijfimam  UrbiuYn 
Orientn.  For  the  fake  whereof,  chiefly,  it  was,  that  the  Jems  them- 
felves,  as  ^orph.  de  Orac.  Philofophiti^  tell  us,  were  ftiled  by  Apollo's  Ora- 
cle, 'Ke^^f^xr^oi  'E^pocToi,  of  that  Renown,  as  to  be  worthy  Emulation  a- 
bove  all  People.  The  Account  then,  which  the  aforefaid  Authors  give 
of  t!iem,  whether  received  from  themfelves,  or  the  Regifters,  or  Re- 
ports of  other  Nations ;  plainly  fliews,  that  they  looked  on  the  Particu- 
lars, as  Things  famoufly  fpoken  of,  and  believed  j  and  worthy  to  be  re- 
corded, and  read  of  all  Men. 

-^z.  And  this  further  appears,  in  that  many  Particulars,  con- 
tained in  the  Sacred  Writings,  were  not  only  reported,  but  imi- 
tated by  Men  of  other  Nations,  the  beft  Eileemed.  As  firlT; 
in  their  Fables  and  Fabulous  Poems,  with  refped  both  to  Perfons 
and  Things.  What  is  Ovid's  In  nova  fert  animus ,  but  an  Imper- 
ieSi  Tranfcript,  from  Mofes's  Account  of  the  Creation  ?  In  the  begin- 
ning hereof,  Mofes  faitji.  That  the  Spirit  of  God  moved  upon  the 
Face  of  the  Waters.  And  Orpheus .,  At  hen.  :}8.  That  all  things  were 
generated  of  the  Ocean.  Paradice  in  Plato's  Sympofium^  is  Jupiter's  Gar- 
den-. And  is  alfo  the  Pattern  of  the  Orchards  of  Alcinous^  and  the 
Hefperides.  The  Golden  Apples  kept  by  a  Dragon  ;  were  the  Forbidden 
Fruit,  which  Eve  was  tempted  by  the  Serpent  to  eat.  God's  Saying, 
Let  us  make  Man  after  our  Likenefs ;  and  appearing  to  Adam  and  Eve^  as 
is  probable,  in  Humane  Shape ;  and  faying,  after  the  Fall,  The  Man  is 
lecome  as  one  of  us  ;  and  the  Devil's  faying,  Te  Jhall  he  as  Gods;  and  the 
Diftindtion  made  between  the  Pofterity  of  Cain^  called  the  Sdns  of 
Men,  and  that  of  Seth^  called  the  Sons  of  God;  £wc//s  Tranflation ; 
and  God's  Command  of  Princes,  Thou^alt  not  revile  the  Gods:  are  Paf- 
fages,  from  whence  arofe  all  the  Idolatry  in  the  World ,  and  the 
ftrange  Affectation  Men  have  had  of  an  Apotheofis.  In  fo  much, 
that  anciently,  as  Tzetzes  faith,  Every  King  was  called  by  the  Name  of 

35.  On  the  Saying  to  the  Woman,  that  her  Seed  fhould  hreak  the 
Serpent's  head;  depends  the  Fable  of  Hercules's  killing  the  Serpent  of 
the  Hefperides.  f^ulcan,  who  is  faid  to  be  an  Artificer  in  Brafs  and  Iron ; 
is  no  other  than  Tuhal-Cain :  the  Hebrew  B,  n,  when  it  hath  no  Point 
in  it,  being  pronounced  as  an  V  Confonant.  And  f^enus^  Vulcan  s  Wife, 
is  TuhaLCain's  Sifter  Nahamah,  which  fignifies  Beautiful.  And  Jul>al^ 
faid  to  be  the  In  venter  of  Mufick,  is  the  fame  with  Apollo^  wherein  there 
are  the  fame  Radical  Letters. 

34.  Plato's  Atlanticus,  is  nothing  elfe  but  a  Fable,  built  upon  Mofes's 
Hiftory  of  Noah  and  the  Flood,  and  the  Caufes  which  brought  it  up- 
on the  World.  Bacchus,  is  ISfoah  ;  anciently,  faith  Stuckius  ^  called 
Boachus,for  l<loachus  :  as  might  eafily  be,  bymiftakingS^/^^  3,  for  Nun  3, 
not  much  unlike  ;  and  the  Story  of  the  one,  apeth  that  of  the  other.  As 
do  thofe  aUb  of  Janus  and  Siiturn;  by  both  whom,  Noah  is  meant. 
Jupiter,  I  take  to  be  Japhet.  For  tho'  Jovis  and  the  other  oblique 
Cafes,  are  derived  of  Jehovah  :  yet  Jupiter,  is  another  Word  ;  and 
derived,  not  of  juvans  pater,  a  crude  Conceit,  but  eitlier  of  t,io 
mocTh^,  or  rather  oi  Japhet,  tlie  Elder  Son  of  Noah,  as  Jupiter  was  of 

55.  The  Fable,  of  Heaven  being  ftormed  by  the  Giants;  arofe,  from 
what  the  Builders  of  the  Tower  of  Babel  faid,  Let  us  luild  us  a  City, 


1^2  0\  the  7ruth  and  txcellency       Book  IV^ 

aHi/  a  Tower,  ivhqfe  Top  may  reach  unto  Heaven.  The  Egyptian  Neptune , 
as  Bilbop  Uper  guefles,  was  that  Rameffus  ^  firnamcd  Miamurni,  who 
commanded  the  Hebrew  Infants  to  be  drowned.  VVhofeSons,  Amem-' 
phis  znd  Bujiris,  Poeta,  {^ys  Aul.  Gel.  Ferocijfimos,  tanquam  ^  Mart 
genitoS;  Neptuni  film  dixere.  The  Story  of  Romulus  and  Remus ^  tlieir 
being  call  into  Tihur,  and  afterwards  nurfcd  and  educated  by  Fauflu- 
lus's  Wife;  what  is  it,  but  an  Allufion  to  that  of  Mofes  >  Or  the  taking 
of  Romulus  up  to  Heaven  in  a  Storm,  as  Livy  defcribes  it,  but  an  Imi- 
tation of  the  taking  up  of  Elijah  ?  Or  the  Comparifon  which  the  Po- 
ets make,  of  the  feveral  Ages  of  the  World,  to  feveral  Metals ;  but  an 
Off^fet  of  Nebuchadnezzar's  Dream  ?  ^«  Poetarum  fays  Tertullian,  qui 
mnde  Prophetarumfonte  putaveriti  And  afterwards,  Tribunal  apud  Infe- 
ros, Pyrephkgeton.  Elyfii  Campi,  ^  fimilia,  a  Poetis  Stq;  Philofophis,  mutu- 
anrur  de  nojtns  Sacramentu,  utpote  antiquiorihus.  For  all  Fables  are  but 
the  Images  of  Truth.  To  fuppofe  then,  the  Invention  of  thefe,  before 
the  Relation  of  Truth,  as  the  Ground  of  them  :  is  to  fuppofe,  that  Men 
iirft  learnecf  to  paint  the  Figures  of  Beads  and  other  Creatures,  and  that 
af^terwards  God  made  them. 

36.  The  very  ExpreiTions  of  the  Sacred  Writers,  are  much  imitated, 
both  by  Fabulous,  and  Philofophick  Poets.  Mofes  faith,  that  God  made 
Man  after  his  ovon  Imaze.  Phocylides,  Trviv/j^  ic^l  ©s5  eiitoov.  The  Soul  is 
the  Image  of  God.  Mofes  forbids  the  taking  a  Bird  from  her  Neft,  to- 
gether with  her  Young.  Phocylides,  MmJ^tis  t^vSicti  ^ff-hih  af^  Trw/Tas 
cxicda.  Let  no  Man  dellroy  all  the  Birds  of  a  Neft  together.  From  which 
Imitation,  the  Author  is  fuppofed  by  fome,  to  have  been  a  Chriftian,  but 
not  proved.  4/^p/j  prays.  That  God  would  give  him,  neither  Poverty, 
nor  Riches.  AnTHprace,  who,  it  feems,  had  feen  the  Book  of  Pfalms, 
Bene  ejl,  cui  Deus  oltulit  parca,  quodfatjs  efl,  manu.  "Jeremy  faith,  '  It  is 
'good  for  a  Man,  that  he  bear  the  Yoke  in  his  Youth.  And  Sophocles, 
To  (ptQpv  CM  ©g»,  ugAai  x^h  (pipeivf  What  God  will  have  us  bear,  let  us 
bear  becomingly.     We  are  told  by  Solomon,  '  That  no  Man  knows  what  a 

*  Day  may  bring  forth.     By  Theognis,  '  That  no  Man  knows,  0,  tj  vv^  3(^) 

*  Yif^i^s^  dv^^  TSA«,  what  a  Day  and  a  Night  may  bring  to  pafs.  Solo- 
mon faith,  *  That  without  Knowledge,  the  Mind  is  not  good.  And  Sopho- 
cles, to  the  lame  efied",  hh  dv  yivono  m  >(5t;t/J5,  xaAa?  fpovav,  'Wildom  is 

*  inconfiflent  with  an  ill  Mind.  '  There  is  no  Juft  Man,  fays  Solomon, 
'  which  finneth  not.     And  one  of  the  Minor  Poets, 

There  is  not  a  Man  upon  the  Earth  that  is  undefiled. 

The  fame  King  tells  us,  *  That  God  has  made  every  thing  beautiful, 
*inhisSeafon.     And  Sophocles,  I^avra.  yi  y.ciipu,Ka,?\.cc,  '  That  every  thing 

*  is  good  in  its  Seafon,  In  the  Defcription  of  Old  Age  and  Death,  the 
fame  Perfon  faith,  '  That  the  Duft  Ihall  return  to  the  Earth,   as  it  was, 

*  and  the  Spirit  fhall  return  to  God  that  gave  it.    And  Phocylides, 

'S.uf^yi  OK  yaiYii  i^o}J^-i,  ^   ts-drfu  I  cimtIui, 
AvofjSpot  foovts  iafjJv.    dhp  ^''  dvoi  TrVi^i /ucc  S'e^ixraj. 
Our  I3odies,  which  are  made  of  the  Duft  of  the  Earth,  (hall  be  re- 
folved  into  that  again  ••  But  the  Heavens  fliall  receive  the  Spirit. 


Chap.  II.  of  th^  Hebren?  Code.  159 

Solomcn,  praifing  his  Spoufe,    faith,     '  That  upon  her  Temples  were 
'  threetcore  Queens,  and  fourfcore  Concubines,    and   Virgins  without 

*  number.     Like  to  which,  is  that  Strain  of  Mufaus  upon  Hero, 

That  when  Hero  fmiled,  a  hundred  Graces  were  produc'd  in  one  Eye. 

In  which  Infiances,  they  all  came  as  near  as  they  could,  or  would   to 
the  Sacred  Text. 

■^7.  But  no  Poet  imitates  the  Scriptures  more  than //t/wifr.  *An  in- 
*quifitive  Traveller,  fayi/'^/z/Jwiiti  in  his  Attica,  into  all  Countries.; 
and  therefore  doubtlefs  among  the  Jews.  What  is  the  taking  of  fair 
Ganymede  by  Jove  into  Heaven,  II.  zo.  but  an  Allufiog  to  what  is  faid 
of  Emcb,  Gen,  5".  That  being  a  mofl  excellent  Perfon,  God  took  him. 
Balaam  rides  Pofl:  to  Balac  upon  his  Afs,  and  on  the  Road,  God  o- 
peningthe  Mouth  of  the  Afs,  there  is  a  Dialogue  between  them.  In 
like  manner,  Juno,  II  19.  makes  Xantbus,  Achilles' s  Horfc,  upon  his 
Career,  to  (peak  to  him ,-  and  Achilles  anfwers  him.  There  is  only 
this  difference,  The  Poet  will  have  the  Horfe  to  be  the  Prophet.  Ho- 
mer futTers  fcarce  any  part  of  the  War  between  the  Greeks  and  th  Tro- 
jans, to  be  tranfaded,  without  the  immediate  Interpofal  of  fome  of 
the  <Gods.  Herein  imitating  the  Sacred  Story,  both  in  the  Books  of 
Mofes,  and  in  thofe  of  Jojhua  and  the  Judges,  and  ofcthe  Kingx  of  Judah  and 
[frael,  from  firft  to  lall.  David,  after  whom  Hmer  lived,  according  to 
Arijlotle,  i^Yczrs^  to  Philochorus,  in  Diog.Laerf.  zhout  87.  to  Vel.  Pa- 
terculus,  zhont  i6r,  ?A\d  to  Herodotus,  about  188  ;  being  both  a  King 
and  a  Poet,  helollov.smuch.  Z^Kt^ic^t^  /m-^yisi,  yjiXetjvifh,  a'l^^ipi  vaj.m, 
fays  Agamcmtfon^  praying  to  Jupiter.  Than  which,  nothing  can  be  liker 
D<iT7//'j  Stile  in  fome  Plalms.  The  Poet  tells  us,  II.  1.  That  the  Gods 
eat  Ambrofia.  That  is,  Manna.,  which  David,  Pf.  78.  calls  Angels 
Food.  And  frorii  the  falling  of  Manna  in  the  VVildernefs,  we  have  the 
AwhrofiaCampi.     David  faith,  Pf.  104.  15.  '  That  Bread  flrengtliens,  and 

*  Wine  makes  glad  the  Heart  of  Man.  So  the  Poet,  //.  9.  '  Let's  refrefli 
*ourfelves  with  Bread  and  Wine;  for  thefe"give  Men  both    Strength 

*  and  Heart.  The  Pfalmifl,  Pf.  jg.  %.  fpeaking  to  God  of  the  Enemies  of 
the  jTm'i,  complains,  that  they  had  given  his  Servants  to  be  Meat  to 
the  Fowls  of  Heaven,  and  their  Flclh  to  the  Beafls  of  the  Earth.  And 
David  td\^  Goliah^  'that  he  would  deal  in  like  manner  with  the  Phili- 
''  ftins.    So   the  Poet,    //.   %%,    makes    Achillea  to    tell    Heclor  ,  that 

*  he  fliould  lie  dead  in  the  open  Fields,  till  he  was  devoured  of 
'Fowls  and  Dogs.  A-tW  faith,  Pf.  10.14.  '  That  the  Poor  committeth 
'  himfelf  to  God  :  and  Pf.  146.9.  '  That  the  Lord  preferveth  the  Stran- 
*ger.  5o  the  Poet,  0</.  14.  tells  us-,  "That  the  Poor  and  the  Stranger, 
'  are  always  in  the  Hands  of  God. 

38.  ril  add  but  two  more  Inftances  of  this  Poet's  Imitation,  both  of 
them  vety  remarkable.  In  one  of  them,  hd.\%.  he  transfers  the  Cir- 
cumllances  of  the  TranfacStion  between  the  Ifraelites  and  the  Egypti- 
ans, Ex.  s  r .  1 X.  to  that  between  Penelope  and  her  Wooers.  For  as  God 
is  faid,  to  bid  the  Ifraelites,  to  borrow  Goods  of  the  Egyptians, Y.'H.  iz-  ^S"* 
So  Pallas,  puts  Penelope  in  mind,  of  taking  Prefents  of  the  Wooers. 
As  that  was  done,  a  little  before  the  Egyptians.^  fo  this  a  little  before  the 

R  r  Woo- 


1 54  As  they  af fear  Book  IV. 

Wooers,  were  all  deftroyed.  Thofe  by  one  Man,  Mqfes ;  thefe,  by 
one,  Ulyjfes.  The  Goods  of  the  Egypt ians^  were  not  given,  till  they 
were  borrow'd  :  nor  were  the  Prefents  made  to  Penelope,  before  they 
•  were  asked.  The  fudden  Deflrudrion  of  the  Egyptians  was  in  the  Night. 
And  when,  Od.  xo.  the  time  that  the  Wooers  fliould  be  deftroyed,  was 
come,  the  Houfe  wherein  they  were,  became  dark.  And  as  the  Ifrae- 
lites  were  then  order'd,  to  fprinkle  their  Door-pofts  with  Blood  j  So  the 
Beams  of  Penelope's  Houfe  feemed  to  be  bloody. 

J9.  The  other,  in  //.  zo.  is  taken  from  Pfal.  i8.  inferted  alfo  z Sam.  xi. 
into  David's  Story.  In  which,  David  makes  a  triumphant  Defcant  upon 
his  being  delivered  'from  all  his  Enemies,  and  from  Saul.  Much  of 
which,  the  Poet  borrows,  to  exprefs  JEnsass  b^ing  preferved  from  A' 
chilles.  God  isfaid,  Verfe  13.  to  thunder  with  fiery  Lightnings  in  the 
Heavens.  Homer  faith,  Jove  thundered  terribly  above.  Verf.  7.  fays 
David,  '  Then  the  tarth  ihook  and  trembled.     Says  Homer,  *  And  Nep- 

*  tune  ihook  the  Earth  on  every  fide.    In  the  fame  Verfe,    fays  David ^ 

*  The  Foundations  of  the  Hills  moved,  and  were  ftiaken.  And  Homer 
the  like,  of  the  Plains  beneath,  and  the  Tops  of  Ida.  Verf.  1 5-.  fays 
David, '  The  Channels  of  the  Waters  were  feen,  and  the  Foundations  of 

*  the  World  were  difcovered.  And  in  the  Poet,  Pluto  bids  Neptune  hold 
his  Hand,  left  his  difmal  Dwelling  (hould  be  difcovered.  Verf.  14,15. 
Thunders  and  Lightnings  precede  the  Sea-Storm.  And  the  Poet  will 
have  Phcehus  to  oppofe  himfelf  to  Neptune.  Verf.  16, 17.  Da^ 
vid  exprefleth  his  Deliverance  by  God,  in  faying,  '  He  fent  from  above, 
he  took  me,  he  drew  nic,  out  from  many  Waters.  So  Neptune  car-, 
ries  /Eneas  from  Achilles,  over  the  Heads  of  the  Trojan  Army.  Verf. 
17.  Dflw^  faith,  'that  God   had  delivered  him   from  his  Enemy,  too 

*  ftrong  for  him.  And  Neptune  asks,  who  betrayed  /Eneas  to  Achilles^ 
much  the  ftronger  ?  And  Verf.  19.  he  fays,  'that  God  had  delivered  him, 
'  becaufe  he  delighted  in  him.     And  /Eneas  is  laid  by  the  Poet,  to  be  be- 

*  loved  of  the  Gods. 

.  40.  The  like  Imitation  of  the  Scriptures  is  obfervable  in  the  beft  Phi- 
lofophers"of  all  Ages  and  Countries.  DifputantPhilofophi^izysMinutius 
Felix ^  eadem  qute  dicimus  :  non  quod  nos  Jimus  eorum  vefligice  fuhfecuti ; 
fed  quod  illi  de  divinis  pradicationihus  Prophetarum,  ^umhram  inter polatte 
Feritatis  imitati  fint.  And  Artfiolulus  the  Peripatetick,  and  others,  fay 
as  much.  And,  Soli  Chaldcei  fapientiam  adepti  Junt,  ©  Hehrai,  Deum 
Regem  per  fe  genitum  fantle  colentes :  was  an  Oracle  cited  by  Jufiiny  in  his 
Oration  to  the  Gentiles. 

41.  Togiveof  thefe,  aSof  the  Poets,  fome  Inftances.  Xenophon  tells 
us,  that  Qyrus,  a  little  before  his  Death,  difcourfed  to  thofe  about  him, 
of  the  Immortality  of  the   Soul.    And  no  Wonder,  after  he  had  the 

,  Opportunity  of  being  inftruded   herein  by  fome  of  the  Captive  Jews . 

F)'//;<3go;-^,  by  moftlaid  to  be  no  Gr<?f^^  but  however,  having 'dwelt  a 
long  time  at  Mount  Carmel,  and  'there  converfed  with  the  Jews :  bor- 
rowed of  them,  a  great  part  of  the  Philofophy  which  he  brought  with 
h\m  into  Greece;  zsjofephus,  *AnJlohulus^  Hermippus,  Strabo,  and  others 
cited  by  Eujehius,  and  Clemens  Alexandrinus,  do  affirm.  His  Dodtrine 
of  Monotheifin,  the  Nomen  Tetragrammaton,  his  Precepts  about  Sacri- 
ifices,  and  about  Meats,  and  many  others,  are  evidently  taken  from  the 
Mofaick  Law.  Of  Numenius  the  Pythagorean,  Origen  I'aith,  that  in  his 
Firft  Book,  de  Bono^  he  made  much  ufe  of  the  Exprellions  and  Allegories 


ChapAL  from  FOREIGN  PROOF.  155^ 

of  the  Prophets.  Nor  did  Ariflotle,  as  we  learn  of  O.  Alexandrims, 
omit  Opportunities  of  converfing  with  Learned  Men  Of  that  Na- 

4x.  Above  all  others,  Plato  difcovers  fevery  where,  his  great  Acquain- 
tance with  the  Books  of  Mofest  and  thofe  Jews^  who  being  expelled 
their  Countrey  by  the  Affyrians,  were  numerous  in  Egypt  at  the 
time  of  his  being  there.  This  Philofopher,  in  Sympos.  defcribiog  the 
Deity,  faith  of  him,  'AvtO  jj^rJ'  aJro,  y^S'  aJ-ra,  y.ovoeiSii^  ae)  or.  Aiid  in 
TimaOj  Illas  temper  is  difliHtliories,  erat^  &  erit^  j^ternte  EJfentice  mn 
rede  attrihuimus.  Agreeable  to  God's  own  Definition  of  Himfelf,"  T am 
that  I  am :  and  his  bidding  Mnfes  to  tell  the  Jews,  that,  /  am  had  lent 
him  unto  them.  The  fame  Philofopher,  Epi(  Hermiam,  cited  by 
Eufehius,  prap.  Ev.  1 1. 6.  aflerts  the  Divine  Trinity.  As  alfo  do  Tlotinus 
and  other  Platonifts.  The  Dodrine  whereof,  was  part  of  the  Jevvifh 
Cabala,  as  I  (hall  fliew  hereafter;     Pla'to,  in  Timceo,.  tells  us,   '  That  in  the 

*  Creation,  God  firft  made  the  Earth,  and  Fire,  that  is.  Light.  And  that  be- 
tween thefe,  he  placed  Water  and  Air.  That  he  made  the  Sun  and 
Moon,  for  the  Account  of  1  ime,  and  other  Ufes ;  and  with  thefe,  the 
reft  of  the  Stars.  That  at  length  be  made  a  Speech  to  the  Created 
Gods,  in  order  to  the  making  of  Man  ;  whom  he  calls  the  beft,  and 
moft  excellent  part  of  God's.  Workmanlhip.  And  when  he  had  made 
an  end  of  his  Work,-  he  was  therewith  greatly  pleafed,  as  being  made 
Beautiful,    after  the  Image    of  his    own   Goodnefs.      ks  Mofes  fays, 

*  That  God  faw  every  thing  he  had  made,  and  particularly  Man  after  his 

*  own  Image,  and  behold  it  was  all  very  good.       And  the  Pfalmifl, 

*  The  Lord  fliall  rejoice  in  his  Works.  So  that  this  Book  is  nothing 
elfe  but  a  Paraphrafe  upon  the  Firft  Chapter  of  Genefis  .-  though  cor- 
rupted by  the  Philofopher,  with  many  Additions  of  his  own.  He 
owns  too,  with  Socrates  in  Phileho,  the  R%ular  Government  of  the 
Univerfe,  by  a  moft  Wife  and  Divine  Providence.  And  L.  de  Leg.  4. 
he  faith,  'that  God    having  the   Beginning,   Middle,    and  End  of  all 

*  things  in  himfelf,  and  proceeding  in  an  exadt  Method,  fliews  both 
*his  Divine  Power  and  Vertue,  which  run  throughievery  part  of  U- 

*  niverfal  Nature.    He  fpeaks  in  Sympofio,  of  the  Exiftence  of   Good 

*  Angels  or  Daemons;  and  fo,  de  Leg. -4.  And  of  the  Reality  of 
Dreams  and  Vifions,  by  their  Means.  And  in  L.deLeg.  10.  both  of 
Good  and  Bad,  who  ad  their  Parts  over  thi?  Lower  World.  In  his 
Dialogue  de  Anima,  and  his  Timaus,  of  the  Immortality  of  the  Soul, 
the  Judgment  after  Death,  and  the  End  of  the  World.  In  his  Phile^ 
hus,  of  God's  beiog  the  Chief  Good,  and  the  Author  of  all  true  Happi- 
nefs :  and  there,  and  elfewhere,  of  other  Particulars  contained  in  the 
Jewifh  tahala  and  the  Scriptures.  Which  made  Clem.  Alexandrinus^ 
Strom.  L.  i.  after  Numenius  the  Pythagorean^  to  fay  of  him, 

What  is  Plato,  but  Mofes  in  an  Athenian  Drefs  ? 

And  Cicero,  L.  de  Leg.  5 .  obferving  the  Sublimity  of  his  Difcourfes  bor- 
rowed from  thence,  to  give  this  Philofopher,  and  him  only,  of  all  o- 
thers,  the  Title  of  Divine.  With  whom  alfo  Cicero  himfelf  had 
learned  to  fpeak  of  the  Creation,  after  Mofes,  Eft  homini  cum  Deo  St- 
militudo.     And,  Fas  nee  efl^  nee   unquam  fuit,  quicquam  nift  pulcherrimum 



of  the  Truth  and  Excellency       Book  IV. 

facere  Eum^quieffet  npt'mus^  Lib,  de  Urtiverf.  And  fo  had  Plutarch^  to 
fpeak  of  God  himfeU,  in  his  Book  of  the  Syllable '^£«,  infcribed  upon  the 
Dclphick  Temple  ;  which,  faith  he,  is  tiie  perfedt  Name  of  God  :  rifAv 
y)  o;/TW5  m^elvcct^  /^'Ti<r'i'  ^^U     That  IS, '  For  we  our  felves,  have  no  fliare 

*  in  true  Being. 

43.  Many  things  contained  in  the  Sacred  Writings,  have  likewilebeen 
imitated  by  Princes  and  Legiflators  :  both  in  (uch  Policies  as  they  have 
ufed,  pro  re  nath^  atid  in  their  Stated  Laws  Trogus  Tompeiiu  faith,  that 
Philip  of  MacecloMf  was  wont,  It  a  Populos  &  Urles^  ut  Illi  vel  replenda  vel 
derelinquenda.qua:qi  Loca  videbantur,  ad  Lihidinem  fuam  transfer  re.  And 
Diodorus^  '  That  Alexander  intended  to  have  done  the  like,  between  the 

*  Cities  of  Europe  and  Afia.  And  the  Athenians  were  adually  tranfplant- 
ed  by  Antipater  into  Thrace.  As  were  alfo  the  Saxons  into  Belgium:,  by 
Charles  the  Great.  All  of  them  herein  imitating  Jofeph,  of  whom  it  is 
faid.  Gen.  47,  xi.  Tl^at  he  reftioved  the  .  People  in  the  feveral  Cities  by 
Exchange,  from  one  End  of  Egypt  to  the  other. 

44.  Abraham  \s  ^^\A,  Gen.  14.  15.  To  divide  his  Servants,  and  to 
purlue  the  Armenian  Kings  by  Night.  A  double  Policy,  both  in  the  Time, 
and  in  the  Manner,  he  took  to  dp  it.  Both  which  were  alfo  ufed  by  Jo- 
Jhua-,  but  feveral ly,  upon  two  Occafions.     The  former,  when  he  came 

upon  the  Five  Kings  of  the  Amorites,  fuddenly,  marching  all  Night, 
JoJJ}.  10.  9,  The  Latter,  upon  his  taking  o*f  Ai  by  an  Ambulh,  Ch.  8.1.-8. 
for  which  he  had  particular  Diredion  from  God  himfelf :  as  doubtlefs  A- 
hraham  alfo  had.  And  no  Points  of  Military  Prudence,  have  more  often 
been  imitated  by  all  Nations.  The  former,  conftantly  ufed  by  the  Ro- 
mans ;  .as  much  beholden  to  their  Expedition,  as  their  Valour,  or  any 
thing  elfe,  for  mofl  of  their  Vidories.  Nor  did  they  feldom  put  the 
the  latter  in  pradife :  as  appears  by  the  Hiftory  of  their  Wars,  and 
the  Inftances,  Frontinus^  a  Roman  Senator,  in  his  Book  de  Stratagematis^ 
hath  given,  in  the  Chapters,  de  Infidiis.  And  the  fame,  was  one  of  Ha- 
nihal's  principal  Arts.  And  part  of  the  Policy,  which  Jofhua^  by  diredion 
ufed  againft  Ai^  was  enticing  the  People  out  of  the  City,  by  a  feigned 
Flight.  Which  ^as  imitated,  among  others,  hy  Cato,  Strat.  •5.10.  a- 
gainjQ:  the  LUcetani.  The  Inftances,  which  the  fame  Author  gives,  de 
Explorandis  Hoflium  Confiliis ;  are  but  Imitations  of  Mofes  and  "jojhua^  in 
fending  the  Spies,  firft  to  Canaan,  and  then  particularly  to  Jericho.  The 
Gi/(?A5i'/^f J  requiring  thofe  who  efcaped  from  the  Fight,  Judg.iz.6.  to 
fay,  ^^/^/t'//^  hath  taught  the  Generals  of  Armies,  to  give  aijd  demand 
the  Word,  all  over  the  World. 

45-.  Romulus' s  direding  the  young  Men,  to  take  evg-y  Man  his  Wife, 
of  the  Daughters  I  think,  ofthtSamnites,  while  they  were  dancing  with 
them :  what  was  it,  but  a  Leflon  learned  of  the  Benjaminites  ?  Who  being 
reduced  to  thefelf-famc  (freight,  Jud.  zi.  i.  20,  11,2-5. as  ^^^^  the  Roman 
Youth ;  caught  every  Man  his  Wife,  cf  the  Daughters  of  Shiloh,  when 
they  came  out  to  dance. 

46.  Among  other  Ways,  ufed  to  animate  the  Soldiers  unto  Battle  j 
Archidamus  the  Spartan,  when  he  fought  with  tlie  Arcadians,  Aulus  Poft- 
humiuSy  when  with  the  Latines,  Lucius  Scylla,  Caius  Marius,  and  others, 
have  taken  this,  to  feign  their  Aflurance  of  Vidory,  by  the  Prefence, 
or  the  Promife  of  the  Gods.  An  apiOi,  but  palpable  Imitation,  of  the 
Real  Aflurance  frequently  given  to  the  ''^ews,  to  the  fame  end. 


C  H  A  p.  il.  oftheHebrenpCode.  lej 

47.  When  DaviA''s  Captains  brought  him  of  the  Water  of  the  Well  of 
Befh/em  Jor  which  he  longed,  i  Cbr.  11.  17, 18, 19.  he  would  not  drink  any 
of  it,  calling  it,  the  Blood  of  thofe  that  irought  it ;  but  poured  it  out  unto 
the  Lord.     So  among  other  Indances,  Frontinus  gives,  _^emaJmo^um  ea  ^ 
quihus  deficimus,  videantur  non  deejfe,    ut  ufus  earum  expleaturt     one,  is  in 
Alexander.     Who  when  in  theDeferts  o^  Africa^  Himfclf  and  his  Army, 
being  aflided  with  Thirft,  Water  was  brought  him  by  one  of  the  Soldi- 
ers in  his  Helmet:  he  would  riot  drink  it,  but  poured  it  down  before  them 
all  upon  the  Ground,     Factum  Nohile^  as  Frontinus  calls  it ,  but  beneath 
that  of  David ^  as  in  fome  other  refpeds,    fb,  -in  that,    what  Alexander 
did,  was  but  a  Copy  from  David's  Original. 

48.  It  is  like  wife  very  apparent,  that  other  Nations  have  borrowed  of 
the  Jews^  fundry  of  their  beft  Laws.  To  do  this,  they  wanted  not  Op- 
portunities by  converilng  with  the  Jews  •  both  in  their  feveral  Captivi- 
ties, and  in  their  own  Countrey.  Where,  upon  reading  the  Law,  every 
7th  Year,  all  Strangers  were  required  to  be  prefent.  And  their  being  fo, 
was  an  Introdudion,  to  a  freer  Communication  with  the  Jewifli  Priefts. 
"Tis  alfo  likely,  that  many  travelled  and  came  among  the  Jews,  chiefly 

for  this  purpofe.     Ariftocrates,  cited  by  Plutarch,  fays,    '  That  Licurgus        , 
*  in  his  Travels,  converled,  among  others,  with  the Gyw^o/o/)/;//?-^  in /»^/^, 
Delcendants  or  Difciples  of  the  Jews.     And  Tliny  of  Solon,    Dicunt  cog- 
nitionis  &  multarum  rerum  ufus  gratis,  vagatum  per  Orbem  fuijfe :  And   it 
is  fenfelels,  to  think,  he  would  omit  Judaa,  then  fo  famous.     And  Di- 
ogenes Laertius  faith  the  like  of  Plato.     And  Plutarch  of  the  Pelafgi,  that 
when  they  had  travelled  through  the  greater  part  of  the  World,  fome  Au- 
thors relate,  they  fixed  upon  that  piece  of  Land",  whereunto,  for  their 
Military  Strength,  which  the  Greeks  call  'VujuLu/,  they  gave  the  Name 
of  Borne.     That  th^  wandered  for  a  long  time,    is  certain  :  no  doubt, 
for  thebefl:  Seat  ancF  Laws,  they  could  meet  with.      And   of  Muma,  that 
he  was  defcended  of  the  Sabines,  a  Colony  of  the  Lafedamonians.   And 
therefore,  that  many  of  the  moft  Ancient  Roman  Laws,  were  taken  from 
the  Spartan ;  as  Ten  of  the  Twelve  Tables,  were  afterwards  fron:y:ho(e 
of  Athens,  and  other  chief  Cities  of  Greece.      And  it  is  certain,    that 
many  of  all  thefe,  were  derived  from  thofe  of  Crete  :  then  every  where, 
as  Plato  teftifies,  of  great  Fame.     And  to  come  at  laft,  to  the  Fountain, 
Why  not  many  of  the  Laws  of  Crete,   in  like  manner  from  the  Jews  ? 
with  whom,  being  fituate  much  nearer  to  them,  than  either  the  At  ticks 
or  the  Spartans,    they  had   the  Opportunity  of  a  more  early  acquain- 

49.  Bat  nothing  can  be  more  convincing,  than  Examples  hereof.  And 
firft,  the  Divine  Adminiftration  of  the  Judaick  Law,  recorded  by  Mo- 
fes,  has  been  Imitated,  or  Believed,  by  the  mofl:  ancient  and  bed  Legida- 
tors.  Minos  gave  his  Laws,  as  coming  from  Jove ;  Lycurgus,  from  A- 
poUo  ;  Numa,  from  the  Goddefs  Egeria.  Solon,  it  leems,  was  content  i^ 
ihould  be  known,  he  received  his  at  fecond  hand.  And  it  fufficed  Plato, 
to  begin  his  Books  of  Laws,  with  his  alTerting  the  Primitive  Deriva- 
tion of  all  Laws  from  Divine  Authority  :  and  affirming  his  fo  doing,  to 
be  TO  (TiPtat/oTo-Tov,  that  which  was  mod  juft.  What  was  the  Capitol  up- 
on the  Tarpeian  FJill,  whither  iV«w<a  went  to  confult  the  Chief  Augur,  biit 
fomcthing  to  anfwer  Mount  Sina,  or  the  Temple  on  Mount  Sion  ?  And 
the  Ten  Tables  of  Roman  Laws,  extradted  from  the  Grecian,  probably  di- 

S  f  gefted 

,c^  As  they  af fear  Book  iV. 

'^  » . _^ 

gefted  into  as  many,  but  an  Imitation  of  the  lame  Number  Ten,  in  which 
the  firft  Great  Commands  were  comprehended. 

50.  The  Gentiles^  though  mif-underllanding  the  Firfl:  Command; 
and  that  in  Exod.  xz.  i8.  '  Thou  flialt  not  revile  the  Gods,  did  therefore 
retain  Folytlieifm  :  Yet  the  VVifed  of  them,  all  agreed,  in  acknowledg- 
ing one  Supreme  God.  • 

51.  Tho' roiftaking  the  Senfe  of  that  Paflage,  '  Let  us  make  Man  in 

*  our  own  Image  ;  and  fome  others ;  gave  moft  Nations  occafion  to 
reprefent  the  Deity  by  Humane  Shape  ;  and  God's  appearing  to  Mofes, 
Exod.  5.4.  and  to  all  the  People,  fc'x,  19.  and  24. 17.  in  Flaming  Fire  ; 
gave  occafion  to  the  Chaldceans  and  Terfiam  to  worfliip  Fire:  Yet 
Pythagoras^  and  fome  other  Philofophers,  condemned  all  Idolatry,  And  of 
Numa^  Plutarch  teftifiex,  that  he  forbad  the  Romans,  to  attribute  to  God, 
the  Figure  of  Man  or  Bead.     '  WhicH,  faith  CI.  Alexandrinus,  he  learn- 

*  ed  of  the  Writings  of  Mofes.    Nor  had  that  People  any  Pidture,  or  Sta- 
tue, of  the  Deity  for  the  fpace  of  160  Years. 

5z.  ThQ  Athenians,  Romans,  and  other  Nations,  had  alfo  their  Sacred 
Fire,  like  that  upon  the  Altar  of  Burnt-Offering,  which  was  always  kept 
burning.  Their  Altars,  as  for  the  Tabernacle  and  in  the  Temple, were  pla- 
ced, as  Fttruvius  alfo  diredis,  toward  the  Eafl:.  As  all  Fables  were  founded 
in  Truth :  So  all  falfc  and  profane  Sacrifices,  on  thofe  inftituted  by 
God  himfelf,  whether  made  with  Animals,  or  the  Fruits  of  the  Ground. 
The  Latter,  beft  approved  by  the  Egyptians,  and  moft  others,  in  the 
firft  Ages,  as  feeming  to  them,  more  natural,  and  after  the  Example 
of  Cain,  the  Elder  Brother.  And  among  other  Offerings  made  by 
the  Spartans,  Plutarch  mentions  that  of  the  Firft  Fruits,  according  to 
the  Command,  Deut.x6.z.  Impius  ne  audeto placare  Denis,  Irarn  Deorum ; 
was  an  Athenian  Law,  Cic.  de  Leg.  L.  r.  And  was  the  Senfe  of  all  the 
External  Purification,  required  by  the  Law  of  Mofest^ 

53.  The  Officers,  after  their  Vidory  over  the  Midianites,  Numb.-]. 
50.  54.  brought  an  Oblation  of  the  Jewels  they  had  gotten,  to  the  Ta- 
bernacle. Imitated,  as  by  other,  Nations,  Co  the  Romans.  VVho  upon 
their  Vid-ories,  ufed  to  make  their  Oblations  to  Jupiter  Capitolinus  5 
as  Romulus  did  of  his  firft  Spoils.  Camillus  having  overcome  the  Vei- 
entes,  dedicated  the  Tithe  of  the  Prey  to  Apollo.  After  the  Example  of 
Abraham,  who  becoming  Vidor  over  the  Armenian  Kings,  gave  the 
Tithe  of  all  he  had  to  Melchizedech,  the  Prieft  of  the  Moft  High 

5-4.  *  Thou  fhak  not  take  the  Name  of  the  Lord  thy  God  in  vain  ; 
is  one  of  the  Great  Commands.  And  Numa  appointed  an  Oath  unto  the 
Romans,  fay  Plutarch  and  Livy,  as  the  chiefelt  Obligation  unto  Faith 
and  Truth.    The  Penalty  ol  this  Law  is,  '  For  the  Lord  will  not  hold 

*  him  guiltlefs,  that  taketh  his  Name  in  vain.  And  the  Athenian  Law, 
Cic.  de  Leg.  z.  faith,  Perjurii,  posna  humana,  Dedecus  ;  Divina,  Exitium, 
'  If  a  Man  vow  a  Vow  unto  the  Lord,  he  is  required  pundually  to  per- 

*  form  it,  Numb.  30.  x.  And  Cicero  faith,  it  was  another  Law  of  the  fame 
Commonwealth,  Sanile  Vota  reddunto.  Diomedes  his  Vow,  to  facrifice 
whatibever  he  firft  met,  upon  his  Return  into  his  Countrey,  and  fo  kil- 
ling his  Son :  was  grounded  on  the  Report  of  Jephthas  having  done 
the  like  to  his  Daughter. 


Chap    I[      "from   FOREIGN    PKOOF.  ~ 

5-<^.  The  whole  Gentile  World,  though  they  underflood  not  t\\Q 
Reafon  of  the  Weekly  Sabbath  :  yet  had  their  Feflival  Days,  as  the 
Jews  had,  and  by  the  Mofaick  Law,  were  all  called  Sabbaths. 

56.  '  After  Religion,  fays  Plato,  fie  Leg.  4.  follows  the  Honour  due 
'  to  our  Parents,  rhan  whicii,  nothing  could  be  more  plainly  and  aptly 
fpoken  of  the  Fifth  Command.  In  the  firfl;  Ages,  Fathers  were  Prin- 
ces and  Governouis.  Therefore  Mofes  hxdis  t\\t  Jews,  to  reverence  the 
Aged,  as  well  as  their  Parents.  And  fo  did  the  Laws,  both  of  the  Athe- 
nians,  and  the  Spartans.  And  all  Ariflocracies,  have  had  the  Jewifli  EI- 
derihip,  for  their  Pattern. 

"■57.  That  Pallage  of  PlatOy  de  Leg.  4.  is  remarkable..  '  The  Tradi- 
'  tion,  fays  he,- which  is  according  to  Primitive  Truth,  teacheth  us, 
'  that  no  City  is  ever  free  from  Labour  and  Alilid:ion,  if  any  mortal 
'  Man,  and  not  God  himfelf,  be  the  Lord  of  it.  Whereby  it  feems, 
he  knew  by  the  Scrpturcs,  which  he  calls  primitive  truth  ;  that  the 
State  of  the  Jfiw,  in  the  good  Days  of  Samuel,  was  a  Theocracy,  and 
what  Mifchiefs  Samuel  told  them,  would  follow  their  having  a  King, 
viz.  Such  a  King,  as  was  to  rule  them  after  the  manner  of  the  Orien- 
tal Kings  their.  Neighbours,  And  dejlir  too,  when  Anthony  put  the 
Crown  upon  his  Head,  fending  it  to  the  Capitol,  had  learned  to  fay. 
Solum  Jovem  Romanorum  Regem  ejfe  ;  as  Cicero^  Paterculus,  and  Cafius  do 
all  tellifie. 

y8.  The  fame  Plato  ^e  Leg.  would  have  his  City  divided  into  twelve 
Tribes  ;  as  was  the  Nation  of  the  Jews.  And  both  Lycurgus  and  He, 
that  the  Fields  and  Houlf  s,  (hould  be  divided  among  the  Citizens  by 
Lot :  as  was  the  Land  of  Canaan.  And  bccaufe  it  is  faid,  that  Jojhua 
call:  the  Lots  before  the  Lord,  C^.  8. 10.  andProi;.  16  33.  that  the  dif- 
pofal  hereof  is  of  thd;  Lord  :  therefore  Plato  de  Leg.  15.  faith  too, 
v^jxeti  zXripov,  mr  ^eoi,  that  God  himfelf,  is  the  Difpofer  of  the 

59.  The  Inheritance,  if  there  were  no  Sons,  by  the  Molaick  Law, 
was  to  pals  to  the  Daughters;  if  no  Daughters,  to  the  Father's  Bre- 
thren ;  if  none,  to  the  Grandfather's  Brethren ;  if  none,  to  the  next 
Kinfman,  Numk  17.  8.--11.  And  the  Rule  prefcribed  in  the  twelve 
Tables,  is  much  the  fame,  y«/2. /«//.  L.  ;.  tit.  i,  z.  And  adopted  Chil- 
dren had  the  fame  Right  in  both  thefe  Nations. 

60.  God,  the  better  to  fliew,  how  much  he  abhorred  Murther,  com- 
manded, that  a  Beaft,  if  he  killed  a  Man,  fliould  be  put  to  Death,  Ex.  21. 
x8.  And  P/^^£?  ordains  the  fame.  The  Punilliment  of  Corporal  Injuries 
was  like  for  like,  Ex.xi.zi.zi;.  Andi  Pasna  ex  Lege  duodecim  Tabula- 
rum  propter  Memhrum  ruptum,  Talio  erat,  Juft.  Inft.  1.  4.  tit.  4.  But  if  Sa- 
tisfadion  was  given  by  a  Fine  ;  it  was  to  be  fet  by  the  Judges,  Ex.  %x. 
xz.  And{o  {kys  Sextus  Cacilius  in  Aul.  Gel.  zi.i.  Nolo  hie  ignores,  banc 
quoq;  ipfam  Talionem  ad  ejiimationemjudicis  redigi,  necejfariofolitam.  And 
in  cafe  of  Damage  done  by  a  Bealt,  there  is  the  like  agreement  be- 
tween the  Law,  Ex.  xi.  ^55, 36.  and  thai  of  the  twelve  Tables,  Si  Eqms 
calcitrofus  cake  percufferit ,  aut  Bos  cornu  petere  folitus^  cornu  petierit , 
noxte   dedantur. 

61.  Drunkennefs,  by  which  a  Man  puts  himfelf  into  a  Condition  of 
being  injurious  to  him(elf  and  others;  is  often  branded  and  puniihed 
in  the  Scriptures.  And  Nadab  and  Abihu,  profaning  the  Divine  Ser- 
vice, when  they  were  drunk,  were  llruck  dead.      Upon  which  Occafion 


Ill ' »  ■• 

1 60  Of  the  1  ruth  and  Excellency       Book  IV- 

that  Command  was  given,  Lev.  10.  9.  Do  not  drink  Wine  nor  ftrong 
Drink,  when  ye  go  into  the  Tabernacle  of  the  Congregation,  Icaft  ye 
die.  And  P/ato  informs  us,  de^Leg.  z.  that  by  the  Law  of  the  Carthagi- 
fiiatis^  no  man  that  was  to  enter  upon  an  Office,  or  Bufmefs  of  Moment, 
might  fo  much  as  tafle  any  Wine.  Which  was  alfo,  in  part  refembled 
by  another  of  Ljcwrgaj;  and  by  f/d-/*?,  much  recommended.  TheDiete- 
tickLaws,  Lev.  11.  were  hke wife  imitated  by  the  fame  Lycurgus ;  who 
is  faid  by  Plutarch^  to  liave  regulated  the  Laceelamonians,  both  in  the 
Quality  and  Quantity  of  tlieir  Food,  prafcriptis  Ohfoniis  atque  Epulis. 
6z.  The  Law  of  Mofes,  Deut.  15.  5.  which  permits  a  Man  to  marry 
his  Brother's  Widow,  where  there  is  no  Heir,  was  imitated  by  So/oft^ 
who  permitted  a  young  Woman  of  Fortune,  if  her  Husband  proved  im- 
potent, to  lie  with  his  next  Kinfman.  Yet  allowed  any  Man,  that  feized 
an  Adulterer,  after  the  Example  of  Phineas,  forthwith  to  kill  him.  And 
punilhed  Incefl:,  fays  Cicero^  fupremo  fupplkio^  as  Alofes  did.  And  both 
thefe  Crimes,  and  Sodomy,  were  puniHied  with  the  like  Severity  by  the 
Julian  Law.  Juft.  Inflit.L-  4.7".  18.  Lycurgus  alfo  forbad  the  Spartans  x.a 
joyn  in  Marriage  with  any  Strangers :  As  Mofes  did  the  Jeivs^  with  any  of- 
the  Nations  round  about.  And  the  Degrees  of  Affinity  prohibited  in  Mar- 
riage, and  that,  fecundum  Jus  vetus  Romanum  ^  Juft.  Infl.  L.  i.T.  10. 
are  much  the  fame  with  thofe  fet  down  in  the  Mofaick  Law. 

6^.  The  ftealing  of  Lands,    by  a  Man's  removing  his   Neighbour's 

I  Land-mark,  was  prohibited  by /*/!?f<)ri(?jLf^.  8.  almoft  in  the  fame  Words 

as  by  Mojes.  A  Thief,  if  the  Theft  was  found  in  his  hand,  was  required  to 
reflore  double,  Ex.  22.4.  In  like  manner,  5o/o«„  fays  A.Ge/l.u.  8.  Sua 
lege  in  Ftires^Aupli  pana  vindicanflum  exiftimavit.  And  ^lato  prefcribes 
the  like  Punifbment.  But  if  the  Thief  had  not  wherewithal  to  do  this, 
he  was  to  be  fold,  Ex.  22.  ■^.  And,  fays  A.  Gell.  20.  i.  l-ex  duodecim  Ta- 
hularum.,  Furem  in  fervitutem  tradit.    The  Divine  Law,   Ex.  22.  2,  t,.  will 

j  have  no  Blood  flied  for  a  Thief,  if  killed  in  the  Ad:,  before    Sua-rifmg. 

'  So  Pktd^  if  any  one  fliould  kill  a  Nodurnal  Thief,    would  have  it  to  be 

no  Crime.     And  fo  the  Decemviri,  Gel.  il,  Furem  turn  demum  occidi  pernn- 
,  .  6^.  The  giving  of  a  falfe  Teftimony,  was  to  be  punifhed  by  the  Rule 

j  z.-€.-  /M  fiSk ^t/a4^  of  Retaliation,  Deut.xi).\6-i<^.     And  the  ancient  Romans,  A.  Gel.  20.1. 

I  i^  ^  6^fiu4^Wi  ufed  to  cad  one  convided  of  a  falfe  Teftimony  (I  fuppofe  only  in  a  Ca- 

I  ^'^  /y^  sxifcr  mAMcr ^xx.'iS.  Cafe}  from  the  Tarpeian  Rock.     But  the  Greeks,  thinking  as  it  feems, 

"  /t>,^/^^'5/9'^^A^  that  God,  by  the  third  Command,  had  referved  to  himfelfthePunifhment 

•fu^OxrhLunhUh^f:t^^o{  this  Crime  :  no  Legiflator  among  them,  for  a  long  time,  took  further 

fiM^  Ut4^e>  hx.     notice  of  it,  than  to  hold  the  Criminal  inDifgrace.     Qharondas  the  Cata- 

l-*jj^f(ruhJ^ut.Cip-  „jan,  as    Arijlotle  {zss,    Pol.   3.10.  being   the    firfl    that    ordained    a 

Muld.  •"  . 

6$.  We  are  commanded  to  love  our  Neighbour  as  our  felves.  And 
Plato  de  Leg.  5.  advifes  his  Citizens,  to  abhor  all  blind  and  partial  Self- 
love.  The yieivj- were  required,  D(?«/.  14.  i.  ufe,  after  the  manner 
of  other  Nations,  that  foolifli  and  hypocritical  Shew  of  Love,  in  cutting 
themfelvcs  for  the  Dead.  And  it  was  one  of  Solon  s  Laws,  Cicero  de  Leg. 
2.  Mulieresgenas  ne  radunto,  neve  Lejfum  funeris  ergo  halento.  Lycurgus 
to  prevent  Covetcufnefs,  fuffered  the  Currency  of  no  Gold  nor  Silver 
Coin,  but  only  fuch  as  was  made  of  Iron.  Plato,  though  he  allows  of 
both,  yet  of  no  more  than  is  neceffary  for  daily  Ufe.  Very  agreeable^ 
not  only  to  what  is  required  of  all  Men,  Make  not  halle  to  be  rich  ;  but 


^HAP.  II,  m  of  the  Hehrerp  Code.  161 

of  Kings  in  particular,  Deut.  17.  xj.  Not  very  much  to  multiply  to 
tlicmfelves  Silver  and  Gold.  And  as  all  lending  upon  Ufeto  the  Poor, 
and  with  Extortion  unto  any,  was  forbid  to  the /eivj ;  fo  among  the  anci- 
ent Terfians^  Greeks  and  Romans,  Co  long  as  they  continued  Virtuous  ;  no- 
thing could  be  more  odious,  in  it  felf,  or  for  the  Confequenccs  of  it ;  as  is 
teftified  by  Jppian,  and  other  grave  Authors. 

66.  It  was  required  of  the  Jews,  that  all  Caufes  relating  to  any^of  their 
Laws,  too  difficult  for  inferiour  Courts,  (liould  be  finally  heard  and  de- 
termined, either  by  the  Sentence  of  Mofes  and  die  70  Elders,  £a-.  18.  z6. 
znd  Numk  11.16, 17.  or  by  other  Supream  Judges,  after  his  Death, 
Deut.  17,  9, 10.  Which  was  alfo  imitated  by  Hippodamus  the  Milefian  , 
who  ordained,  fays  Arijlotle,  Pol.  x.  6.  among  other  things  of  great  Mo- 
ment, One  Chief  Court  of  Juftice  ;  to  which  ail  I'uch  Caufes,  as  feemcd 
in  arty  other,  to  be  ill  decided,  ihouldcomeby  Appeal.  And,  Nemo  tarn 
integram  potejiaiem  in  judiciis  habere  debet,  quinab  eo  provocare  Ikeat  ;  waS 
Meaenas's  Advice  to  Augujius. 

67.  Thefe  Judges  were  to  adminiflerjuftice  indifferently  linto  all:  e- 
fpecially  to  the  Widow  and  Fatherlefs  •  and  to  the  Stranger.  Of  the 
Former,  God  is  pleafed  to  fay,  £.x.  xx.  23.  'That  if,  being afHided,  they 
cry  unto  him,  he  woyld  certainly  hear  their  Cry.  Which  taught  Plato  in 
like  (nanner  to  fay  of  Gt)d,  'b-jXa.^  h'lxtpepojv  tS  TraGoW©-  ylyvirof,  *  That  he 
'  becomes  an  eximious  Guardian  to  the  Afflided.  Of  the  Later,  thd 
Jews  are  commanded,  Ex.  zz.  xi,  Not  to  vex  or  opprefs,  a  Stranger: 
andfo^A-.  X3.9.  and  eifewhere.  Which  the  fame  Philofophcr  fo  well 
remarked,  as  to  fay,  that  of  all  Injuries,  thofe  done  to  Strangers,  '<^  «s 
0eov  aV/ij3Twp,Va  ri/u'j)fov  f^AAov ,  God  took  a  particular  Care  to  re- 

68.  Now  from  the  foregoing  Inllances,  thefe  things  are  very  plain :  That 
a  great  Number  of  Particulars,  contained  in  the  Holy  Scriptures ;  have 
been  reported,  not  by  a  few,  but  by  many,  and  thofe  of  divers  Nations. 
Notbym^n  Men,  but  fuch  as  in  their  own  time  and  Countrey,  were  of 
the  bell  Underilanding  and  Fame.  That  they  have  not  only  reported 
them,  as  Things  Univerfally  kno\\  n,  and  acknow  ledged  to  be  true :  but 
alfo,  that  they  looked  upon  them  as  Examples,  right  worthy  of  their  I- 
mitation.  As  in  Poetry  and  Hiftory ;  fo  in  Things  of  the  greateft  Mo- 
ment, the  Rules  of  Virtue  and  good  Government.  Thofe  Rules,  on  the 
Succefs  whereof,  they  could  not  but  alfo  fee,thelr  own  Glory  to  depend,  as 
well  as  the  Peace  and  Happinefs  of  their  Countrey.  And  therefore  it  is 
as  plain,  that  notwithftanding  the  Imperfedt  Account  they  had  of  thefe 
Rules ;  yet  in  making  choice  of  them  for  the  aforelaid  Ends,  the  greateft 
they  could  not  propole  to  themfelves :  they  fliewed  a  Belief,  of  their  being, 
of  all  they  had  met  with,  the  moll  Excellent,  and  as  the  Jews  pretended, 
of  a  Divine  Original. 

t  t  CHAP. 

i62  As  they  appear  ^         Book  IV. 

CHAP.    HI. 

Of  the  tRVTH  and  EXCELLENCT  of 

tbe^  Hebrew  Code,  as  they  appear  in  it  felf, 
Jndfirft,  if  we  confider  the  WRITERS^  to 
whom  we  are  beholden  for  it, 

i.'V  To  Book  was  ever  fo  well  writ,  but  through  111  Will,  or  Mif-un- 
X  >f  derftanding,  it  has  been  undervalued.  And  fo  it  fares  with  the 
Bible  it  felf.  As  Bad  Men  take  it  to  be  their  Intereft ,  fo  Witty  Men, 
their  Reputation,  to  make  it  a  Fable.  And  they  who  are  weak,  learn  to 
fay,  as  others  do.  Some,  from  the  Matter,  others,  from  the  Style,  Me- 
thod, or  on  fome  other  account,  either  tax  it  with  Fahhood,  or  think 
meanly  of  it.  And  lome,  only  becaufe  it  is  become  Cheap  and  Com- 
mon. As  mofl  People  admire  the  Tail  of  a  Glo-worm,  which  is 
a  rare  Sight ;  more  than  they  do  the  Sun,  which  fliines  upon  them  e- 
very  Day. 

%.  Neverthelefs,  we  have  feen  the  Opinion,  which  the  VVifefl:  Part 
of  the  Heathen  World  have  ever  had  of  it  j  and  particularly,  of  the  Old 
Teflament.  And  if  we  look  upon  this  Book,  not  by  Report,  or  in  broken 
Parcels,  as  they  did ;  but  as  we  have  it  in  our  Hands  Entire  :  nothing 
can  command  a  greater  Veneration.  Provided,  that  with  due  regard  apd 
judgment  we  perufe  the  fame. 

3.  Andfirft,  the  Truth  hereof,  may  be  looked  upon  as  undoubted, 
were  it  for  no  other  Reafon,  but  the  great  Antiquity  of  thofe  Writers, 
above  all  others,  to  whom  we  are  beholden,  whether  at  the  fit|t  or  fecond 
hand^  for  the  Contents  hereof.  Among  prophane  Authors,  of  whofe 
Writings  we  have  any  Memorials,  now  extant  ;  Sanchmiathon^  the  Phce- 
«icw»  Hiflorian,  about  the  time  of  ^d-w^j/^w,  and  above  300  Years  after 
Mofes,  is  the  mofl;  ancient.  And  if  we  have  any  true  Remains  of  Orpheus 
among  the  Greeks ;  yet  he  lived  much  about  the  fame  time,  with  that 
Hiftorian.  After  whom,  there  is  none  extant  before  Homer  ;  later  than 
JD^'yi</,  by  fome  Years.  Nor  had  they  any  certain  Account  of  Thiqgs, 
as  y«/?/«  Martyr^  Afrkanus,  and  others  obferve,  before  the  Olympiads  j 
inllitutedin  the  time  of  UzziaJ.\  King  of  Judahy  700  Years  alter  Mofes. 
Who  lived,  Cays  CI.  Alexandrims,  not  only  before  the  Earliefl:  Writers 
among  the  Gentiles^  but  mofl;  of  their  Gods.  And  of  the  Romans^  Livy 
tells  us,  lib.  6.  that  there  was  very  little  Writing  among  them,  for  fome 
Centuries  after  the  Building  of  the  City.  In  which  time,  Una  fuit  cuflo. 
dia,  fidelh  memoria  Rerum  Geftarum.  The  Books  therefore  of  the  Old 
Teflament,  and  efpecially  thofe  of  the  Pentateuch,  the  Foundation  upon 
which  all  the  refl;  are  built;  being  of  that  Antiquity,  as  to  precede  all 
the  Hiftory  of  the  Heathen  World ,«  and  much  more  all  their  tables  ;  we 
have  reaion,  were  it  from  hence  alone,  to  look  upon  them  as  the  Records 
of  fincere  and  honeft  Truth.  All  Fables,  being  the  Corruption,  or  Difguife 
of  true  and  plain  Hiftory  precedent  to  them. 

4.  We 

Chap.  111.    from  the  WRITERS  hereof  i6^ 

4.  We  are  next  to  confider,  That  Mofes  living  nearer  the  Beginning  of 
Things,  than  any  other  known  Writer  ;  and  within  the  time  of  Longe- 
vity :  had  hereby  the  greater  advantage  for  the  recording  of  Truth. 
For  if  we  compare  the  Age  of  the  Antediluvian  Patriarchs,  with  the 
time  of  their  Birth  ;  it  appears,  that  in  the  Conveyance  of  the  Sacred 
Tradition  from  Adam  to  IJoah^  there  was  but  one  Remove  interpofed. 
For  as  Enos  lived  and  converled  with  his  Grandfather  Adam^  near  700 
Years ;  fo  l^oah  with  Enos  above  fourfcore.  And  as  Enoch  converied  with 
Adam^  above  300  Years  i  fo  l^oah  with  Enoch ^  one  and  thirty.  Befides 
whom,  l^oah  alfohved  with  Cainan,  179  years  i  with  Mabahleel^  1^4,. 
\<i\t\\  jared^  366;  with  Methufe/ah^^^^  ;  and  with  his  Father  Lamech,  as 
long.  From  whofe  concurring  Teftimonies,  he  could  not  but  receive 
very  good  aflurance  of  the  truth  of  Things  from  the  Beginning. 

5.  If  again,  we  compare  the  Years  of  Noah  after  the  Flood,  and  the 
Age  of  the  Pofldiluvian  Patriarchs,  with  the  time  of  their  Birth,  unto 
Mofes:  it  appeats  firft,  that ^^rdr/^<7/w  lived  with NW.' 57  Years.  So  that 
in  tiie  Tradition  of  the  Sacred  Story,  from  Adam  to  Abraham,  there  were 
but  two  Removes  interpofed,  viz.  either  by  Enos  or  Enoch,  and  by  Noah. 
And  befides  AW;,  ^^rj/;awalfo  lived  with  Nine  more  of  the  Pofldiluvian 
Patriarchs;  and  of  thefe,  with  ?em  himfelf,  175  Years.  It  is  plain  too, 
that  Ifaac  lived  with  Sarah  his  Mother,  57  Years  ;  and  with  Abraham,  his 
Father,  75  ;  and  j^aco^  with  Ifaac  izo.  Gen.  35.2,8.  for  their  full  Inftru- 
d:ion  in  all  Particulars.  And  tho'  Ifaac  was  60  Years  old,  when  Jacoh 
was  bom,  (?<?^.  xj.i^.  yet  .S'lfw  living  500  Years  after  the  Birth  of  Ar- 
phaxad,  it  is  evident,  that  not  only  Abraham  and  Ifaac,  lived  with  Sem, 
hnt  Jacob  too;  no  lefs  than  50  Years.  And  Jofeph  hkewife,  being  born, 
not  till  the  9  \fl  Year  of  Jacob,  as  by  comparing  Gen.  41.  46, 47.  and  45-. 
II.  and  47.  9.  it  appears,  he  was  not ;  died  not  above  60  Years,  or  there- 
about before  Mofes  was  born.  And  therefore  lived  with  many  of  the 
Pofterity  of  Levi,  one  of  JacoFs  Sons  ;  and  particularly,  with  Amram, 
Mofes's  Father,  at  lead  10  Years. 

6.  Now,  as  from  Adi^m  to  M(fes  there  were  but  25:  Defcents;  a  lefs 
Number  than  moft  Princes,  and  fome  private  Gentlemen  are  able  to 
Ihew,  of  their  own  Anteceflbrs  .•  So,  from  what  is  before  noted,  it  is  very 
plain.  That  in  the  Sacred  Tradition,  there  were  but  Six  Removes,  ws.  by 
Enoch,  Noah,  Abraham,  Jacob,  Jofeph  and  Amram,  intervening  between  A- 
dam  and  Mofes.  And  thefe  were  all  of  'em,  either  Eminent  Prophets,  or 
of  the  Holy  Line,  to  whom  more  efpecially  God  was  pleafed  to  make 
himfelf  known,  and  all  things  elfe  neceflary,  from  the  Beginning.  And 
the  Age  of  Men  beginning  confiderably  to  be  fliortned  about  the  time  of 
Abraham ;  that  Defedt  was  foon  over-anfwered,  by  tlie  Number  of  Jacob's 
Pofterity  :  v\  hich  became  a  Multitude  of  Witnefles,  to  the  Truth  of  all 
things  received  from  their  Predeceflbrs,  relating  to  the  Creation,  and  the 
Flood,  and  the  whole  Sacred  Story, 

7.  It  is  alfo  very  reafonable  to  believe,  that  Mofes  was  not  the  firft,  who 
ufed  Letters:  but  that  the  Records  of  many  things  were  made  by  Jofeph 
in  Egypt.  Who  can  tliink  that  Prince,  or  his  Ofhcers,  by  his  Dirediion, 
could  take  and  keep  any  tolerable  Account  of  the  Stores  which  were  laid 
up  in  the  Seven  Years  of  Plenty,  throughout  all  the  Land  of  Egypt ;  or 
of  the  Confumption  hereof  in  the  Seven  Years  of  Famine,  without  a 
Regiliry  ?  Or  of  the  Survey  of  the  whole  Countrey,  and  tlie  Sale  and 
Purchace  of  every  Man's  Land,  without  Books  or  Rolls,    fit  for  thefe  U- 


J  64 

Js  they  affear 


O  O  K 


Ufes  ?  And  if  he  had  Writing  enough,  whatever  it  was,  for  thefe  j  then, 
for  any  thing  contained  in  the  Firft  Book  of  Mofes. 

8.  Nor  can  it  be  difproved,  but  that  fome  fort  of  Charaders,  Literal 
or  Verbal,  were  ufed  by  the  Holy  Liqe  frorii  the  Beginning.  Whereby 
all  requifite  Memoirs  might  be  conveyed  to  Jofeph^  and  to  Mofes^  as  well 
as  by  Oral  Tradition.  And  is  that,  which  for  preventing  of  any  Error 
or  Doubt,  in  the  Account  of  fome  Particulars,  feemeth  to  have  been 
neceflary  ;  as  of  the  Pedigrees  and  Ages  of  the  Patriarchs,  with  the 
time  of  their  Births  ;  which  are  all  pundtually  fet  down.  And  therefore 
the  Pedigree  from  A^am  to  Noah,  Gen.  5.  hath  this  Title  prefixed  to  it ; 
This  is  the  Book  ,  Sepher,  the  Chartule,  of  the  Generations  of  Adam  ; 
as  if  Mofes  had  it  ready  drawn  up  to  his  Hand. 

9.  The  Account  we  have  of  Things  before  Mofes^  is  comprifed  within 
the  Book  of  Genets.  The  Contents  of  tlie  other  Four  Books  of  the  Pen- 
tateuch, are  of  thofe  Things,  whereof /J/ij/e-y  was  an  Eye-witnefs  from  firft 
to  laft.  And  the  Records  of  all  the  Five,  were  of  equal  Antiquity  with 
Himfelf.  There  are,  it's  true,  fome  Padages,  which  neither  Mofes ^  nor 
any  Man  of  his  own  time,  can  be  fuppofed  to  have  writ.  As  that,  Gen. 
I  z.  6.  The  Canaanite^^i  then  in  the  Laj^d.  The  Catalogue  of  the  Kings, 
which  are  faid  to  reign  in  Edom^  Gen.  36.  ;i.  before  there  was  any  King 
in  Ifrael.  That  Parenthefis,  Num.  2.  3.  Novo  the  Man  Mofes  was  very  meek, 
above  all  the  Men  which  were  upon  the  Face  of  the  Earth.  That  in  Deut.  z. 
I  z.  The  Children  of  Efau  drjlroyed  the  Horims  out  of  Seir,  and  dwelt  in 
theirftead;  as  Ifrael  did  unto  the  Land  of  his  Poffejfion^  which  the  Lord 
gave  unto  them.  And  part  of  the  laft  Chapter  of  the  fame  Book  ; 
■which  gives  an  account  of  the  Death  and  Burial  oi  Mofes ^  with  his  Cha- 
racter. But  thefe,  and  fome  few  more  excepted ;  we  have  no  Caufe  to 
doubt,  but  that  the  whole  Pentateuch,  both  the  Legiflative  and  Hiftori- 
cal  Parts  hereof,  were  recorded  by  Himfelf,  or  his  Order  for  the  doing 
of  it. 

10.  Of  the  Judicial  Law,  it  is  exprefly  faid,  £a-.  14.  4.  7.  *That  he 
*  wrote  it  all,  together  with  the  Covenant  annexed  to  it,  in  a  Book  called 
"'  The  Book  of  the  Covenant :  which  he  alfo  then  read  to  the  People.  Of 
the  reft  of  the  Law,  'tis  a!fo  evident,  that  Mofes  wrote  it  all :  both  as  it 
was  by  him  fummed  up  in  the  Book  of  Deuteronomy  :  and  the  whole  Law, 
as  deUvered  in  his  other  four  Books  at  large,  called  all  together,  The  Book 
of  the  Law^Deut.  31.24.z6.  and  The  Book  of  the  LaWof  Moks^JoJh.  z-^.  6. 
Which  Titles  can  have  no  other  meaning,  than  as  aforefaid.  For  if  Mofes 
wrote  his  own  Summary  of  the  Law,  with  fome  Additions  to  it,  that  is, 
The  Book  of  Deuteronomy,  as  he  did :  who  can  think,  he  would  or  could 
omit  the  Recording  of  it,  as  he  received  it  from  God  Himfelf  ?  That  it 
was  not  as  neceffary  for  him,  to  take  care  of  the  Foundation,  as  of  his  own 
Superftrud:ure  ? 

11.  Nor  have  we  any  good  ground  to  doubt,  but  that  the  Hiftorical 
Part  of  the  Pentateuch^  was  Hke wife  wrote  by  his  Direction,  in  his  own 
time,  if  not  by  Himfelf,  His  Recording  of  liindry  Particulars,  is  expreft. 
When  Jojhua  had  fought  with  Amalek,  and  beaten  them ;  Mofes  had  a 
fpecial  Command,  £a-.  17.  14.  to  write  the  Memorial  of  it.  VVhen  he 
hadfetup  the  Tabernacle,  he  was  required  to  take  the  Sum  of  the  whole 
Camp,  from  twenty  Years  old,  and  upward,  N"«w.  s.  z.  When  God  com- 
manded the  Seventy  Elders  to  be  brought  before  him,  to  receive  the  Spi- 
rit of  Government,  Num.  1 1  j  tho'  it  is  not  exprefly  faid,  yet  may'be 

Chap.  in.    from  the  VV  RATERS  hereof         155 

gathered  from  Verf.t 6.  That  there  was  a  Record  then    made  of  that 
Tranrad:ion.     /'>fo/(?5  is  alfo  faid,  iS7«»7,  33.2.    To  write   the   Goings  out 
of  the  Children  of  Ifrael,  according  to  their   Journeys,    by  the  Com- 
mandment of  the  Lord.     And  the  Prophetick  Song,  compofed  by  God 
Himfelf,  was  not  only  rehearfed  by  Mofes  to  the  People,  but  recorded 
with  his  own  Hand,  Deut.-^i.xx.  There  are  alfo  fundry  Particulars,  as 
the  Offering  of  the  twelve  Princes  for  the   Tabernacle,  Num.  7.     the 
Names,  Inftrudions,  and  Ad:s  of  the  Spies,  Hum.  13.  and  many  others  of 
this  Nature  ;  that  is,  accompanied  with  that  Variety   of  Places,   Per- 
lons  and  Things,  and  of  Circumflances   relating  to  them:  that  though 
their  being  recorded,  is  not  exprefl ;  yet  no  Man  can  fuppofe   the  Me- 
morial hereof,  was  left  to  fluduate  on  the  uncertain  Waves  of  Tradi- 
tion.    Add  hereto,  thatmoftof  the  Hiftorical  Part  of  thefe  Books,   hav- 
ing (b  natural  a  Connexion  with  the  Legiflative  ;    either  as  the  things 
therein  mentioned,  were  preparatory  to  the  giving  of  the  Law,  or  as  they 
explain  theReafon  of  fome  Particulars  therein,  or  ihewthe  Occafion  of 
fome  Others :  It  is  not  conceivable,  how  Mofes  could  omit  the  recor- 
ding of  'em  in  this  Connexion  all  together.     And  it  is  from   this  near 
and  natural    Relation  between  them ;  that  the  Preface  to  the  Book  of 
Deuteronomy^  comprehends  'em  both  under  the  Title  of  the  Law.     For 
it  is  there  faid,  That  on  this  fide  Jordan  in  the  Land  of  Moab,  Mofes 
began  to  declare  this  Laiv^  faying/The  Lord  our  God  fpake  to  us  in  Horeb,  &c. 
and  fo  he  continues  for  Four  Chapters,  an  Introdudion  of  pure  Hiflory, 
before  he  hath  one  Word  of  the  Law  it  felf.     And  it  doth  not  appear, 
but  that  this  very  Preface  was  writ  by    Mofes^    or    by   his   Diredion, 
as  well  as  the  following   Hiftory  :  whatfoever  Spimfa^  or  his    Oracle, 
Ahen  Hezra,  thought  to  the  contrary.    In  that  the  Prepofition  n^y,  fig- 
nifies  as  well,  On  this  fide.,  as  Beyond  t,  as  doth  the  Latin  Prepofition,  C«j 
and  as  is  moll;  evident  from  the  Context,  in  Deut.  3.  8.  and  other  Places, 
where  the  fame  Word  is  ufed,  and  cannot  fignifie,  Beyond.,   but ,  On  this 
fide ;  as  our  Englilh  Tranflators  have  alio  truly  rendered  it  in  the  faid 
Preface.     And  tho'  we  fliould  fuppofe  this  Preface    to  be  writ  by  fome 
other  ancient  Hehreto  after  Mofes  ;  yet  it  is  manifeft,  that   he  compre- 
hends the  large  Hiftory  of  Four  Chapters,  under  the  Title  of  Law.    So 
then,  by  the  Book  of  the  Law,  which  /Wo/^j  commanded  the  Levites^  to 
put  by  the  fide  of  the  Ark,  Deut.  3 1 .  x6.  and  whereof  mention  is  made 
xChron.  ly.g.  and  in  other  Texts,  and  in   x  Kings  z-].ii.  called,    The 
Book  of  the  Covenant :  we  are  tounderfland,  the  whole  Pentateuch.     And 
therefore  to  conclude,  that  the  Contents  hereof,  excepting  a  few  PafTa- 
ges  in ferted  afterwards  by  fome  other  Sacred  Pen,    were  all  recorded  in 
Mofes's  time. 

1 1.  The  Book  of  Jofhua  is  probably  fuppoled  by  Ahravanel^  Praf  in 
Jo/h.  to  be  writ  by  Samuel.  That  it  was  writ  before  David's  time,  is  ar- 
gued from  C/.'.  15.  63.  where  the  Jebufites  are  faid  to  dwell  at  JerufaleWf 
with  the  Children  of  Judah,  who  could  not  drive  them  out.  Whereas 
David,  z  Sam.  f,  7,S,().  a ftually  overcame  them,  and  took  their  Fort. 
The  fame  i'iiwwf/ is  like  wife  thought  to  be  the  Author  of  the  Books  of 
Judges,  and  Ruth.  The  Prophet  Jeremy,  of  the  Books  of  Samuel  and 
oi  the  Kings,  fzr^j,  by  fome,  of  the  Books  of  Chronicles.  The  Book 
called  by  his  own  Name,  was  writ,  at  leafl  the  greater  part,  by  Himfelf; 
the  relf,  by  fome  contemporary  Prophet.  And  Nehemiah  doubtlcfs,  wrote 
his  own  Story.     For  the  Pedigree  fet  down,  Ch.ix.  unto  Jadduah,  fuppo- 

V  u  fed 

.  i55  Ai  they  affear    .  b  o  o  k  I  \\ 

fed  to  be  the  High  Priefl:  who  met  Alexander  in  his  Paflage  unto  Perfia,  - 
is  inferted  by  another  Hand.     As  is  alfo  another  Hiftorical  Paflage  from 
Verf.  43.  to  the  End  of  the  fame  Chapter.     That  the  Prophet  Ha^ai 
or  Zechari,  wrote  the  Book  of  Efiher,  is  not  unlikely.     And  the  Prophet 
0/        '  /"/f/         Ifaiah,  the  Book  of  Jok    The  Author's  alluding  to  the  Sun's  (landing 
^^^1!/ /?^    ftillin  the  time  of  Jo/buayCh.g.y.  (hews,  it  could  not  be  writ  by  Mo- 
'^rt^jD!^  \/f(^^'^  f"-     ■^"'^  ^'^  making  ufe  of  the  Chaldean  Aftronomy  ;  that  it  was  writ 
^'    'Vwi^'^-**^  '     after  5(?/owo«  had  introduced  that  Learning.     David,  and  other  Sacred 
^^  Poets,  wrote  their  own  Pfalms  :     tho'  it  appears  by  fome  of  'cm,  thac 

they  were  not  put  together,  as  we  have  'em,  until  after  the  Captivity. 
Solomon,  not  only  his  own  Song  ;  but  his  own  Proverbs ;  or  that  they 
were  didated  by  him.  For  they  are  not  faid,  to  be  colled:ed  from  Tra- 
dition, but  copied  out,  Ch.z^.i.  And  no  doubt  too,  the  Book  of  £rc/(f/f- 
afies ;  tho'  Grotius,  from  fome  Chaldakk  Words  therein,  thought  other- 
wife.  But  that  King,  medling  with  the  Chaldean  Learning,  might  affed: 
fome  Exotick  Words,  as  well  as  Religion.  All  the  Prophets,  from  firfl; 
to  laft,  wrote  or  didated  their  own  Prophecies.  And  Jeremy,  his  Book  of 

13.  Now,  as  the  Compofers  of  mofl  of  thefe  Books,  are  known  to  us : 
fo,  whoever  were  the  Authors  of  the  refl ;  or  of  the  Paflages  after- 
wards inferted  into  any  of  'em  :  Thus  much  is  cettain,  that  the  Particulars 
herein  contained,  were  put  from  time  to  time,  as  they  were  tranfaded, 
into  the  Publick  Records.  For  firfl:,  in  the  Book  of  Jojhua,  fome  things 
are  Recorded  upon  his  Special  Command:  as  the  Defcription  of  the  Ho- 
ly Land  in  Seven  Parts  in  a  Book.  Which  Book  he  alfo  made  ufe  of  in 
dividing  the  Land  by  Lot,  C/».  1 8,  and  19.  And  foane  things  were  writ- 
,  ten  with  his  own  Hand  ;  as  the  Sermon  he  preached  to  the  People,  Ch.  14. 

I  and  the  Covenant  he  thereupon  made  with  'em,  Ferf.  x6.  Nor  can  we 

think  with  any  Senfe,   but  that  all  other  Particulars  contained  in  this 
Book  being  mixed  with   Circumftances,  and  the  Names  of  Perfons  and 
Places,  in  lb  great  Variety ;  mufl  of  necelfity  be  regiflred,  as  they  were 
tranfaded.    And  it  (eems  to  me  mofl  likely,  that  the   Book  of   Jafher, 
mentioned  Ch.  10.18.  was  the  Journal  of  the  Ads   of  Jojhua,  out   of 
which  Samuel  extraded  this  Book.     TheBookslikewife  ofthey«fi[i,(?j,  of 
Ruth,  and  of  Samuel,  are  tor  the  fame  Reafon  as  that  of  Jojhua,  to  be  e- 
fleemed  Extrads  of  the  Publick  Records ;    tho'  the  Hiftorians  do  not 
tell  us  they  are.     But  he  who  wrote  the  Books  of  the  Kings,  frequently 
cites  the  faid  Records,  unto  which  he  all  along  refers  his  Readers.     That 
as  many  as  would,  might  examine  by   the   Records  themfelves,  the 
,   Truth  of  what  he  thence  extraded.    The  very  Title  of  the  Books  of 
Chronicles  ,  Dihre  Haiamim,    that  is,  The  Words  of  Days ;  flievvs,  that 
they  were  taken  from  the  Pubiick  Journals,  wherein  every  thing  was  fet 
down,  day  by  day,  as  it  was  tranfaded.     To  which  Journals,    the  Au- 
thor of  thefe  Books,  doth  hkewife  often  refer.    To  one,  under  the  Title 
of  The  Book  of  the  Kings  of  Ifrael :  and  to  another,  which  he  calls,  The 
Book  of  the  Kings  of  Judah  and  Ifrael.     By  which  Books,   are  not  meant 
the  Canonical  Books  we  now  have ;  but   the  Publick  Journals  of  thofe 
Kings;  as  by  comparing  zChron.  3-5.  18.  with  z Kings ii.  and  fome  o- 
ther  References,  is  very  evident.     Both  Daniel  and  Ezra,  together  with 
their  own  Ads,  recite  feveral  Decrees  taken  from  the  Publick  Records  of 
the  Babylonian    and    Perfian  Kings.     Whereunto    hkewife   the    Author 


. ^ C  H  A  p.  ill.   from  the  FFKI  f  EKS  hereof.           161 
II  f — 

of  the  Book  of  tfther^  Chapter  i.  13.  and  Chapter  10.  z.  feems 
to  refer  the  Reader,  as  to  the  Original ,  from  whence  it  was  col- 

14.  It  is  further  certain ,  that  the  Perfons,  to  whom  the  Regiftry 
and  Cuftody  of  thefe  and  other  publick  Records,  was  committed , 
were  the  Priefts  and  Prophets.  It  was  the  Office,  wliich  anciently 
belonged  to  the  Roman  Pontiffs.  As  alfo  to  the  Chief  Priefls  in  E- 
gypt,  and  in  mod  other  Nations.  And  tiiat  among  the  Jews^  it  be- 
longed to  the  Perfons  aforefaid,  is  affirmed  by  Jofephus,  in  his  Book 
againfl:  Appion  ;  where  he  would  be  fare,  not  to  be  miftaken. 
There  was  alfo  a  Defignation  hereof  to  the  Pried s,  when  Mofes  de- 
livered the  Book  of  the  Law  into  their  Hands,  £)f«^  ^1.9.  And  the 
Kings  were  required  to  take  their  Copies,  from  the  Original,  in  the 
Cultody  of  the  Priefts,  Dent.  17,  18.  And  what  was  done  then  by 
Mofes,  was  an  Example  and  Warrant  unto  all  future  Times,  in  that 
Nation.  And  was  that  which  naturally  accompanied  the  Supremacy 
of  the  Priefthood  in  that  Commonwealth  :  which  continued  from 
the  Death  of  Mofes,  until  by  Divine  Authority,  it  was  transferred  to 
their  Kings.  Unto  whom,  fome  of  the  Priefls,  were  then  alfo  Prin- 
cipal Secretaries  of  State.  Nor  did  the  Kingly  Office,  vacate  that  of  the 
Priefls  aforefaid. 

15.  And  that  the  Prophets  had  alfo  the  fame  Office,  appears,  partly. 
In  that  many,  and  perhaps,  mofl  of  'em  ,  were  themfelves  of  the 
Prieflhood.  And  partly ,  in  that  they  either  wrote ,  or  dictated 
their  own  Prophecies  :  many  of  'em  intermixed  with  State-Hiftory, 
and  all  of  'em  having  relation  to  the  Publick.  But  chiefly,  from  the 
Reference  we  find  made,  by  the  Author  of  the  Chronicles,  unto  fe- 
veril  of  their  Joyrnals.  For  the  Ads  of  David,  to  the  journals  of 
Satxuel,  Nathan  and  Gad:  For  the  Ad:s  of  Solomon,  to  thofe  of  Na- 
than, Ahijah,  and  iddo :  For  the  Ads  of  Ahijah,  to  that  of  Iddo :  For 
the  Ads  of  Jehojhaphat,  to  that  of  Jehu  the  Son  of  Hanani :  For  the 
Ads  of  Rehohoam,  to  thofe  of  Shemaia  and  Iddo ;  and  for  the  Ads  of 
Uzziah  and  Hezekiah,  to  that  of  Ifaiah  ;  all  of  'em  Contemporaries 
with  the  Kings,  whofe  Ads  they  undertook  to  record. 

16.  It  is  alfo  manifefl,  that  thefe  Perfons  were  every  way  qualified  for 
the  due  Performance  of  the  faid  Office.  For  in  a  Commonwealth, 
wherein  there  were  no  Laws,  nor  any  Parts  of  their  Government, 
but  what  were  incorporated  into  their  Religion :  what  could  be  more 
proper,  than  for  the  Priefls  to  have  the  Confervation  of  thefe  Laws  ? 
and  the  Regidring  of  all  Publick  Aflairs,  which  could  be  no  other 
than  fuch  as  had  Relation  to  thefe  Laws,  that  is,  to  their  Religion  ? 
And  being  moreover,  it  was  one  part  of  their  Office,  To  teach  the  People 
their  Duty,  Mai.  i.d,'].  And  to  fit  as  Judges  in  the  Supream  Court  of  Ju- 
dicature, wz.  that  unto  which  all  Inferiour  Courts  made  their  Appeals,D(r«/. 
17.8.— 13.  they  were  hereby  obliged  to  record  all  Proceedings,  and  to 
make  their  Obfervation  of  the  King's  and  Peoples  Conformity  or  Con- 
tradidion  to  the  Law,  and  of  whatfoever  followed  thereupon.  Nor  were 
they  barely  put  into  their  Office,  but  Anointed  and  Confecrated  to  it, 
Ex.  28.41.  By  virtue  whereof,  as  many  of  them  asrefigioufly  obferved 
the  Law,  were  undoubtedly  blefl  with  Wifdom  and  great  Integrity.  E- 
fpecially  the  H.  Priefls,  who  had  alfo  the  Judgment  of  Urim  and  Thum' 
mim^  Num.  27.  zi.  that  is,  of  perfed  Underllanding,  fo  far  as  appertain- 


[68  ^s  they  appear  Book  IV, 

cd  to  their  Charge.  Unto  which  it  was  fo  infeparably  annexed,  that 
even  in  our  Saviour's  time,  when  the  Jewi/h  State  was  fo  far  corrupted, 
that  the  High  Priefthood  it  felf  was  bought  and  fold :  Caiaphas  then 
prophetically  advifed  the  ranfoming  ot  the  whole  Nation  ,  by  the 
Death  of  one  Man.  So  that  the  H.  Priefts,  and  the  reft  in  their  Place, 
were  all  of  them,  as  I  may  fay,  Prophets  in  Ordinary  :  endowed  with 
a  Spirit  of  difcerning,  not  only  Truth  from  Falfhood,  but  what  was  fit- 
teft,  as  ferving  moft  for  God's  Honour,  either  to  be  omitted,  or  put  in- 
to the  Sacred  Record. 

17.  The  Prophets  fo  called,  were  qualified  by  their  extraordinary 
Commiflion.  Whereupon  they  abandoned  all  Worldly  Satisfadtion,  and 
devoted  themfelves  entirely  to  the  Service  and  Honour  of  God.  Mofes 
fo  wile  a  Man,  bred  up  at  Court,  and  the  adopted  Son  of  Pharaoh's 
Daughter,  might  eafily  have  fucceeded  in  the  Kingdom  :  but  we  know 
his  Choice.  And  the  Prophets  after  him,  took  him  for  their  Pattern. 
How  fimple  was  their  Food  ?  a  few  Loaves,  Biskets  and  Honey,  the' 
lent  from  a  King,  i  Kin.  14. 3.  yet  were  not  improper ;  becaufe  prefen- 
ted  to  a  Prophet.  Nor  was  that  of  the  Baptift,  much  unlike,  Locufts 
and  Honey.  How  mean  was  their  Cloathing  .■^  a  fort  of  courfe  Hairy 
Stuff,  was  that  they  all  wore.  Therefore  Zechary^  Ch.  13,  4.  tells  the 
Jews^  that  the  Prophets  fliould  be  alhamed  of  their  Vifions,  neither  fliould 
they  wear  a  rougli  Garment  to  deceive.  And ,  Ifaiah^  Ch.  10.  z.  is  bid 
to  loofe  his  Sackcloth  from  off  his  Loins  :  which  it  feems  he  com- 
monly wore,  tho'  a  Courtier,  and  Prince  of  the  Blood  Royal.  And 
therefore  alfo  the  Baptift,  is  faid  to  be  cloathed  in  Camels  Hair.  And 
their  Dwelling  was  anfwerable  :  a  Bed,  a  Table,  a  Stool  and  a  Can- 
dleftick,  were  all  the  Furniture  of  Elijhays  Palace ;  a  little  Chamber, 
built  him  by  a  rich  Shunamite  on  the  Town- Wall,  j,  Kin.  4.  10.  Kot 
for  any  want  of  Refped,  as  appears,  yerf.  16.  but  becaule  flie  knew 
it  would  pleafe  him  beft.  But  for  the  moft  part,  they  were  ill-dealt 
withal,  and  defpifed.  Upon  the  Delivery  of  their  Meflage  from  God, 
they  were  often  mocked  and  mif-ufed,  xChron.-\6.iG.  and  malici- 
oufly  perfecuted,  Mat.  ^.  ix.  Micajah  and  Jeremy  were  fent  to  Pri- 
fon,  and  forely  afflidied.  Elijah  and  Elifha,  threatned,  and  fought  to 
be  killed.  Zechariah  actually  flonedto  Death.  And  a  great  many  of  them 
at  the  Command  of  Jezehel^  ftain  with  the  Sword.  Nor  M'as  there 
a  Wicked  King,  but  had  his  Hands  in  their  Blood.  Death  too, 
was .  the  Doom  of  every  falfe  Prophet.  And  the  true  Prophet,  if 
difobedient,  was  in  great  danger ;  as  appears  from  Jonah ;  and  the  Man 
of  God  that  was  ilain  by  a  Lien  near  Bethel^  i  Kin.  13.  z6.  and  the 
Warning  given  to  Jeremy^  Ch.  i,  17.  'Be  not  difmaied  at  their  Faces, 
*  left  I  confound  thee  before  them.  So  that  to  be  a  Prophet,  was  to 
be  poor,  hated,  contemptible,  and  liable  unto  Martyrdom.  Unto  all 
which,  nothing  could  be  a  Counterpoize,  but  a  Divine  Commiffion,  and 
their  preferring  the  Honour  and  Favour  of  God,  before  all  other 
things.  In  doing  this,  their  Courage  became  Invincible.  With  this 
Authority,  and  thel'e  Ends,  Ezekiel's  Forehead,  is  as  an  Adamant  har- 
der  than  Flinty  Ch.  x.  9.  And  Jeremy^  as  an  Iron  Pillar  and  Brazen  Walls 
ayiinfi  the  whole  Land^  Ch.  1.  18.  Jeroloam  is  foretold  the  Ruin  of  his 
Houl'e,  in  his  own  Court,  Amos'j.xi^.  Ahah^  to  his  Face,  WloereDop 
licked  the  Blood  of  Naboth,  fl^all  Dogs  lick  thj  Blood.,  even  thine-.,  i  Kin. 
zr.  19.   Thefe  were  the  Perfons,  who  were  taught,  neither  to  flatter,  nor 


>  H  A  p.  Ill,   from  the  VFKI  f  LKS  hereof.  i6i 

to  fear  any  Man ;  but  to  Ipeak  the  naked  Truth  ;  and  who  were  im-; 
ployed,  in  pcning  their  own  Prophecies,  and  the  Sacred  Story.  And 
that  they  ufed  the  fame  religious  Care,  in  writing,  as  they  did  in  fpeak- 
ing  tlie  Truth  :  is  fo  far  further  evident,  as  the  Reafon  for  tlieirfo  do- 
ing ,  was  the  ftronger.  For  if  it  was  of  fo  great  a  Moment,  that 
nothing  but  Truth,  fliould  by  them  be  fpoken  :  how  much  rather,  witii 
relped  to  all  other  Nations,  and  future  Ages  ,  that  nothing  but  Truth 
ihould  be  recorded  ." 

1 8.  And  their  Writings  have  all  the  Marks  of  Truth,  that  can  be  de- 
fired.  In  their  Account  of  lime,  an  Eflential  Part  of  good  Hiftory, 
the  Jews  were  very  pundual.  This  appears,  partly,  from  their  Calen- 
dar. Whereof  Scal/ger,  de  Emend.  Temp,  hath  this  Elogy ;  Methodum 
Computi  Judatci,  argutijfimam  &  eldgantijlimam  e(fe^  nemo  harum  rerum  pau- 

,  lo  peritior,  injictahitur.  For  which,  Calvifius^  in  his  Prolegomena, 
gives  this  Realbn  ;  Nemo  enim  noflrorum  Aftrommorum,  Motum  Longitudi- 
nis  Lume  a  Sole  aquahilem,  eadem  facilitate  Tahulis  comprehendere  potuit. 
And  partly,  from  the  Examples  we  have  in  Scripture,  of  the  Care  that 
was  taken  in  this  Particular.  Mojes  hath  fet  down,  doubtlefs,  as  it  was 
left  recorded  by  the  Patriarchs^  not  only  the  Year  whereip  the  Flood 
hapned,  but  the  Month  and  the  very  Day,  viz.  in  the  6ooth  Year  of  Noah's 
Life,  in  the  zd  Month,  in  the  17th  day  of  the  Month,  Gen.  7. 11.  Tis 
faid,  Ex.  12.41.  that  at  the  end  of  4'iO  Years,  that  is,  from  Ahraharas 
firU  going  to  dwell  out  of  his  own  Countrey;  the  felf-fame  day,  it 
came  to  pafs,  that  all  the  Hofts  of  the  Lord  went  out  from  the  Land 
of  Egypt.  In  Num.  1. 1.  That  the  Militia  was  muftered  in  the  firlf  Day, 
of  the  xd  Month,  in  the  xd  Year  after  the  Ifraelites  were  come  out 
of  Egypt.  In  Deut.  i. :;.  ThisxMofes  began  to  declare  the  Law  contain- 
ed in  that  Book,  in  the  4C/Z' Year,  in  the  ii/i?  Month,  and  the  Firfl: 
Day  of  the  Month.  Xnjojh.^.  19.  That  the  People  came  up  out  of 
Jordat}.,  on  the  lor/jDay  of  the  Firfl  Month  j  that  is,  of  the  417?  Year. 
In  I  Kin.  6.  i.  That  Solomon  began  to  build  the  Temple  in  the  zd  Month 
of  the  480//^  Year.  The  Years  of  the  Judges  and  Kings,  are  all  along 
expreft.  And  in  the  Preface  to  every  Prophetick  Book,  fave  one  or 
tv\  o,  we  are  told  in  w  hofe  Reigns  the  following  Prophecies  were  fpo- 
ken. Sometimes  the  Month  and  Day  are  fet  down.  And  Zechary 
and  Ezeklel,  arc  very  particular,  as  to  mofl  of  their  Prophecies.  Which 
Examples  fuffice  to  fliew,  that  they  obferved  a  mofl  exad:  Chronology 
in  all  their  Journals,  tho'  with  them,  it  be  now  loft;  fo  much  only  ex- 
cepted, as  is  preferved  in  the  Scriptures. 

19.  They  were  alfo  very  exad  in  their  Pedigrees,  above  any  other 
Nation.  To  Ihew  this,  two  In  fiances  alone  will  fuffice.  That  in  Num. 
I.  18.46.  where 'tis  faid,  that  the  whole  Camp,  confifling  of  above 
600000  muflered  Men,  declared  their  Pedigrees,  atter  their  Families,  by 
the  Houfe  of  their  Fathers.  The  other,  in  i  Chron.g.  i.  where  it  is  al- 
fo faid.  That  all  /fr_ael  were  reckoned  by  Genealogies,  written  in  the 
Book  of  the  Kings  of  Ifrael  and  Judab.  And  therefore  u  here- ever  we 
meet  with  any  which  feem  to  be  imperfed:  j  we  are  to  look  upon 
them,  only  as  Abflradls '  of  thofe,  which  were  regiftred  at  large  in  the 
faid  Journal-Book. 

xo.  The  Account  which  they  give  of  things,  is  likewife,  as  often  as 
is  neceffary,  very  particular.  Such  is  that  of  the  Tabernacle,  Ex.  25^ 
^c.  Of  the  Elevation,  and  Refling  of  the  Cloud  upon  it,  Num.  9,  15. 

X  X  to 

1-70  As  they  appear  Book  IV. 

to  the  end.  Of  the  Borders  of  the  Holy  Land,  Num.  ^4.  Of  the  Bor- 
ders and  Situation  of  the  Lands  allotted  to  the  feveral  Tribes,  Jo/h.  i-j. 
to  19.  AndCh.  17.  8, 9.  'tisfaid,  that  Ma»aj}eb  had  the  Land  ofTappua  ; 
but  that  Tappua,  on  the  Border  of  Mauajfeh,  belonged  to  Ephraim ;  and 
that  certain  Cities  of  Ephraim^  were  among  the  Cities  of  Manajfeh. 
As  fome  Towns  here  in  Englattcl,  which  belong  to  one  Count}',  are 
fituate  in  another.  An  hiltorical  Point,  which  no  tabulator,  would 
have  thought  of.  The  miraculous  Overthrow  of  tlie  Thiliftins,  by 
'Jonathans  means,  is  introduced  with  lo  punctual  a  Defer! ption  of  the 
Two  Rocks  between  the  Palles,  i  Sam.i^.^,  5-.  as  gives  it  the  Natural 
Face  of  a  true  Hiftory.  And  every  where  elfe  ,  the  Account  of 
Things,  is  fo  far  exad-,  as  to  fliew,  the  Authors  did  not  report 
them  by  guefs,  but  had  a  certain  Knowledge  of  what  they  wrote. 

21.  The  fame  is  further  manifeft,  from  their  way  of  writing,  with  a 
peculiar  fort  of  Simplicity,  not  to  be  met  with  in  any  other  Books. 
Jacob's  Sons  tell  "jofepVs  Steward,  Gen.  44,  9, 10.  '  With  whomfoever  of 
*us  the  Cup  is  found,  let  him  die,  and  we  will  be  my  Lord's  Bondmen. 
The  Steward  replies,  *  Let  it  be  according  to  your  Words,  He  with 
'  whom  it  is  found,  fliall  be  my  Servant,  and  ye  Ihall  be  blamelefs. 
Which  Reply,  tho'  not  at  all  according  to  their  Words ,  yet  was 
according  to  their  Senfc,  That  whoever  was  guilty,  they  were  content- 
ed, fliould  be  punidied.  'Ye  Ihall  be  fold  unto  your  Enemies,  fays 
^  MofeSy  Deut.x^.  68.  for  Bondmen  and  Bondwomen,  and  no  Man  fliall 
'  buy  you.  That  is,  as  the  bafeit  of  Slaves,  ye  ihall  be  often  cheapned, 
*  and  bought  laft.  '  Ye  have  flain  my  Father's  Sons,  fays  Jotham  to  the 
''Shechemites,  Judg.  9.  18.  Threefcore  and  ten  Perfons,  upon  one  Stone. 
Tho'  himfell^,  one  of  that  Number,  had  made  his  Efcape.  And  yet  he  fpake 
truly.  His  Bufinefs  not  being  to  count  70,  but  to  tell  them  of  their  Crime. 
Which  was,  their  Intent  to  have  flain  himfelf,  as  well  as  the  reft  .•  and 
was  all  one  in  the  fight  of  God,  from  whom  he  now  fpake  to  them, 
as  if  they  had  adually  done  it.  In  which,  and  many  other  like  Para- 
ges, the  Sacred  Writers,  from  a  Confcience  of  their  own  Sincerity, 
where  the  Senfe  fufiiced,  Ihew  a  Negled:  of  that  Precifenefs  in 
Words,  which  Knaves  and  Tellers  of  Tales,  think  themfelves  obli- 
ged to  ufe. 

X2.  Without  any  affeded  refining  upon  any  Man's  Saying.  When 
Pharaoh  asked  Jacob,  How  old  art  thou  ?  he  anfwered.  The  Days  of  the 
Tears  of  my  Pilgrimage,  are  an  hundred  and  thirty  Tears ;  feiv  and  evil 
have  the  Days  of  the  Tears  of  my  Life  been,  and  have  not  attained 
unto  the  Days  of  the  Tears  of  the  Life  of  my  Fathers ,  in  the  Days 
of  their  Pilgrimage,  Gen.  47.  9.  A  Romancer  would,  no  doubt,  have 
furnifhed  the  Father  of  the  Twelve  Patriarchs,  and  of  the  Lord  of 
Egypt,  with  another  fort  of  Speech.  But  Mofes  judged  it  beft,  to  give 
us  the  plain  Man's  own  Words,  as  he  received  them  recorded  by 
Jofeph,  who  heard  him  fpeak  them.  When  Joah  had  flain  Abfalom,  the 
Hiftorian  invents  not  a  gaudy  Paraphrale  upon  David's  Pafijon  ;  but 
tells  us,  z  Sam.  18.  33.  T.hat  as  he  went  up  into  the  Chamher  over  the 
Gate,  he  wept,  and  f  aid,  0  my  Son  Abfalom,  my  Son,  my  Son  Abfalom, 
would  God  I  had  died  for  thee,  0  Abfalom,  my  Son,  my  Son.  Extreme 
natural,  and  no  queflion  but  the  very  Words  of  that  aiFedionate  King. 
When  Adonijah  was  brought  from  the  Altar  before  King  Sokmon, 
I  Kin.  1.53.  Ihouldwe  not  have  had  a  Dialogue  between  the  two  Bro- 
thers .•> 


I  Chap.  ill.    from  the  WRITERS  hereof 

thers  ?  No :  the  Hiftorian  only  tells  us,  That  Solomon  faid  unto 
him,  Go  to  thine  Houfe.  And  if  we  confider  the  Wifdom  of 
that  Prince,  they  were,  no  queflion,  the  very  Words,  and  all  that 
he  fpake. 

23.  Without  interlacing  their  Story,  with  Matters  which  have  no  re- 
lation to  it:  Or  with  any  Critical  Remarks  of  their  own.  Both  which 
are  frequently  done  by  Profane  Writers  of  the  beft  Note.  But  if. 
they  infert  any,  they  are  fuch  as  are  pertinent,  and  meerly  Hiftori- 
cal.  After  the  Lightening  and  Hail,  Ex.  9.  Mofes^  between  his  Pro- 
mife  to  pray  for  Pharaoh  and  his  performance  of  it ,  inferts 
this  Parenthefis :  And  the  Flax  and  the  Barley  ivere  Jmitten^  jor  the 
Barley  was  in  the  Eat^  and  the  Flax  was  hoUed :  hut  the  Wheat  and 
the  Rye  were  not  fmitten^  for  they  were  not  grown  up.  A  Paflage  fo 
plainly,  but  punctually  brought  in,  as  it  muc/i  illuftrates  the  Majefty  and 
Truth  of  thatHiftory. 

24.  Without  any  Pomp,  or  intent  to  amplifie  :  tho' upon  Arguments 
of  that  nature,  as  would  have  tempted  any  other  Writers  to  it.  Of 
Three  Judges  together,  we  are  only  told  their  Names,  how  long  they 
judged,  what  Children  they  had,  and  where  they  were  buried. 
For  nothing  further  being  fit  to  be  recorded  of  them  ;  the  Holy  Wri- 
ter, would  not,  like  niofl  Hiftory-mongers,  try  his  Skill  to  make  up 
their  Story.  The  Account  of  Men  and  Things  for  1600  Years  be- 
fore the  Flood,  is  all  comprized  in  the  firll  Six  Chapters  of  Genefis. 
A  certain  Argument,  that  the  Author  was  fo  far  from  improving  his 
Invention,  tho'  in  fo  large  a  Field  :  as  both  to  keep  ftrid^ly  to 
what  was  delivered  to  him  for  undoubted  Truth:  and  to  omit  a 
great  many  Particulars,  which,  as  a  Prophet,  he  faw  unneceflary  to  be 
made  known  to  us.  So  likewife  the  Story  of  the  Kings  of  Judah  and 
Ifrael^  filling,  no  doubt,  many  Volumes  of  the  publick  Journals  :  Yet 
being  feledted,  according  to  the  fame  Prophetick  Judgment,  is  all  redu- 
ced unto  three  or  four  fmall  Books, 

zf.  Without  any  vain  Repetitions.  Some  things  are  thought  to  be 
repeated,  which  are  not;  as  what  relates  to  Mankind  in  Gen.  x.  For  as 
the  x6tb  Verfe,  declares  God's  Eternal  Decree ;  fo  the  2.yth^  x2th^  the 
Execution  of  it.  The  bringing  of  Water  out  of  a  Rock,  feems  to  be 
related  by  the  fame  Hiftorian,  both  in  Ex.  17,  and  in  Num.  20.  but 
was  indeed  performed  twice  :  firft  at  Rephidim,  and  afterwards  in  the 
VVildernefs  of  Zin.  And  fome  things,  tho'  they  are  repeated,  yet 
not  vainly,  but  with  great  Reafon  for  it.  In  Ex.  iz,  42.  the  pre- 
lent,  and  all  future  Ages,  are  twice  admoniflied,  to  make  fpecial  Ob- 
fervation  of  the  Night,  in  which  the  Children  of  Ifrael  marched  out 
of  Egypt.  The  Parts  and  Furniture  of  the  Tabernacle,  are  thrice  enu- 
merated ;  when  commanded  to  be  made,  Ex.  a^,  &c.  when  performed, 
Ch. -^6.  and  when  eredted,  Ch.  ult.  And  all  is  faid  to  be  done,  with  this 
frequent  Addition,  '  As  the  Lord  commanded  Mofes.  Thefe,  and  other 
like  Repetitions ,  being  ufed ,  the  better  to  reprefent ,  either  the 
Majefly  of  the  Law-giver,  or  the  Certainty  and  Weight  of  what 
is  fpoken  of. 

z6.  And  without  any  Impropriety  of  Speech.  Poets,  and  other  in- 
ventive Writers,  while  they  are  lludyingof  Words;  many  times  forget 
that  Aptitude,  in  their  Conceits,  wliich  a  Reader,  but  of  ordinary  Judg- 
ment looks  for : 


72  ^s  they  apfear  Book  IV. 

fays  Homer  of  his  Alexander ;  whom  in  the  fame  Breath,  he  makes 
like  a  God,  yet  afraid  of  Achilles.  JfjeJi'-^titci  • 

0  thou  falfe-hearted  Piece  of  Impudence  ; 

fays  Achilles  to  Agamemnon.  Let  Achilles  be  Homers  Hero,  or  what 
you  will  more  ;  the  Language  is  abfurdly  feigned  to  be  given  by  one 
Confederate  Prince  to  another,  and  the  General  of  the  Army. 

It  Jhall  he  faid  hereafter,    This  is  the  MansTomh^ 

U^ho,  tho  fo  'valiant,  yet  ivasjlain  by  the  Illuftrious  He<Sor ; 

as  that  Captain  ftiles  himfelf.  Whom  Virgil  zMo  thought  he  might  imi- 
tate ,   where  he  makes  his  Hero,    ridiculoufly   to  begin    a    Story  of 

himfelf,  with  Sum  pius  y^neas. 

x7.  But  the  Language  of  the  Scripture  is  every  where  proper.  Even 
there,  where  it  feems  to  be  otherwife.  David  (ttms,  Pf.  86.  i.  to  fpeak 
as  Virgil's  JEneas',  Preferve  my  Soul,  for  I  am  holy.  But  David  doth  not 
make  a  Narrative,  but  a  Plea.  Nor  is  the  Word,  Chafid,  well  tranfla- 
tcd,  Holy.  The  primary  and  proper  Senfe  hereof  being,  Merciful. 
And  fo  David  fpeaketh  properly  and  flrongly  ;  Wilt  thou  not  he  merciful 
unto  me,  who  haft  taught  me  to  he  merciful  unto  others  t  Jojhua  is  intro- 
duced, faying,  Sun^  flmd  thou  flill.  And  very  properly  :  forafmuch  as 
what  he  faid,  was  in  the  hearing  of  all  the  People,  Ch.  lo,  ii.  to  v\  hofe 
belt  Underftanding,  it  behoved  him  to  fpeak.  Whereas,  had  he  laid. 
Earth,  ftand  thou  flill',  to  them,  it  had  been  perfeit  Gibberiih.  Nei- 
ther can  any  Man  prove  the  contrary,  but  that  the  Sun  did  thereupon 
really  ftand  ftill  :  that  is,  ceafe  for  a  time,  from  the  Rotation 
it  hath  upon  its  own  Axis  ;  whereby  the  Earth  alfo  flood 
ft  ill.  God  faith,  Gen.  9.  13.  /  do  fet  my  Bow  in  the  Clouds 
for  a  token  of  the  Covenant,  hetween  Me  and  the  Earth.  And  not 
improperly.  For  the  Verb  is  ufed  in  the  Preient  Tenfe,  /  do,  and 
not,  I  will;  as  if  the  Rainbow  had  never  been  before  feen.  Nor  can 
any  Proof  be  brought  from  the  Do6lrine  of  Meteors,  that  the  Rain- 
bow was  indeed  ever  feen  before  the  Flood.  We  fee,  de  fa^lo^  xhzt 
there  are  a  thoufand  Clouds  for  one  Rainbow.  And  it  is  likely,  that 
before  the  Flood,  the  Atmofphere,  and  the  Clouds  therein,  were  of 
that'nature,  as  never  to  produce  that,  which  they  now  do  fo  feldom. 
'Tis  laid,  Gen.  6.  6.  Ihat  it  repented  the  Lord  that  he  Lad  mide  Man,  and 
it  grieved  him  at  his  heart.  And  very  properly  :  ior  it  is  fpcken  unto 
Mankind  ,•  and  therefore  to  the  meaneft  Capacity,  after  the  manner 
of  Men.  They  who  are  unlearned,  have  no  critical  Thoughts  about 
fuch  Expreftions;  and  therefore  cannot  be  oiTended  at  them.  And 
they  who  think  they  have  W4t  to  remark  them,  Ihould  alfo  have 
Wit  to  think,  in  what  fenfe  they  are  ufed.  And  to  know,  that  if 
they  would  have  God  to  fpeak  adequately  to  his  Nature  j  he  mufl: 
not  fpeak  at  all,   either  to  plain   Men,   or  to    Philofophers.    For,    as 


C  H  A  P.  ill.    from  the  VV  R  ITERS  hereof         ~^ 



we  cannot  make,  (o  neither  can  we  underfland,  any  Words,  but  fucli 
as  anfwer  to  our  Conceptions  of  Things.  But  no  Man,  can  have  an 
adequate  Conception  of  the  Divine  Nature.  And  every  where  elfe, 
what  is  fpoken,  is  done  with  the  greateft  Propriety :  whether  by 
Men,  one  to  another  j  oj  by  Men  ,  unto  God  ;  or  by  God,  unto 

z8.  Jn  Gen.  24.  v\e  have  the  mofi:  proper  Language    of  a  faithful 
Servant,    InzA/«.  5.  13.   of  Servants  very  difcrcet  and  modeft.    What 
can  be  liker,   to  a  Devihih  Wit,  than  what  is  faid.   Gen.  39. 14,  &c. 
Or  by  another  of  the  kind,  \K'in.%\.rj.    What  fitter,    to  be  put   into 
the  Mouth  of  a  cunning  old  Trot,  i  Sam.  14.  4.   Or  more  becoming 
that  of  a  Woman  truly  wife,  i  Sam.  15-.  24.    In  (?<?».  44.  i8,i^c.    we 
have  a  very  humble  and  difcrect    Petition.     In  'jojf).  22.  22.  to  29.   a 
prudent  Vindication   made  by  Brethren.      In    i    Sam.  24.  9.  the  like, 
made  by  a  Subjeci.     And  'ju(i<i^    11.  if.   a  flout   and  rational  Remon- 
strance to  an  Enemy.     In  M/w,  17.  12,13.    we  have  the  Words  of  a 
ftomachful  People.      In   i  Kin.  i%.  16.  thofe  of  a   Railing  Mob.     And 
Rifth  1. 16, 17.  of  a  mod  Generous  and  Rare  Friend.     What  can  be  faid 
liker  to  a  Cowardly  Huff,  than  that  in  2  Kin.  18.  ic,  ^c.   Or  to  a  bold 
General,  than  in  x  Sam.  19. 5-.   The  Counfel  given,  Gen.^^x.  33,  ^c.   was 
done  with  equal  Underftanding  and  Modelly.     And  the  Speech  in  2  Sam. 
17.7,  *^c-.    was  the  beft  contrived   of  the  kind    that  was  ever  fpoke. 
In  all  which  Examples,  the  Language  being   fo  natural,  unaffeded  and 
unfludicd ;  nothing  can  be  plainer,   than  that  the    Sacred  Writers  did 
every  where  fet  them   down,  as  they  found  them  in  the   Records  of 
their  own    Nation  :     and    that    thefe    Records    were   alfo    faithfully 
made,  by  the  Patriarchs,  High  Priefls,  and  other    Prophets  intruded 

29.  David's  Pfalms,  being  moft  of    them  Prayers,    were   compofed 
with  a  Stile,  fit  for  a  Solemn  Addrefs  unto  God.    Yet  agreeably^  vary- 
ing  with  the  Subjedt  Matter,  and  the  Condition  he   was  in.      In  the 
51/?  Pfalm,  'tis  very  humble   and  grave  ;    futed  to   the  Greatncfs  of 
his   Requells,  and  the  weighty  Reafons  he  prefents  them  withal.     One 
may  take  more  Pleafure,    upon  obferving   in  the    119//^  Pfalm,  the 
Natural  and    Fervent  Strains   of    a  Man  entirely  devoted   unto  God: 
than  in  all  the  feigned   and   forced    Periods  of  the  mofl   Celebrated 
Poet.     The  104?/^  Pfalm,  is  an  excellent  Epitome  of  Natural  Hillory : 
delivered  with  exad  Method  ;   and  elegantly,  yet  freely  and  unafte- 
dedly  expreft  :  fo  as  to  be  fit  for  the    Ufe  of  plain    Men,  as  well  as 
Scholars.    There  is  not  a  clearer  Demonftration  in  Euclid,   than  that 
iLort  one,   -PA 94. 9  Nor  a   more  curious  Epiphonema,   in  any  Orator 
or  Poet,  than  that  wherewith  the  144///  Pfalm  concludeth. 

30.  And  becaufe  he  was  a  Prophet,  as  well  as  a  Poet;  in  many  of 
his  Pfalms  he  foars  very  high:  as  in  the  18,  45-,  46,  139,  and  others. 
As  Dehorah  doth  in  her  Song,  whereon  flie  rides,  upon  the  Over- 
throw of  Sifera,  as  on  a  Triumphal  Chariot.  And  mod  of  the  Pro- 
phets, and  prophetick  Parts  of  Scripture,  wherein  God  fpeaketh  unto 
Men ;  are  very  fingular,  for  the  Elegancy,  Significancy,  and  Majedy 
of  the  Stile.  From  whence,  more  Noble  Examples  of  all  the  Tropes 
and  Figures,  ufed  by  the  belt  Orators,  may  be  taken,  than  from  any 
other  books  whatfoever.  As  would  better  appear,  *  could  we  difcern 
all  the  Proprieties  of  the  Eadern  Languages,    wherein  much  of  their 

Y    y  beau- 

ijA  As  they  af fear  Book  {V^ 

Beauty  lies.  And  in  particular,  the  Significancy  of  the  Hebrew  Verbs, 
by  virtue  of  their  Conjugations ;  above  what  is  performed  in  the  Greek 
and  Latin  by  Compofition. 

■^i.  The  Prophets,  being   of  different  Education    and  Temper,  and 
living  in  Times,  not  always  alike :   received  and  delivered  their  Mef- 
fage  in  as  many  kinds  of  Oratory.      Being  chofen   in  this   Variety, 
that  nothing  might  be  wanting,  which  could  be  reafonably   done,  to 
prevail  with   that  Stubborn  People,  to  whom   they  were  fent.     Their 
Meflage  was  adorned,  for  the  mod  part,  either  with  Variety   of  Me- 
taphors and  Allegories^  or  Myftcrious  Vifions.      Partly,    for  that  moft 
People    are   wrought  more  upon    by    Similitudes,     than    down-right 
Truth.     Partly,  becaufe  this  way,  all  that  fit  to  be  faid  at  once, 
was  brought  into   a  narrow  Compafs  h     more  becoming   the   Deity, 
than    a  long  Speech.    God   tells  the  Jews^   z  Kin.  xi.  13.  /  ivill  wipe 
Jerufalem,  as    a    Man  wipeth  a  Dijh ,    wiping   it^    and  turning  it  upfide 
down.    In  which  few  Words,  there  is  more  cutting  Oratory,  than  in 
a  whole  Philippick.     And  becaufe  fometimcs  the  Offender  fhould  be  felf- 
condemncd  ;  as  Ahah  was  by  the   Parable  of  one  of  the  Sons  of  the 
Prophets;  and  David ^  by  that  of  Nathan.     Or  becaufe,  fometimes  that 
after  they  had  been  long  obflinate ;   they  deferved  not  to  be  fpoken  to  in 
plain  Language.      Nor  was  it  without  a  Defign,  for  the  better  Safe- 
guard of  the  Sacred  Text :    which    no  Impoftors,    when  they   under- 
Itood  it  not,  would  go  about  to  corrupt.     And  till  the  time  of  their  ful- 
filling, to  keep,  not  only  Men,  but  the  World  above  us,    ignorant  of 
their  Intent  in  fome  things. 

:}x.  When  the  Prophets  fpeak  of  themfelves,  how  meekly  is  it?    Mofes 
excufeth  himfelf,  as   being  flow  of  Speech.     Ifaiah  trembleth,    becaufe 
he   was   a  Man  of  unclean  Lips.      Jeremy  could   not   fpeak,    for    he 
was  a  Child.     David  a  Worm,     and   no    Man.     But  when  they  fpeak 
as  from   God,  the  plained    of  them,   have    Expredions   above  them- 
felves.     The    Lion  hath  roared,  who  will  not  fear  ?  the  Lord  God  hath  fpo- 
ken, who  can  hut  prophefie  ?  Amos^j.S.  Whoje  Height,  fays  God  of  the 
Amorites,  Ch.  2.9.  was  like  the  Height  of  the  Cedars,  and  he  was  flrong 
as  the  Oaks  :  yet  I  deftroyed  his  Fruit  from  above,  and  his  Roots  from  be- 
neath.    Sayings  much  too  great  for  a  Herdfman,    had  he  not  been   a 
Prophet.     Jeremiah,   tho'  bred  up  in    the  Countrey,    yet  his  Stile    is 
many  times  extraordinary.     Is  Ephraim  my  dear  Son  >   Is   he  a  pleafant 
Child  i  for  fince   I  fpake  againfl  him,  I  do  earnefily  remember  him  ftill : 
Therefore  my   Bowels  are  troubled  for  him^  I  will  furely  have  mercy   upon 
him,  faith  the  Lord,  Ch.  31.  lo.  than  which,    nothing  could  be  fpoken 
more  tenderly,  by  a  God  unto  Man.     Nor  any  thing  better,  to  exprefs 
the  Decree    of  Vindictive  Juflice,    than  what  is  faid  of  Coniah,  Ch.  21, 
14.  As  I  live,  faith  the  Lord,  tho  he  were  the  Signet  upon  my  Right  Handy 
yet  would  I  pluck  him  thence.     Nor   could  the  Execution  of  the  like  Ju- 
llice,  be  reprefented  by  a  more  lively  Scene,  than  that  in  Ezek.  27.  Or 
one  of  greater  Majefty,  than  that  in   Jer.  25.  15.  to  33.     Fow  plainly, 
and  like  a   meer   Shepherd,    does  Jacob  fpeak  his    oun  Words   unto 
Pharaoh  ?  Gen.  47. 9.  How  Elegantly,  the  Words  of  God,    in  his  Pro- 
phetick  Bleffing  ?  Ch.  49.  How  wifely,  Jotham,  in  his  Prophetick  Curfe  > 
Judg.  9.  8. 

33.  The  Prophetick  Stile,    in  which   Things  to   come  are  fpoken 
of  in  the  Prefect  and  Preter  Tenfe,  as  if  they  were  already  come  to 

pafs : 

Chap   III   from  theVl^Kl  I  ERS  hereVf,  i^ 

pafs :  was  never  fo  much  as  imitated,  either  by  the  Oracular  Priefts, 
or  any  other  fort  of  Men.  But  was  made  ufe  of  by  God,  at  once  to 
reprcfent  the  InfaUibiHty  of  his  Prefcience,  and  the  Immutability  of  his 

34.  Neither  is  the  Altitude  of  the   Metaphors,  and  other  Elegancies 
therein  ufed,  equalled  by  any  Poet.     The  Book  of  Job,    I  take  to  be, 
neither  a  Hiflory,  as  fome  do,   nor  a  Parable,  as  fome  others :  But  a 
Divine  Vifion,  made  to  the  Prophet  Ifaiah  ;   and   grounded  upon  the 
real  Story  of  J  oh.     As  was  Ezekiel's  Prophetick  Jerufalew  and  Temple,  on 
the  Real.     And  in  length,   exceeds  not  much  the  Revelation  made  to 
St.  "^okn.     Which  Book,  efpecially  toward  the  latter  End,  where  God 
himfeif  fpeaketh,  and  reads    a  mofl:  methodick   and  Noble  "Ledlure  of 
Natural  Hiflory,  hath   no  where  a  Match.     Nor  the  Song  of  Solomon; 
another  Divine  Vifion ;  wherein  that'  King  is  made  to   amplifie  upon 
the     Allegory    of    Matrimonial  Love   between  God   and  his  Church. 
Grounded  on  the  Words  di  Mofes,  Veut,  7.6,  7,  8.  and  emphatically  car- 
ried on  by   fundry  of  the  Prophets.      By  Jeremy,  Qh.  2.  x.    and  3.  i. 
By  Ezekiel,  Ch.  16.  and  Ch.  x].  By  Hof.  Ch.  i.x.  and  C/^.  3.  i.  By  Malncbi, 
Ch.z.ii.  And  by  his  Father  David,  in  the  ^'jth  Pfalm,  Entituled,  A 
Song  of  Loves.    Nor  the  Song   which  God  gave  to  Mofes,  to  teach  the 
Children  of  Ifrael^  Deut.  "jx.  To  the  Meafure  whereof,  a  Pindarick  Ode,  if 
one  may  guefs,  comes  the  nearefl:.     But  the  Senfe  and  Stile,  are  inimitable. 
That  one  Expredion   of  David,  P/al.  11 5.    Who  is  like  unto  the  Lord 
our  God  .^  mho  humhleth  himfeif,  to  behold  the  things  that  are  done  in  Hea- 
ven :  Or,  that  of  the  Prophet  Ifaiah,  Ch.  66.     Heaven  is  my  Throne,  and 
Earth  is  my   Footflool:  are  either  of  them   greater,    than  anything  in 
Homer,  and  all  other  Poets  put  together. 

35-.  The  Majefty  wherewith  Afo/fj  exprefleth  God's  fetlingthe  Laws 
of  Nature,  Let  there  he  Light,  and  there  was  Light;  and  fo  in  the 
other  Five  Days  Work :  as  it  was  obferved  by  Galen  ;  fo  by  Dionyjius 
Longinus,  a  better  Judge  of  Stile,  was  much  admir'd.  But  no  Man  e- 
ver  had  an  Original  Thought  of  thofe  VVords,  or  any  like  them, 
but  only  Mofes,  to  wliom  they  were  Divinely  given.  Nor  has  any 
Monarch,  or  other  Legiflator,  dared  to  copy  the  Stile ,  wherewith 
God  gave  his  Laws  unto  Men.  Since  then,  the  Authors  of  the  Ho- 
ly Scriptures,  whenever  they  are  the  Voice  of  God,  do  always 
fpeak  with  fo  great  Propriety ;  and  many  times  fo  much  above  the 
Ability,  or  Prefumption  of  any  Man  :  it  is  evident,  that  they  have  not 
impofcd  upon  us,  but  have  recorded  as  their  own  ,  and  other 
Mens  VVords,  fo  thofe  of  God  himfeif,  with  the  greateO:  Sincerity  and 

36.  The  Truth  of  the  Old  Teftament  Scriptures,  is  further  evident 
from  the  Authors ;  in  that  they  every  where  agree  together  :  Both  in 
what  they  write,  and  in  the  Ends  they  herein  propofe  unto  themfelvss. 
Some  (eeming  contradictions  are  to  be  met  with  :  and  they  do  but 
feem  to  be  fuch.  As  in  mentioning  the  fame  Place,  or  Perfon,  by  fe- 
veral  Names.  So  the  City,  which  in  Jop^ua  is  called  Lefhem,  in  the 
Book  of  fudges,  is  called  Laifl).  And  the  fame  Man,  who  in  x  Sam, 
6.  6.  is  called  Nachon;  in^.^,  is  called,  C/;i^(?».  Orinufing 
of  Round  Numbers,  without  the  Fradion  belonging  to  them  :  as  the  7x5 
are  commonly  called  the  70  Elders.    Yet  fome  Learned  Men,  have  re- 


1^6  Js  they  affear  Book  IV. 

courfe  hither  fometimes,  when  there  is  no  need.  Deus  Ifraelitis  ^enun- 
ciate Tays  the  Primate  Ufher^  eos  quadraginta  annos  erraturos :  Numero  vi- 
delicet rotundo,  pro  amis  ^9.  'lis  true,  that  from  the  time  of  that  Doom, 
Num.  r^z.  1-^.  they  wandered  but  :j9  Years.  But  we  are  to  begin  our 
Reckoning,  from  their  coming  out  of  Egypt ;  from  which  time,  tliey 
had  already  wandered  a  whole  Year  ;  which  God  tells  them  they  fliould 
make  40  j  and  fo  they  did.  Orelfe,  from  an  Error  in  the  Scribe.  The 
firft-bornof  the  Families  of  the  Levites^  being  numbered,  Num.-^.  the 
Gerjhcmites  are  reckoned,  7500;  the  Kohatbites,  8600;  and  the  Merarites^ 
6100  ;  which  together,  make  xz^oo.  YttFerf,  t^^.  they  are  laid  to  be 
in  all,  but  xiooo.  Why  fhould  we  fuppofe,  with  fome,  that  fo  great  a 
Fraction  as  300,  was  left  out,  but  only  to  exprels  a  round  Number  ?  When, 
I  think,  'tis  plain,  that  in  one  of  the  firfl  Copies,  in  tlie  Number  of  the 
Gerfhomites^  "t,  by  an  eafie  Miftake  of  the  Scribe,  was  put  for  "^j  that 
is,  500,  for  xco,  which  makes  the  Sum  equal.  So  Ahaziah  is  faid, 
■LChron.  zx.  x.  to  be  4X  years  old,  when  he  begun  to  reign.  Whereas, 
his  Father,  when  he  died,  was  but  40,  Ch.  xi.zo.  The  Scribe  therefore 
miftook  Mem  for  Caph,  which  makes  xx.  Or  it  may  be  from  fome  He- 
braifm,  whereby  a  Word  is  taken  in  a  fenfe,  different  from  what  is  under- 
ftood  by  it  in  other  Languages  :  as  in  giving  the  Name  of  Sons^  to  the 
Pollerity  atthegreatefl  dillance.  So  Maacha^  1  Kin.  1^.10.  is  called 
the  Mother  of  A/a,  butwas  his  Grandmotner.  The  Daughters  of  -2e- 
lophehad,  are  called  the  Daughters  of  Manaffeh^  though  four  Generations 
came  between  them.  Or  from  mif-tranllating  the  Hebrew  Text.  So 
the  t  \\o  Pillars  in  the  Porch  of  Solomon's  Temple,  in  our  EngliQi  Bible, 
I  Kin.y.  1^.  are  truly  faid  to  be  each  18  Cubits  high.  But  in  x  Chron. 
5.15^..  are  falfely  faid  to  be  35-  Cubits  high.  For  in  the  Hebrew,  they  are 
faid  to  be  35  Cubits  in  length.  Which,  with  half  a  Cubit,  for  theBafis^ 
here  omitted,  added  to  each  J  maketh  36  Cubits  truly  and  properly  the 
Length  of  both  together.  But  cannot  be  faid  to  be  the  Heighth 
of  both  together ,  unlefs  one  had  been  fet  upon  the  top  of  the  o- 
thcr.  Or  from  the  compendious  way  of  Writing,  ufed  throughout  the 
Sacred  Hiftory.  VVhiich,  in  recording  the  remarkable  Tranfadions  of 
4000  years,  in  fo  fmall  a  Compafs,  mull  needs  omit  a  World  of  Parti- 
'     culars,  every  where,  as  not  abfolutely  neceflary  to  be  mentioned.    '  We 

*  are  verily  guilty,  fay  the  Sons  of  j^coh^  Gen.^z.  xi.  concerning  our 

*  Brother  ;  in  that  we  faw  the  Anguiili  of  his  Soul,  when  hebelought  us, 

*  and  we  would  not  hear.  Yet  in  Gen.  3 7.  to  which  this  refers  ,  we  have 
not  a  Word  of  7(?/^/>/jV  Supplication  to  them.  So  Deut.  5.  xp.  Mofes  re- 
cites a  Speech,  formerly  fpoken  by  God  of  the  Children  of  ifrael^  0 
that  there  were  fuch  a  heart  in  them  !  yet  is  it  no  where  ellc  recorded,  but 
here.  So  like  wife,  when  Solomon  confined  Shimei  to  'jerujalem^  \  Kin.  x. 
'tis  evident,  Fl?r/^  4x.  43.  That  6'^iwd'i,  not  only  promifed,  but  took  an 
Oath  to  obey.  Yet  in  the  Recital  of  what  palTed  between  Solomon  and 
Shimei^  upon  that  Confinement,  Ferf.  38.  we  have  not  a  Word  of  his  Oath, 
but  only  of  hisPromife.  In  likem.anner,  it  would  be  hard  to  reconcile 
the  Reigns  of  the  Kings  of //r^f/and  Judah,to  Chronology ;  except  we  iup- 
pofe,  tho'  the  Scripture  is  herein  filent,  fome  of  the  Sons  to  reign  for  fome 
time  with  their  Fathers,  as  was,  and  is  ufual,  in  ibraeKingdoms,  and  as  Solor 
mon  did  with  David^  and  Jehoram  with  Jehojhaphat.  Upon  the  Return  of 
the  Jews  from  the  Babylonian  Captivity,  the  Number  of  thole  who  were 
Regiftred,  is  laid,  both  in  Ezra  1.64.  and  in  Nehem.  ^.66.  to  be  41360. 


Chap.  ill.   from  the  VV KI  T EKS  hereof,  i yj 


Yer  the  Numbers  of  the  feveral  Families  put  together,  make,  according 
to  Ezra,  but  298 1 8  ;  to  Nebcniiah,  5  lo^ji.  Both  which  latter  Numbers^ 
being  fo  very  different  from  the  former;  it  is  impofTibie  to  be  a  Miftakc 
in  the  Author,  or  in  any  Tranfcriber  tliat  could  but  count  20.  AncJ 
tlicrefore  the  Number  of  42.^60,  is  to  be  underflood,  as  made  up,  either 
nit  of  the  Ten  Tribes,  tho'  not  reckoned  by  their  Families ;  or  o^ 
thofe,  who,  though  of  the  holy  Seed,  yet  could  not  fliew  their  Pedigrees,'., 
or  fome  other  way.  And  the  Numbers  alfo  of  the  feveral  Families,  asfet 
down  in  Nehemiah,  differing  fo  very  much  from  thofe  in  Ezra  .•  fliews 
they  were  taken  from  two  feveral  Rcgiltries ;  varied  upon  fome  good  and 
realbnable  Ground,  tho'  not  mentioned.  And  the  Sincerity  of  thefe 
two  excellent  Men,  is  the  more  apparent  j  in  giving  us  the  Copies  of  twd 
differing  Records  as  they  found  them.  .  •';'* 

^7.  But  the  Fancy  which  fome  Men  have,  of  1  know  not  what  ton- 
tradid:ions,  arifes  from  no  Caufe,  fo  much,  as  the  undue  Obfervation  of 
the  Sacred  Story.  From  the  time  of  "Jacob's  coming  with  his  Children 
into  Egypt,  to  their  going  out  from  thence,  were  about  ^15  Years. 
Yet 'tis  laid,  £a'.  ix.^o.  That  the  fojournmgof  the  Children  of  WrzeU  who 
dwelt  in  Egypt,  was  4-50  years.  And  very  truly.  For  firll,  by  the  Children 
of  Ifrael,  we  are  to  underlland,  with  the  Septuagint,  fhem  and  their 
Fathers.  1  he  fame  Stile  as  is  ufed  Gen.  46.  And  tnefe  are  the  Names  of 
the  Children  of  Ifrael,  which  came  into  Egypt,  Jacob  and  his  Sons.  We 
are  then  to  account  from  Abraham,  who  firfl  began  to  fojourn,  or  to 
dwell  out  of  his  own  Countrey.  Next,  it  is  not  faid,  That  the  Children 
of  //rdtf/ fojourned  in  Egypt  ^i^oYazts,  as  is  falfely  read  in  our  former 
Tranflation  ;  but  that  they  fojourned  430  years  :  and  may  cafily  be 
computed,  they  did.  For  from  the  time  that  God  firfl:  called  Abraham,  to 
fojourn  out  of  his  own  Countrey,  where  we  are  to  begin  ;  unto  the  Birth 
of  Ifaac,  were  xj  years,  Gen.  iz.  4.  and  zi.  5,  From  thence,  to  the 
Birth  of  Jacob,  60  years,  Gen.  z^.  26.  From  thence  to  the  Birth  of  Jo- 
Jeph,  91  years.  Gen.  41.  and  46,  47.  a.nd^^.  11.  and  47.  9.  From  thence, 
to  the  Death  of  Jofeph,  no  Years,  Gen.  50.  22.  From  thence,  to  the 
Birth  of  Mofes^  tho' the  Scripture  isfilent,  yet  we  may  reafonably  reckon 
64  Years  :  becaufe  he  is  faid  to  be  born  in  the  Reign  of  a  new  King  who 
knew  not  Jofeph,  Ex.  x.  8.  and  2. 2.  From  whence,  to  the  marching  of  the 
Ifraelites  out  oi Egypt^wtrc  80  Years,  Ex.  7.  7.  in  all  430.  Wherein  was 
alfo  fulfilled  the  Promife,  G^».  15.  13, 14.  That  after  400  Years,  they 
ihould  come  out  with  great  Subftance.  Which  came  to  pals,  about 
the  415^/j  Year  after  the  Promife  was  made,  Gen.  12.4. 15-,  16,  \6.  com- 

38.  The  Age  wherein  the  Levites  were  to  officiate  in  the  Service  of 
the  Tabernacle,  was  appointed,  N«w.  4.  5.  from  30  Years,  to  50.  But 
Chapt.  8. 24.  the  Age  is  fet  from  25.  to  50.  Yet  without  any  Contra- 
didlion.  For  it  is  plain,  that  they  are  two  diflindt  Precepts,  each  of  them 
having  its  proper  Title.  The  former,  prefcribes  the  Age  of  30,  ad  faci- 
endam  Fundionem  :  the  latter,  the  Age  of  25^ ,  ad  fubmimflandum  Minijleri- 
um :  S3X,  fignifying,  wotonX^^  militare,  but  turmatim  concurrere  ox  Suh- 
minijlrare.  So  that  from  25,  it  feems  they  ferved  a  fort  of  Apprenticelliip 
until  30. 

?9.  'Tis  faid,  y^y^.  15.63.  That  the  7^/«/ffj  dwelt  with  the  Children 
of  Judah  at  Jerufalem,  unto  the  time  when  that  Book  was  writ.  Yet 
Chap.  18.28.  Jerufalemi')  reckoned  as  parr  of  the   Inheritance  of  the 

Z  z  Chit- 

lyH  /Is  they  appear  BooK.iV. 

Children  of  Benjamin.  And  fo  it  was  too ;  the  Tribe  of  Benjamin^  be- 
ing an  Appcndent  to  that  of  Judah  ;  and  fome  part  of  both  thofe 
Tribes,  liaving  their  Co-habitation  in  that  City.  Thofe  of  Judah^  as  it 
feems,  in  that  part  only,  or  chiefly,  which  was  built  upon  Mount  Zion^ 
efpecially  called^  The  City  of  David  ;  albeit  Jerufalem  gave  name  to  the 
whole  Pile  of  Building  :  as  in  common  Speech,  London  doth  to  Weftmin- 

40.  David  is  faid,  x  Sam.  14,  24.  to  buy  the  Threfliing-floor  of  Arau- 
na^  with  the  Oxen  and  threfhing  Inftruments,  for  50  Shekels  of  Silver. 
In  I  Chron.xx.  i^.  he  is  faid  to  buy  the  Place  of  the  Threfliing-floor,  for 
600  Shekels  of  Gold.  But  firft,  we  need  not  to  read,  50  Shekels  of 
Silver.  ^P^,  fignifying  any  fort  of  Money,  Silver  or  Gold.  For  tho' 
^?r/1 11.  of  that  ii// Chapter,  we  read  in  our  Englifh  l^ble,  For  the 
full  Price  :  in  the  Hebrew  it  is,  For  the  full  Money  :  by  whicih  Money, 
Gold  is  certainly  meant,  as  comparing  Verf.xr.  14,  xf.  together,  is  ap- 
parent :  yet  is  it  the  fame  Word,  which  in  Samuel  is  rendred.  Silver. 
We  are  next  toobferve,  that  the  Author  of  the  Book  of  Samuel,  writing 
not  one  Word  of  the  Temple,  or  of  the  Ground  whereon  it  was  to  be 
built :  tells  us  only  the  Price  of  the  Threfliing-floor  for  the  Altar,  and 
what  was  therewithal  neceflary  for  the  Sacrifices  David  was  about  to  of- 
fer. But  the  Author  of  the  Chronicles,  giving  us  an  Account  of 
both,  tells  us  the  Price  of  the  whole,  viz.  of  the  Floor,  and  of  tiie  Place 
or  large  Parcel  of  Land  belonging  to  it  :    as  is  clear  from  Qiapter 

Xl.  I,  X. 

41.  In  I  Kin.  6.  i.  the  Hiftorian  faith,  i\\zi  Solomon  began  to  build  the 
Temple  in  the  480//' year,  after  the  Children  of  Ifrael  marched  out  of 
Egypt.  Which  appears,  fays  Spinofa,  by  the  Book  of  Judges.,  to  be  much 
too  little  a  Space.  But  of  fome  Parts  of  that  greater  Space  he  would 
have,  he  only  makes  his  Conjedures.  And  of  fome,  he  is  certainly  out. 
As  in  afiigning  xo  Years  to  Sampfon,  diftindfrom  the  40  Years  of  Op- 
preffion  by  the  Fhiliflins.  Whereas  his  xo  Y^ears  were  included  within 
the  faid  40.  And  therefore  that  which  w  as  foretold  of  him,  Judg.  i  ^ ,  i  j . 
was  only,  that  he  fliould  begin  to  deliver  Ifrael  out  of  the  Hands  of  the 
Philifiines.  And  Chap.  15.  xo.  'tis  exprefly  faid,  That  he  judged  Ifrael 
xo  years  in  the  days  of  the  Philiftines  :  that  is,  in  the  Days,  wherein  the 
Thilijlins  were  Lords  of  Judea.  So  alfo,  in  accounting  the  18  Y'ears  of 
Oppredion  by  the  Ammonites  ,  diftindly  from  the  xx  Years  of 
Jairs  Government.  Who,  though  he  is  faid ,  to  judge,  yet  not 
to  deliver  Ifrael.  We  are  therefore ,  to  include  the  1 8  within 
the  XX. 

4x.  Nor  is  there  any  good  Reafon  for  accounting  the  times  of  Servi- 
tude^ diftind:  from  thofe  of  Liberty.  In  reckoning  the  Y'^ears  of  the 
Reign  of  King  Charles  the  Second,  do  we  not  in  all  publick  Records,  be- 
gin from  his  Father's  Death,  tacking  the  Years  of  his  Banifliment,  to 
thofe  wherein  he  adtually  reigned  ^  So  when  Othniel  had  fubdu'd  the  King 
of  Mefopotamia,  'tis  faid.  That  the  Land  had  refi  forty  Tears.  In  u  hich 
40  Y'ears,  the  8  precedent  Years  of  Oppreflion  by  that  King,  are  to  be 
included.  The  Learned  Primate  of  Armagh,  makes  his  Compute,  not  by 
reading  Forty  Y'^ears,  as  in  our  Englifli  Bibles ;  but  in  the  Fortieth  Year ; 
that  is,  from  the  time,  wherein  Jofhua  firft  gave  them  reft.  The  Cardinal 
Number  being  here  put,  as  he  fuppofeth,  for  the  Ordinal :  which,  'tis  truej 
the  Hebrews  never  ufe  farther  than  the  Number  Ten.  But  here  it  can- 

Chap.  ]IJ,     from  the   Ul^KiatRS   hereof         '    179 

not  be  Co.  For  then  the  Particle  ?,  which  (lands  for  the  Prepofition  In ; 
fliould  have  been  put  before  the  Number,  as  it  is  in  Deut  i.  ■;.  where  the 
fame  Cardinal  Number,  is  indeed  put  for  the  Ordinal^  and  not 
have    been    omitted ,     as   it    is    in  this   Place,     and  throughoat   the 

Book.  ... 

43.  It  feems  therefore  to  mc,  that  the  Hiftorian,  in  ufing  the  Car- 
dinal  Number,  as  fuch,  and  not  for  the  Ordinal ;  tacks  the  times  of  Ser- 
vitude all  along,  unto  thoie  of  Liberty.  And  fo  the  480  years  aforefaid, 
areeafdy  computed  thus,  viz.  From  the  marching  of  the  Ifraelites  out  of 
Egypt ^  to  their  fir II  Rell  by  Jojhua,  were  46  years,  Num.  1. 1.  and  n,.^^,l 
and  JoP).  14.  7.  10.  From  thence,  to  the  Death  of  Jojhua.,  zo;  to  that 
oi  Eleazer.,  5  ;  to  that  of  Othniel,^o  ;  to  that  of  £/W,  and  of  Shamgar 
after  him,  80  -,  to  that  of  Delorah,  40  ;  to  that  of  G/deon,  40;  to  that  of 
Ahimelech.,  3;  to  that  of  Tola,  135  to  that  of  Jair,zz;  to  that  of  Jeph- 
tha,  6 ;  to  that  dilhzan,  7  ;  to  that  of  Elon.^  10 ;  to  that  of  Aldon,  8  ; 
to  that  of  £//,  40 ;  to  Samuel's  Vidory  over  the  Philiftins^  20  ;  to  Saul's 
Anointing,  6  -■>  to  the  Death  ot  Saul,  zo;  to  that  of  David,  40;  to  the 
building  of  the  Temple,  4  ;  In  all,  480. 

44.  Tis  faid,  i  Sam.  7.  1 3.  That  the  Hand  of  the  Lord,  from  thence for^ 
ward,  wan  againfl  the  Philiftincs,  all  the  Days  of  Samuel.  Yet  the  Ifrae- 
lites were  by  them  forely  opprefled  in  the  Reign  oiSaul,  Samuel  yet  living  ; 
Which  Spimfa  will  have  to  be  a  Contradidtion.  But  without  any  ground. 
For  whereas  it  is  faid,  All  the  Days  0/ Samuel  :  it  is  not  to  be  underdood, 
of  Samuel's  Life,  but  of  his  Government ;  that  is,  until  Saul  was  made 
King.  The  fame  Phrafe,  as  that  ufed,  judg.  i^.  xq.  where  Sampfon  is  faid. 
To  judge  Ifrael  in  the  days  of  the  Philiftins. 

45.  The  fame  S^inoja,  will  have  tlie  Account  of  David's  Reception  in- 
to SauTs  Court,  to  be  given  in  the  Firfl  Book  of  Samuel,  by  two  Hifto- 
rians,  wiio  contradid:  one  another.  One  of  them  fuppofing  him  to  be 
called  thither,  upon  the  Advice  of  i'Ws  Servants,  C/^.  16,18.  The  other, 
upon  occafion  of  his  being  fent  by  his  Father,  to  his  Brethren  in  Saul's 
Camp,C/:7. 17.  17.  Which  is  all  mere  Blunder;  from  his  not  obferving  in 
Ferf.i'^.  That  David  wenx.  and  returned  from  Saul,  after  the^rft  time  he 
came  to  Court,  to  feed  his  Father's  Sheep  at  Bethlehem.  Whereby  it  is 
evident,  he  was  twice  called  to  Court,  upon  the  two  Occafions  fet  down, 
by  one  and  the  fame  Hiftorian. 

46.  The  fame  Spinofa  tells  us,  That  when  David  brought  up  the  Ark 
from  Kirjatb-Jearim,  zSam.  6.  z.  the  Name  of  that  Place  is  omitted  in  the 
Text  :  Nemo,  fays  he,  hie  nonvidere  potefi,  locum  quo  iverant,  nempe  Kirjat- 
Jearim,  unde  Arcam  auferrent,  effe  omiffum.  Whereas  he  palpably  mifquotes 
the  Text,  in  leaving  out  Baale,  another  Name  of  the  faid  Town ;  as  is  e- 
videntfrom  i  Qhron.  \\.6. 

47.  The  fame  i'/'/wo/dr,  quotes  jf(?/e/'/;«j  to  tell  us,  that  the  Prophet  Eze- 
kiel  foretold,  ThatZedekiah  fliould  not  fee  Babylon.  Which,  faith  Spinofa, 
we  find  not  in  the  Book  of  EzekiePs  Prophecy,  which  we  have ;  but  the 
contrary,  that  he  was  carried  Captive  thither.  But  all  this  came,  for 
■want  of  reading  his  Bible.  By  which,  he  might  have  known,  without  go- 
ing to  Jofephus,  that  tho'  he  v\as  indeed  carried  to  Babylon,  as  Ezekiel  fore- 
told, Ch.  17.  yethefawit  not:  becaufehis  Eyes  were  put  out  before  he 
came  thither,  Jer.  9. 7.  According  to  the  wonderful  Predidion  of  the  fame 
Prophet  Ezekiel,  Chap.  xz.  \\.  That  the  faid  King  ihould  not  fee  Babylon, 
tho'  he  iliould  die  there. 


;8o  As  they  tifpear  Book   IV. 

48.  This  fame  Spimfa,  will  have  the  Prophets  to  contradid  one  ano- 
ther, in  their  Dod:rine,as  well  as  Predidions.  Bccaufe  Jeremy  tells  us,  Chap. 
•^1.  bS.  That  God vijiteth  the  Iniquity  of  the  Fathers  upon  the  (^hildren.  But 
Ezek.Chap.  18.  20.  That  the  Sonjha/lnot  hear  the  Iniquity  of  the  Father^ 
hut  the  Soul  that  finneth^  jh all  die.  But  this  Man,  ccnfidered  not,  That 
y^r^'w/ fpeakcth,  of  what  God  himfeir  doth  fometimcs  in  his  Providence; 
and  for  which,  \\'e  have  God's  own  Words  in  the  Second  Command. 
Whereas  ^zfyJvf/  fpeaketh,  of  what  God  had  commanded  the  Jews  to  do  in 
the  Courfe  of  Juflice,  by  an  exprefs  Law,  Deut.  24. 16.  So  little  Reafon 
have  we  to  regard  the  Criticifms  offo  vain  a  Writer.  On  the  contrary,  we 
have  a  great  deal  of  reafon  to  contemplate  the  Wifdom  of  God,  in  condu- 
dting  the  Sacred  Writers,  even  in  thofe  Particulars,  wherein  they  ieem  to 
interfere  one  with  another.  For  had  every  thing  been  clear  and  evident, 
at  the  firfl:  fight ;  we  muft  immediately  have  aflented  to  them,  whether 
we  would  or  no.  But  bythefe,  he  gives  occafion  to  Reafon,  Induftry, 
Humility,  to  exert  themlelves.  Dealing  with  Man  as  an  Under- 
flanding  and  Improveable  Creature;  He  propofeth  Truth,  as  in  the 
End  attainable ;  but  not  without  fome  DiiSculties ,  in  our  Way 
to  it. 

49.  But  if  in  the  darkeft  Parts  of  the  Scriptures,  Truth  appears  : 
how  like  the  Sun  at  Noon-day,  does  it  every  where  elfe  fliine  forth  ? 
While  the  Sacred  Writers,  whether  of  the  Hiflory,  or  the  Doctrine 
therein  contained,  do  all  along  give  their  confirming  Evidence  one 
to  another.  Which  conllrained  Spinoja  himfelf,  to  conclude  abfo- 
lutely,  Totam  Legem  Divinam,  quam  Scriptura  docet^  incorruptam  ad  no- 
flras  manus  perveniffe.  And  to  add,  Et  prater  hcec^  aliajunt^  de  qui- 
hus  non  pojfumus  duhitare  •  quin  hona  fide  nobis  jint  trajita  ;  nempe  fum- 
ma  Hiftoriarum  Script urtv,  quia  notifiima  omnihus  fuerunt.  Which  I  men- 
tion, not  for  that  we  need  his  Teftimony,  or  think  it  of  any  Value : 
but  to  (hew,  that  Truth  will  dazle  the  boldefl  Enemy,  when  it  looks  him 
in  the  Face. 

50.  There  is  that  dependance  of  one  thing  on  another  through- 
out the  Old  Teflament ;  and  thofe  frequent  References  to  precedent 
Times ;  by  thofe  which  both  Immediately  and  Remotely  follow : 
that  it  is  impoffible,  any  thing  fliould  be  delivered  down,  through 
all  Ages  with  greater  Certainty.  In  Deuteronomy^  Mofes  epitomizes 
the  books  of  Exodus^  Leviticus,  and  Numbers  ;  and  appeals  to  the 
Elders  and  People,  for  the  Truth  of  all  the  Great  Things  therein 
contained,  as  tranfaded  before  their  Eyes,  in  the  Forty  Years  paft. 
The  24//.?  Chapter  of  Jop^ua.,  is  a  brief  Rehearfal  of  the  Mofaick 
Hiftory.  And  the  References  therein  made  ,  to  the  Authority  of 
Mofes^  are  fo  frequent ;  that  the  whole  Book  is  but  the  fulfilling,  of 
what  that  Great  Prophet  had  commanded,  fhould  be  done.  In  the 
Book  of  Judges^  Chapter  2.  7.  12.    Chapt.  6.  8.    and  Chapt.  10. 11, 

11.  The  People  are  put  in  remembrance  of  the  Great  Works,  God 
had  done  for  them ;   as  yet  freOi,  and  not  to  be  denied.     And  Chapt. 

12.  ^ephtha  gives  an  Hillorical  Account  of  Things,  for  the  fpace  of 
Three  Hundred  Years  back,  viz.  From  the  Marching  of  the  Ifraelites 
out  of  Egypt.,  to  his  own  time :  and  appeals  to  the  King  of  the  Am- 
monites for  the  Truth  of  all.  The  \  Chapter  of  the  Hrfl  Book  of 
Samuel.,  mentions  fome  Paflages  of  the  Mofaick  Hiftory,  and  a  good 
part  of  the  Book  of  Judges.     The  xSam.  7.  10,  11.  anc*  j  ^.hron.  17.  9, 


Chap.  ill.     from  the  WRITE  KS~ hereof         iST 


make  that  Reference  to  the  AfSided  State  of  the  Jews,  in  the  time 
of  the  Judges,  as  is  fuitable  to  the  Story  and  Series  of  that  Book. 
Solomons  Excellent  Prayer  ,  at  the  Dedication  of  the  Temple,  has 
relation,  not  only  to  the  Hiflory  of  his  Father,  but  to  much  of 
the  Pentateuch.  And  the  Levites  ^  in  another  excellent  Prayer  of 
theirs,  tJehem.  9.  give  the  Summ  of  the  Hiftory  of  the  Pentateuch , 
of  the  Bock  of  Jojhua^  and  of  the  Judges.  In  no  left  than  Three 
or  Four  and  twenty  Pfalms,  are  fhort  References  made  to  ibme 
part  or  other  of  the  Sacred  Story.  Befides  which,  tlie  loi^th,  is  an 
Abllradt  of  the  Whole,  from  Ahraham,  to  the  coming  of  the  If- 
raelites  into  Canaan.  The  106th,  another,  from  their  coming  out  of 
E^jpt,  throughout  the  Time  of  the  Judges.  And  the  j%th ,  ano- 
ther, from  the  fame  Epocha,  to  the  Reign  of  David.  In  mod  of 
\\hich,  mention  is  made  of  the  wonderful  Works  of  God.  But  of 
none,  more  often,  than  that  Golden  Chain  of  Miracles,  upon  the 
Deliverance  of  the  Ifraelites  out  of  Egypt.  Mentioned  over  and  over, 
in  all  the  Hiftorical  Books,  by  David  in  his  Pfalms,  and  by  mofl:  of  the 

51.  There  is  alfo  an  excellent  Agreement  in  tliofe  Narratives,  which 
are  given  us,  by  diftindt  Authors  at  large.  In  i  Sam.  31.  and  i  Chron.  10. 
the  Authors  give  an  account    of  the  fame  Tranfadtion  ;    differing  in 
fome  Words,  efpecially    in  the  latter  part  :    but  agreeing   in    Senfe, 
Without  the  leaft  Contradidtion.     The  only  particular,  wherein  they 
feem  to   interfere;  is,  in  what  is  faid    of    SauU   when  he   was  flain. 
In  Samuel,   as  above,  Ferf.  10.     'tis  faid,  That  the   Philiflins   put  his 
Armour  in  the  Houfe  of  Aihteroth,    and  faftened  his   Body  to   the    Wall 
of  Berhflian.     In  the   Chronicles,    That  they   put    his  Armour ,     in  the 
Houfe  of  their  Gods,  and  faftened   his  Head  in    the  Temple  of   Dagon. 
And  both  very  truly.     The   former,  not  gainfaying,    but  only    omit- 
ting, the  Difpofal  of  his  Head  ;  the  latter,   of  his  Body.    And  the  Dip 
pofal  of  his  Body,  by  the  Men   of  Jaheth  afterwards,   is   mentioned 
by  both  of  them.     Nathans  MefTage from  God  to  David,  and  David's 
Prayer  of  Thankfgiving  thereupon,  %  Sam.  7.    are  both  recorded  in 
I  Chron.  1].     So  in  x  Sam.  8.    and  i  Chron.  18.     In  2.  Sam.  10.    and 
I  Chron.  19.     In  z  Sam.  x^.  15".  and   i  Chron.  21.    14.    In   i  /T/w.  8.  and 
%  Chron.  ^.6.  we  have  fo  ,many  feveral  Hiftories,  given  us  twice  over 
by  two  Hands.     In  xKin.  18.  19.     In   x  Chron.  i^x.    and  Ifaiah  -^6.  ■jy. 
we  have  the  fame  Hiflory,  given  thrice  by  three  Hands.     And  fo  in 
X  Kin.  Z4.    Jeremy  39.  and  Jeremy  ^x.     All  oF  them  agreeing,  without 
the  leafl  Contradidion  in  Senfe.      And  yet,  which  is  efpecially  to  be 
noted,  with  fbme  difference  in  the  Words.      Whereby  it  is  evident, 
that  the  Authors,  neither  copied  one  from  another,  nor  from  one  Ori- 
ginal.    For  then,  as  was  alu  ays  done  in  Tranfcrit>ing ;   they  would  have 
kept  ftridfiy,  to  the  fame  VVords  and  Letters  to  a  Tittle.     But  that 
the    Jews    had    fevetal    Records  of    the    fame    Tranfadtions ;    Two 
whereof,  were  the  Originals,   from    whence   thefe  Books   were  ex- 

51.  Neither  is  the  Agreement  between  the  ProfJiets,  lefs  evident. 
We  may  not  overlook  the  Similitude  oif  their  Exprellions.  The  Pro- 
phet Jeremy,  in  a  Vifion  of  the  woful  Defolation  coming  upon  the  Jeivs^ 
Chapter  4.  X 3.  begins  with  thefe  •  VVords :  1  beheld  the   Earthy  and  lo, 

A  a  a  it 

i>^2  -'^^  they  appear  Book  tV 

it  was  without  Forniy   and  void :  The    very  fame,  wherev\itb  Mojes  de- 
fcribeth  the   Chaos.     In  curfing  the  Day  of  his   Birth,   Chapt.  zo.  14. 
he  rpeaks  very   like  Ifaiah^  or  what  Prophet  foever    was  the    Author 
of  the  Book  of  Joh,  Chapter   v  "PO"  ^^^^  fame  Occafion.     In  defcrl- 
bing  the    Bleflednefs    of  the    Man,  that  trulleth    in    the    Lord  ,    he 
fpeaks   very  like  to  David,  in   the  Firil  PI  aim  :    and  fb  in  fundry  o- 
ther  Places.     The    Lord^   faith  'joely    Chapter  1.  ij.    is    gracious  and 
merciful,  Jlow  to   Anger,   and  of  great  Kindnefs,     and   repenteth  him   of 
the  Evil.     And  fo  doth  "jonah,  in   the  very   fame  Words.      In  Pfalm 
46.  10.  all  Nations  are  required  to  pay    an  awful  Reverence  to  the 
Divine  Majefty,  in  thofe  Words,  Be  flill,  and  how  that   I  am  God. 
So  Hahakkuk,  Chapter  x.  zo.     But  the  Lord  is  in  his  Holy  lemple,  let 
all  the  Earth  keep  filence  he  fore  him.     And  Zechary,    Chapter  z.  i^. 
Bejilent^   0  all  Fle/h,   before  the  Lord  ;  for  he  is  raifed  up  out  of  his  f/oly 
Habitation.    The  famenefs  of  which,  and  many  other  Expreliions,  argues 
That  they  were  all  moved  to  fpeak,  by  one  Religious  Principle,  and  Di- 
vine Authority. 

53.  But  much  more,  the  Conformity  of  their  Doctrine,  every  where, 
unto  the  Law  of  MoJes,  and  whatfoever  is  by  him  faid,  of  the  Nature 
of  God,  and  of  our  Duty  to  him.  This  Law,  David  admired  above  ail 
things  :  and  hath  written  feveral  E  ncomiums  upon  it.  To  the  Law, 
and  to  the  Teftimony,  faith  Ifaiah,  to  the  Jews  who  fought  to  Falfe 
Prophets,  Chapter  8.  zo.  Remember  the  Law  of  Mofes  my  Servant^ 
with  the  Statutes  and  Judgments.  Mai.  4.  4.  are  almoft  the  concluding 
Words  of  that  Prophet,  and  of  the  Old  Teflament.  It  was  this  Law 
which  they  all  read  and  ftudied,  as  David  did.  Day  and  Night: 
which  they  all  preached  and  expounded  to  the  People  :  by  which 
they  convinced  them  of  their  Crimes,  with  the  Juflice  of  their  Pu- 
niiliments  ;  and  aflured  them  of  Mercy  upon  their  Reformation. 
In  all  which,  it  was  impoILble  for  them ,  not  "to  rend  towards  it, 
as  their  Common  Centre.  Herein  differing  infinitely  from  all  the 
Heathen  Philofophers,  who  either  through  Ignorance,  could  not  a- 
gree;  or  through  Emulation,  rather  fludied  to  contradi<5t  one  ano- 

54.  And  as  the  Hiftorians  and  Prophets,  all  agree  ,  in  Truth,  as 
their  Rule  :  fo  in  the  Honour  of  God,  as  their  great  End  '•  That  is, 
in  magnifying  of  God  in  his  Word  and  Works,  and  nullifying  of 
Man.     Of  the  former,  I  have  given  divers  Inflances.    And  they  are 

,  as  fmgular,  above  all  other  Writers,  in  the  latter  j  neither  concealing 
nor  extenuating  the  Faults  of  any.  Not  thofe  of  the  People.  Under- 
fiand,  fays  Mofes,  that  the  Lord  thy  Cod  gtveth  thee  not  this  good 
Land  to  poffefs,  for  thy  Righteoufnefs  ;  for  thou  art  a  ft  iff- necked  People^ 
Deut.  9. 6.  A  great  and  everlafting  Dilhonour  recorded  of  his  own  Nation. 
Not  thofe  of  the  Priefts,  not  of  Aaron  himfelf,  the  firtl,  and  one  of 
the  bell.  Not  of  their  bed  Kings  ;  David^  Hezekiah,  Jofiah.  The 
'firfl:  of  whom,  was  conflrained  by  a  Divine  Jmpulfe,  without  which,  he 
would  never  have  done  it,  to  compofe  a  Penitential  Pfalm,  to  be  kept 
among  the  reft,  as  a  publick  and  perpetual  Record  of  his  Crimes. 
Nor  is  the  Fault  of  Mofes  himfelf,  for  which  he  was  denied  Entrance 
into  Canaan^  left  unrecorded. 

K: 55-  It 

C  H  A  P.  III.  from  the  FRUITERS  hereof. 


5-5.  It  is  then  very  clear,  from  all  that  hath  been  faid,  That  the  Sa- 
tred  Scribes,  were  far  from  intending  to  give  us  a  Specimen  of  their 
Wit,  in  fetting  forth,  either  their  own  Fame,  or  that  of  their  own  Na- 
tion. But  on  the  contrary,  were  fo  extreamly  fatisfied  of  the  Weight  and 
Excellency  of  the  things  they  reported  ,  as  to  conclude  the  Addition  of 
Humane  Ornaments,  was  but  to  paint  the  Sun-beams.  And  all  of  them 
agreeing  herein  from  firft  to  lafl :  'tis  a  ftrong  Argument,  that  they  were 
not  guided  by  any  falfe  and  mutable  Principles  of  Corrupt  Nature ;  but 
by  one  eternal  Spirit  of  Truth. 

56,  We  may  add,  that  befides  the  Witnefs  which  the  Writings  of  the 
Old  Teftament,  bear  one  to  another  :  They  are  undeniably  authorized 
in  thofe  of  the  New.     Both  by  the  Apofllcs,  in  their  Epiflles,  Ads  and 
Gofpels ;  in  all  which,  they  are  frequently  recited  :  and  likewife  by  out 
Blefled  Saviour  himfelf;  by  whom,  they  are  both  alledged,  and  imitated. 
He  cites  much  of  the  Hiftory ;  as  of  the  Flood,  the  Deftru6Hon  of  So>' 
dom^  Lots  Wife,  ^c.  And  many  of  the  Laws  ;   as  of    Rebellious  Chil- 
dren,  the  Leper's  Offering,  and  fundry  others.     Moft  of  his  preceptive 
Bleflings,  in  Matth.  5.  are  taken  from  thence.     To  this  Man   will  /  look^ 
fays  God  by  Ifaiah,  66.  z.  that  is  poor  and  of  a  contrite  Spirit.     And 
cur  Saviour,  B/eJfed  are  the  poor  in  fpirit ;   for  theirs  is   the  Kingdom   of 
Heaven.     The  Meek  (hall  inherit  the  Earthy  fays  David,  Pfal,  36.  11.    And 
our  Saviour,  Blejfed  are  the  Meek,  for  they  (hall  inherit  the  Earth.     Who 
fhall  afcend  into  the  Hill  of  the  Lord  ?  and  who  fhall  Jland  in  his  holy  Place  > 
He  that  hath  clean  Hands  and  a  pure  Heart,    {■ay S^  David,    Pfal.    24.34. 
And  our  Saviour,  Blejfed  are   the  Pure  in  Heart,   for  they  Jhall  fee  God. 
And  the  Precept  wherewith  this  Fifth  Chapter  concludes,  Be  ye  there^ 
fore  perfect,  as  your  Heavenly  Father  is  perjeil ;  anfwers  to  that  of  Mofes^ 
Deut.  18. 13.  Thou  fhalt  he  perfect  with  the  Lord  thy  God.    Of  Prophecies 
he  recites  fundry  of  Himfelf,  of  his  Gofpel,  his  Apoftles,  the  Jews,  and 
the  Temple.    Comprehends  all  the  Sacred  Writers,  under  the  Title  of 
Mofes  and  the  Prophets.     And  by  expounding  Elijah,  promifed  in  the  laft 
Chapter  of  Malachi^  as  maant  of  John  the  Baptift :  lets  us  know,  that 
where  the  Law  and  the  Old  Teftament  ended,     there  the  Gofpel  began. 
No  Man  therefore,  can  call  in  queftion,  the  Authority  of  the  Old  Te- 
ftament, who  owns  the  New;  or  the  V Vifdom  and  Sandity  of  our  Blelr- 
fed  Saviour  J  which  the  greateft  Enemies  of  the  Chriftian  Religion,  Pa^ 
gans,  Mahometans,    and  Jews  therafelves,  have  acknowledged :  as  Ihall 
hereafter  be  proved. 


— ^ — ^ —  ..-  ■  ..— I  .         I.   — >^ 

ig^  As  they  af fear  Book  IV. 

CHAP.    IV. 

Of  the  Contents  of  the  HEBREW  CODE, 

And  firfiy  of  the   Hiftory. 

i.TN  fpeaking  of  the  Contents  of  the  OldTeftament,  I  Ihall  confider, 
X  Firft,   fo'Tie    Particulars,   as  Hiftorical  ;   then  the  Miracles,    the 
Prophecies  and  the  Laws.     To  the  lad  of  which,   all  flie  three  former 
have  an  efpecial  Regard. 

X.  There  is  nothing  recorded  in  the  Sacred  Story,  but  what  is  worthy, 
and  on  fome  account  or  other,  necelTary,  to  be  known.  And  many  things 
withal,  fuch  as  are  told  us  nowhere  elfe.  Or  if  any  of  them  are,  they  have 
been  borrowed  from  hence. 

3.  We  have  no  where  an  Inftance  of  the  Perfedion  of  Humane  Na- 
ture, as  it  came  out  of  God's  Hands,  or  fo  much  as  a  Guefs  at  it,  but 
here  only,  viz.  '\n  Ge».^x.  19.20.  where  A^ant  isfaid,  to  give  Names  to 
all  Creatures.  Their  being  brought  to  him,  was  a  Ceremony,  fufficient 
to  folemnize  the  Donation  of  Dominion  over  them.  But  he  could  not 
have  given  them  fit  and  proper  Names ;  and  fuch,  as  had  withal  the  Di- 
vine Approbation,  Ferf.xo.  without  having  a  certain  and  diilind  Know- 
ledge of  their  Natures.  And  it  is  reafonable  to  believe,  that  he  had 
this  Knowledge,  without  Experience  or  fludying  for  it.  That  being 
created,  not  an  Infant,  but  a  Man  :  he  had  the  Faculties  of  his  Mind, 
given  him  in  fome  Equality  of  Perfection,  with  the  Parts  of  his  Body. 
And  therefore,  that  he  then  knew  many  things,-  by  fome  fort  of 
Intelledual  Inflind:  ;  as  Birds,  and  other  Animds  do  now,  by  that  which 
is Phantaflick.  And  which,  of  the  two,  would  have  been  lefs  credible; 
had  we  not  the  Demonftration  of  it  in  their  Works. 

4.  'Tis  here  only,  that  we  underfland,  how  Man  came  to  lofe  this  Per- 
fedtion :  Upon  what  fcore,  or  by  M'hqt  means,  God  being  perfectly 
Good  •  Death  and  all  other  Evilis  came  into  the  World  ?  A  Queftion, 
wherewith  the  beflof  the  Gentile  Philofopher^  have  been  puzled  ;  bat 
could  never  anfwer.  But  here  we  are  plainly  told,  that  the  Caufe  hereof, 
was  the  Tranfgreflionof  a  Pofitive  Law.  Which  God,  torefeeing,  did  al»- 
fo  fore-ordain,  That,  together  with  Mankind,  every  thing  elfe  in  this 
LowerVVorldjfhould  recede  from  that  Perfedion  wherein  it  was  crea- 
ted. And  was  therefore  alfopleafed  to  create  the  World,  in  the  Seventh 
Month,  /Ethanim^  anciently  called  the  Firfl ;  that  is,  in  Autumn.  Both 
that  Man,  and  all  the  Chief  Fruits  of  the  Earth,  might  meet  together 
in  their  befl:  Eflate  :  and  that  foon  after  he  fell,  he  might  fee  Winter 
coming  on,  and  all  Nature  in  a  fort  of  dying  Condition,  like  himfelf, 
or  puttmg  on  Mourning  for  his  Fall. 

5.  Sanchurttathon  and  Herodotus,  do  both  harp  at  the  holy  Line  be- 
fore the  Flood  ;  efpecially  the  latter,  as  in  the  Second  Chapter  hath  been 
ftewed.  But  we  have  it  compleat,  both  before  and  after  the  Flood, 
no  where,  but  here.  Given  for  a  Vifible  Security,  to  the  Church;  That 
the  Perfedion  of  Humane  Nature,  lofl  in  the  firfl  Link  of  this  Chain  j 
in  the  Fulnefs  of  Time,  fliould  be  exhibited  to  the  World,  in  the  Lafl;. 

6.  The 


CHhP.lV,  the    HISTOKT  1^5 

6.  The  Longevity  of  the  Firfl:  Ages,  chiefly  before  the  Flood  ; 
tlio'  witnefed  by  the  mofl  Ancient  Records  of  Egypt,  China,  and  other 
Nations,  as  hath  been  flievved  :  yet  is  no  where,  fo  fully  and  particular- 
ly mentioned,  as  in  the  Scripture,  Nor  is  there  any  thing  in  Nature 
more  credible.  Tho'  70  or  80 Years,  are  now  the  ufual  Old  Age:  yet 
fome  have  lately  doubled  that  Number.  And  it  were  as  poilible,  M'ith 
refpedt  to  Flefli  and  Blood,  to  be  redoubled  twice  or  thrice  over :  if  wc 
connder  Man  before  the  Flood,  as  conning  out  of  God's  Hands,  without 
the  Seeds  or  Relicks  of  any  fort  of  Difeafe.  And  then  alfb  living  under 
a  Temperate  Climate,  in  a  Serene  Air,  on  a  Simple  Diet,  and  among 
thofe  of  the  Holy  Line,  who  probably  liv'd  longer  than  other  Men, 
joyn'd  with  Temperance,  Sobriety,  Chaftity,  Equanimity,  Induftry,  and 
ali  other  Virtues,  conducing  to  the  Prolonging  of  Life.  But  when,  with 
the  Flood,  fome  great  Alteration  befel  the  Earth  :  and  probably,  the  Sun 
and  Moon  hkewife,  the  Grand  Regulators  of  Life  and  Death :  When  the 
Salubrity  of  the  Earth,  and  the  Air,  was  impared  ;  and  herewithal,  the 
Excellency  of  the  Vegetable  Diet ;  and  feeding  upon  all  Torts  of  Flefli, 
being  now  allowed  ;  Men  indulged  themfelves  m  all  the  kinds  of  Excefs : 

there  were  but  too  many  Caufes,  fufficient  to  reduce  the  Life  of  Man  to  a  ' 

fliorter  Meafure. 

7.  Many  very  ancient  Writers,  agree  with  the  Scriptures,  in  report- 
ing the  Univerfality  o[  Noah's  Flood.  But  we  are  no  where,  but  here,  in- 
formed of  the  Time,  Juilice,  and  Means  hereof.  Neither  of  the  moral 
Caufe,  a  Deluge  of  VVickednefs,  equally  Univerfal ;  nor  of  the  Natu- 
ral. Said,  befides  the  Forty  Days  Rain,  to  be  the  Breaking  up  of  the 
Fountains  of  the  Great  Deep.  Upon  which  few  Words,  the  befl  Con- 
jedures  are,  or  may  be  grounded  concerning  the  fame. 

8  Sundry  hkewife  of  the  Gr^fy^j,  and  other  Hiftorians,  make  menti- 
on <^f  Noah's  Ark.  But  no  Man  hath  given  us  a  Defcription  of  it,  but 
only  Mofes.  And  if  we  confider  the  Capacity  and  FaQiion  hereof  ;  we 
can  have  no  colour  of  Reafon,  to  doubt  of  its  Fitnefs,  for  the  Ufe  he  tells 
us  was  made  of  it.  For  if  we  compute  the  Number,  and  Bulk,  of  all  the 
Creatures  faid  to  have  been  preferved  therein  ;  with  the  Space  neceflary 
for  their  tree  Station,  and  Food  :  Four  hundred  and  fifty  thoufand  Cu- 
bick  Halt-Yards,  the  Content  of  the  Ark,  was  room  enough  for  all,  and 
to  fpare.  And  t"or  floating,  without  failing,  for  w  hich  it  was  intended  ; 
there  could  not  have  beendevifed  a  more  convenient  Figure.  And  be- 
ing, no  doubt,  the  firft  Ship  that  was  ever  made;  and  the  firft  Occafion 
Noah  had  for  Mathematicks,  in  the  making  of  it :  it  is  reafonable  to 
believe,  that  as  Mofes  truly  reports ,  he  was  inftrudled  herein  by  the 
fame  Wifdom  uhich  made  all  other  ThingSjjjn  Number,  Weight  and  Mea- 

9.  Neither  is  there  any  one,  who  hath  given  us  (b  full  and  certain  an 
Account  of  the  Original  of  Nations,  as  Mofes  hath  done.  Nor  of  their 
Derivation  from  one  Man.  Much  more  credibly, •  than  from  the  feign- 
ed ^horigines  of  every  Countrey.  Which  way  loever  Iflands  came  to 
be  mado ;  it  is  not  necellary  to  fuppofe  they  were  all  made  at  once. 
A?:  England 2itii\  the  Ifle  of  Wight  were  formerly  Continent :  fo  in  all  like- 
lihood, were  £«g/j«^/ and  France;  and  many  other  Countries,  now  become  And  why  not  Africa  znd  America  >  There  are  but  z4  Degrees 
between  the  moft  Wefterly  Part  of  Africa,  and  the  mofl:  Eafl:erly  of  5ra- 

Bbb  file: 


iY^  As  they  a-p pear  from  Book  IV, 

file  :  and  they  abutt  upon  one  another.  It  is  therefore  very  Hkely, 
they  were  once  joined  with  a  Necic  of  Land.  Which  a  Violent 
Earthquake,  or  ftrong  Current,  or  both  thefe,  and  perhaps  fome 
other  Caufcs  together,  might  eafdy  break,  and  carry  under  Water,  as 
itnowUes.  Or  at  firft,  perhaps,  only  a  fmaller  Part  of  it,  next  to  the 
African  Shore  ; -and  fo  the  Remainder  might  be  that  very  Piece  of 
.  Land,  called  by  the  Ancients,  The  Atlantkk  Ifland.  Which  Ifland,  not 
being  Mountainous,  but  a  vaft  Pl»in,  as  Tlato^  who  defcribes  it  in  hiS 
Critidi,  affirms  it  was  :  and  which  we  may  as  well  fuppofe,  to  be  feven- 
ty  times  the  Lengtii  of  Salishury-Plain  ;  as  that  is  of  any  ordinary 
Meadow  :  it  might  very  eafily  at  any  time,  by  the  Caufes  aforefaid, 
be  laid  under  Water,  where  the  Atlantkk  Ocean  now  runs.  Or  this 
Neck  of  Land,  might  be  part  of  the  Univerfal  Shell.  Which  Handing 
for  Ibme  time  after  the  General  Flood  ,  before  it  fell ;  was  Bridge  e- 
nough  for  the  Afrkans  to  pafs*  over  'into  Anterka.  And  why  might 
not  the  Fall  hereof,  occafion  that  lefler  Ogygian^\ooA>  Or  what,  if  after 
all,  Japan  is  no  Ifland  ?  but  as  fome  good  Voyagers  of  late  ,  flrongly 
fufped-,  is  Continent  with  Amerka }  And  there  may  be,  or  have  been, 
other  Ways  thither,  which  we  neither  do,  nor  can  know,  without  a  per- 
fed;  Geography,  which  we  never  yet  had.  So  that,  for  any  Man  to 
fay,  there  neither  is,  nor  ever  was,  any  Way,  becaufe  we  cannot  fliew 
it :  is  like  a  Negative  Evidence  ;  which  Lawyers  have  fo  much 
4Vit,  aS  not  to  allow  for  any.  ♦  And  I  know  not  why  others  Ihould 
have  left. 

lo.  Nor  can  we  doubt  of  Blacks  being  bred,  as  well  as  Whites^  of 
the  Children  of  one  Man.  'Tis  true,  that  living,  and  breeding  with- 
in the  Torrid  Zone,  or  without  it;  is  not  enough  alone  to  produce  this 
difference.  For  the  Ethiopians  and  Malalars,  tho'  in  part,  equally  di- 
ftant  from  the  Line :  yet  thofe  are  but  duskilh  ;  thefe  are  black.  And 
'tis  faid,  that  all  over  America,  there  are  no  Blacks,  but  only  at  S^ave- 
ca.  Yet  this  hinders  not,  but  that  the  Climate  may  co-operate  with  the 
Native  Caufes.  Which  feem  to  be  chiefly  thefe  Three,  vtz.  The  Dijiri- 
hution  of  the  Capillary  Arteries,  more  numeroujly  into  the  outer  part  of 
the  Skin ;  A  lefs  proportion  of  Capillary  Veins,  to  return  the  Blood  thence ; 
and,  The  extream  Thinnefs  of  the  Cuticle.  By  which  means,  fome 
fmaller  part  of  the  Blood,  becoming  ftagnant  herein,  like  any  other 
Blood,  when  it's  dry,  or  upon  a  Bruife,  it  turneth  Black.  And  there- 
fore, among  the  Ethiopians,  there  is  a  fort  of  Breed,  which  are  neither 
Black,  nor  Tawny,  nor  properly  White ;  but,  as  is  likely,  from  the  make 
of  their  Skin,  are  rather  Pale,  like  dead  Men.  And  in  Blacks  themfelves, 
the  Palms  of  their  tiands,  and  the  Soles  of  their  Feet,  where  the  C«- 
ticle  is  much  thicker;  and  into  which,  the  Capillary  Arteries  flioot 
more  fparingly  ;  are  of  a  whitifli  Red.  Where  thefe  then,  and  perhaps 
fome  other  Native  Caufes,  meetwithafuitable  Chmate,  we  may  fuppofe 
they  never  fail  to  produce  a  Black  Breed.  So,  in  part  of  the  Provmce 
of  ^antung  in  China,  the  People  who  are  near  the  Torrid  Zone,  are 
Black  :  but  in  that  of  Peking,  the  mod  Northerly,  they  are  White 
And  fome  Climates  may  be  fitter  to  breed  Blacks,  than  others  ;  M'hich, 
tho' of  the  fame  Latitude,  yet  may  not  be  fo  hot :  or  the  Efeavens,  or  tlic 
Earth,  may  be  different  in  other  refpeds.  Every  Florifi  can  tell,  how 
great  an  Alteration,   the  tranfplanting  of  fome  Flowers,    only  from  the 

,  Field, 




Chap.  IV.  the    HIS  1  0  KY,  ,87 

Field  into  a  Garden,  will  make  in  their  Colours.     And  every  good  Her- 
balid,  the  great  difference  in  Plants  of  the  fame  kind,   only  by  growing 
at  feveral  Latitudes,  or  in  feveral  Parts  of  the  World,   tho'  in  the  fame 
Latitude.     Nor  is  the  Shortnefs,  and  woolly  Curl  of  a  Black's  Hair,  any 
flranger ;  than  for  a  Naked  Dc^,  when  brought  from  a    Hot  to  a'Cold 
Climate,  to  become  Hairy.     If  we  mud  have  one  Adam    for  Whites^ 
and  another  for  Blacks  ;  muft  we  not  have  a  Third  for  Tawnies?  and  a' 
Fourth  for  Pales  ?  If  one  for  white,    and  another  fo/  black  Skins  ;  why 
not  one  for  White,  and  another  for  Black  Hair  ?  and  another  for  Red? 
Properties,  which  in  a  Breed  of  Parents  always  in  the  fame  Climate,   and 
both  of  the  fame  Colour ;  would  be  as  conftant  in  the  Hair,   as  in  the 
Skin.     And  were  it  not  as  neceffary,  to  have  Original  Standards  of   Di- 
menfions,  as  well  as  of  Colours?   One  for  the  Gigantick  Breed  of  Afia^ 
and  another  for  the  Dwarfs  of  Lapland  > 

ir.  It  was  likewife  becoming  the  Divine  Majefty,  not  vainly  tore- 
peat  the  Creation  of  Man.  Not  to  make  one  Man,  merely  for  the  fake 
of  a  white  Colour,  and  another  for  a  Black.  But  having  made  him  fit  t© 
tranfplant  himfelf  all  over  the  World ;  to  projed:  at  once  the  Caufes,  of 
all  the  Variations,  which  in  time  ihould  happen  to  his  Seed.  And  it 
was  becoming,  with  refped  to  his  intended  Dealing  with  Man,  not  to  re- 
peat the  fame  Tranfadtion  over  and  over  ;  but  that  one  fliould  ferve  for 
all.  Nor  was  it  lefs  fuitable  unto  Humane  Nature,  or  to  the  Nature  of 
Right,  in  the  Pofiefllon  of  the  Teveral  Parts  of  the  World  ;  that  all 
People  herein,  fliould  at  firft  be  under  the  Government  and  Difpofal  of 
one  Man.  O        •     * 

I  z.  The  Tranfadions  likewife  recorded  in  the  Scriptures,  are  very 
fingular.  When  Adam  had  eaten  of  the  Forbidden  Fruit ;  the  Method, 
and  the  Solemnity  ufed  in  Arraigning  affd  Condemning  the  Three 
Criminals,  Gen.  3.  may  be  a  Pattern  unto  all  Courts  of  Jultice,  for  their 

I -J,  The  bold  Exploit  of  Simem  and  Levi,  tho'  no  where  commend- 
ded,  but  accurft  ;  yet  ferved  to  efied:  the'contrary  to  u  hat  JacoI>  expedted 
would  have  followed.  Which  was,  upon  his  Pallage  to  Bethel,  to  llrike  a 
Terror  into  all  the  Cities  round  about,  thqit  they  ihould  not  purfue  after 
him,  Gen.  ■>,$.$.  i 

14.  No  Hiftory,  Romance,  o^  Dramrtia,  evergav^us  a  Compofure, 
fuller  of  moving  Scenes,  than  the  Story  of  Jofeph.  Wherein  the 
Reader  of  a  few  Leaves,  lives  as  many  Years  as  jifeph  did,  between 
Hope  and  Fear.  Nor  can  he  avoid  joining  with  him  at  lafl; ,  in  a 
Confort  of  Weeping  Joys.  An  admirable  Sample  of  Providence 
drawn  on  purpofe,  as  a  Scheme  of  the  Author's  Skill  ;  in  the  many 
fecret  and  fure  Steps  he  then  took,  and  takes  every  where  to  attain  Ins 

1$.  How  wonderfully  was  the  Prefervation  and  Preferment  of  Mo- 
'es  contrived,  Exod.  z.  by  that  Wifdom,  which  bad  ahb  Forecafl,  what 
0  do  with  him  ?  Which,  tho'  it  be  imitated  by  the  Tale  of  Romulus 
and  Remus ;  yet  any  one  that  compares  them  together,  will  acknow- 
ledge, how  far  in  Finenefs  and  Credibility,  the  Fable  comes  fliorc  of  the 
True  Story.  ^^^^  ^i't 

16.  When 

■88  As  they  afjear from  Book   IV. 

1 6.  When  Pharaoh  was  relolvcd,  with  Pride,  Injuftice  and  Cruelty , 
to  opprefs  thofe,  whofc  Anccftor  had  made  him  Great :  With  what  ex- 
cellent Majefty,  is  Mofes  fent  to  him  ?  Thus  Jaith  the  Lord  God  oj  If- 
rael,  Let  my  People  go,  that  they  may  hold  a  Feaft  unto  me  hi  the  Wilder- 
fiefs.  And  every  time  he  refufes,  /J/o/fj  makes  his  Demands  ftillh'gher: 
Our  little  ones  an^  our  Cattle  Jhall  go  with  us  ;  there  /ha/l  not  a  Hoof  he 
left  behind,  Ex.  10.9.  i6.  and  the  Tyrant  is  puniflied  with  flill  greater 
Plagues.  Till  he  that  fcorn'd  to  obey,  begs  a.Blefling;  and  thofe 
he  had  bcgger'd,  are  fent  away  laden  with  the  Choiceft  Trea- 

17.  The  Feat  of  Jael,  the  Stratagem  of  Gideon,  the  Courage  of 
Sampfon  at  his  Death,  were  all  of  them  extraordinary,  if  only  confi- 
dered  in  themfclves :  much  more,  in  the  great  Ufe  which  was'  made  of 

18.  Such  too,  was  the  Sequel  of  Ahfalom's  foolifii  Ambition,  David's 
fending  of  Hufljai  back  to  him,  the  Sham-Advice  which  Hufhai  gave 
him  thereupon,  the  molt  fecret  Intelligence  hereof  fent  to  David  ^ 
and  David's  paffing  over  Jordan,  that  his  Small  Army  might  en- 
gage Ahfalom's  in  a  Wood  j  flrangely  concurring  to  his  Over- 

19.  The  Faithful  Love  between  Damon  and  Pythias,  was  rare, 
and  highly  commendable.  Yet  inferiour  to  that  between  Jonathan 
and  Davidl.  Thofe  Mere  Private  Men*,  and  had  nothing  perhaps  to 
lofe,  but  a  Contemptible  Life.  But  Jonathan  lays  his  Life,  and  the 
Kingdom  to  which  he  waJWieir,  both  at  ftake,  for  the  Prefervation  of 
his  Friend. 

20.  y^neas  living  above  zfo  Years,  before  the  Building  of  Carthage; 
it  was  impofllble,  that  He  and  Dido,  fliouid  ever  have  feen  one  another. 
But  fuppofe  the  Poet's  Tale,  of  his  Reception  by  that  Queen,  and  her 
dying  for  love  of  him,  to  make  him  look  great,  were  true.  Yet 
I  think,  any  one  will  fay,  that  in  a  few  Lines  of  Solomon  and  the 
Queen  of  Sheha,  we  have  a  Tranfadtion  of  a  far  higher  Pitch.  It  be- 
ing much  more  for  the  Honour  of  a  King,  to  be  vifited,  and  nobly  pre- 
fented,  by  a  Queen  ;  than  only  to  be  courteoufly  received  :  a  piece  of 
Hofpitality,  due  to  every  Stranger.  And  much  lefs,  to  be  admired,  as 
/Eneas,  by  a  weak  Woman  :  than  as  Solornon,  by  one  that  was  fo  much 
wifer,  as  to  have  regard,  in  all  refpedts,  unto  her  own  Honour,  as  well 
as  that  King's.  Shewing  her  Ability,  to  make  a  judicious  Remark,  of 
whatloever  Ihe  had  heard  or  feen. 

XI .  Nor  was  Solomon  more  to  be  admired  for  his  Wifdom,  Magnificence, 
or  any  thing  elfe  contributing  to  the  Heighth  of  his  Glory ;  than  it  is 
aftonifliing  to  fee  his  Fall.  An  Example  fingled  out,  to  demonflrate  the 
Infufficiency  of  any  Humane  Wifdom,  to  maintain  its  own  Poll,  when- 
ever left  unto  it  felf. 

%z.  Neither  is  the  Beauty  of  the  Scripture-Hiftory,  juftly  chargeable 
with  any  Blemilh.  With  nothing  Immoral.  -Pharaoh,  by  Jofeph's 
means,  became  Proprietor  of  all  the  Land  of  Egypt.  And  not  unjuftly, 
as  the  Cafe  was.  1  he  Corn,  for  which  he  bought  it,  was  the  King's.  And 
the  People,  inltead  of  accufing  Jofeph,  frankly  own,  that  he  had  faved 
their  Lives. 

2.3.  It 

Chap,  i  V.     the  HISTO  KT,  189 

2^.  It  may  be  thought,  that  Ehu(/  was  culpable,  in  making  fliew  of 
Submiflion  and  Kindnefs,  when  he  intended  none.  And  why  (o  ?  Eg- 
ion  was  confcious  to  hirofelf,  That  without  Cauie,  he  had  oppreHcd 
ijrael  20  Years,  and  pollefled  'Jericho,  one  of  their  Principal  Cities; 
and  was  refolved  to  keep,  what  he  had  robbed  them  of.  So  that  he 
had  no  ground  at  all  to  trufl:  Ehud,  or  to   expert  any  Kindnefs  from  , 

him.  Neither  doth  the  Hiflorian  relate  what  £/Wdid,  as  an  Exam- 
ple to  be  followed.  Becaufe  he  had  a  Special  CommilTion  for  what  lie 
did,  not  only  from  the  Princes  of  Ifrael,]nd^.T,.  15.  but  alfo,  which  no 
Man  now  can  pretend,  from  God  himfelf,  Verf.  15.  20.  the  only  Infallible 
Judge  in  a  Cafe  of  this  Nature,  of  all  the  Circumftances  ingredient  to  the 
Definition  of  Good  or  Evil. 

24.  Some  may  think  of  jael,  that  by  inviting  Sifera  into  her  Tent, 
ihe  was  no  better  than  a  Trapanning  Hufly.  But  nothing  fo.  What 
fhe  did,  was  very  prudently,  to  fave  her  own  Life.  For.  fhc  might  well 
exped:,  That  Stfera  routed  and  purfued,  had  (lie  refuTed  him,  or  been 
fliye,  either  in  a  Rage,  or  to  prevent  her  telling  of  Tales,  would  have 
killed  her  upon  the  Ipot.  And  had  ihe  not  then  gone  through,  Barak 
and  his  Men,  who  were  alfo  coming,  in  the  heat  of  their  Purluit,  would 
have  done  as  much,  for  her  giving  Refuge  to  their  Chief  Enemy. 
And  what  fhe  did ,  was  juftly  too  j  upon  a  Rank  Idolater  and 
cruel  OppreHbr;  not  iubmitting,  but  flying,  and  refolved  to  con- 
tinue what  he  was ;  and  therefore  to  be  fpared,  upon  no  Pretence  what^ 

25.  I  think  it  is  not  clear,  whether  Jephtha  offered  his  Daughter  in 
Sacrifice,  or  only  devoted  her  to  perpetual  Virginity.  Suppofe  the 
former.  Yet  the  Hiftorian,  neither  juflifies,  nor  condemns  him ;  but 
very  wifely,  delivers  bare  Matter  of  Fad.  Which,  as  he  was  no  where 
commanded  ;  fo  neither  was  he  forbid,  as  Abraham  was  in  liis  Attempt. 
But  permitted,  to  teach  them  more  Prudence,  in  the  Matter  of  their 
Vows,  while  they  were  yet  free  :  and  more.  Religion  in  obfcrving  them, 
when  they  were  once  obliged.  For  God  taketh  no  delight  in  Fools, 
Ecclef.  5.  4. 

26.  Tho'  David  had  fpared  both  Joah  and  Shimei  ;  yet  his  Charge  to 
Solomon  concerning  them,  was  Prudent  and  Juft.  The  one,  as  a  Murde- 
rer, the  other,  as  a  Traytor,  had  defcrved  Death.  And  Solomon  too,  is 
required  to  ad:  wifely  :  that  is,  not  to  take  them  off  upon  the  old  fcore, 
but  to  lay  hold  upon  a  new,  and  juft  Occafion  for  it  :  which  he  alfo  did. 
Joah,  Tiding  againft  him,  with  Jdonijah  ;  and  SMmei  departing  from  'Je- 
rufalem  contrary  to  his  Oath,  and  the  Condition  he  had  accepted  for  his 
Life.  For  which,  and  his  being  of  the  Houfe  of  Saul,  he  was  no  longer 

27.  Naaman,  by  the  Prophet,  asks  pardon  of  God,  If,  when  his  Ma- 
fler  went  to  worlliip  in  tlic  Houfe  of  tlimmon,  and  leaned  on  his  Hand  j 
he  then  bowed  himfdf.  To  whom  the  Prophet  anfwers.  Go  in  Peace, 
2  Kin.  5. 18.  Suppofed  by  fome,  to  be  a  Difpeniation  for  his  worlhipping 
of  Rimmon.  But  is  nothing  Icls.  He  defires  Leave,  neither  to  worlhip 
him,  nor  to  feign  his  doing  it :  but  only,  not  to  be  rude  to,  the  King, 
For  whom,  it  was  impoffible  to  lean  upon  Naaman,  and  to  bow  down  to 
the  Ground,  which  was  the  worlhipping  Pofture,  except  Naaman  did  bow 
down  with  him.     Who,  at  the  fame  time,  as  he  did  his  Duty  to  his  Ma- 

Ccc  fter. 

I  C-C 

At  th^y  appear  from  Book  i  V 

(ler,  fufficiently  teftified  his  Contempt  of  his  Mafter's  Idol,  by  facri- 
ficing  neither  to  that,  nor  to  any  Gods,  but  only  to  the  Lord, 
X  Km.  5.  17. 

x8.  It  may  feem,  that  Mordcca't  was  a  proud  Captive ,  in  refunng  to 
bow  to  Haman,  the  greateft  Prince  of  the  Realm  ;  and  when  he  knew 
too,  that  it  was  expededof  him.  But  it  fcems,  he  did  not  think  it  de- 
corous, nor  perhaps  lawful,  to  give  Worlhip  to  a  Man,  delcended  of  A- 
gag  King  of  the  Amalekjies ;  a  People,  wiiom  he  knew  to  be  devoted,  by 
God  himfelf,   unto  utter  DeftrucJion. 

%g.  Neither  in  the  Scripture-Hiftory,  is  there  any  thing  Romantick 
or  Abfurd.  But  if  any  Particulars  feem  to  be  fuch  ;  it  is,  becaufe  we 
are  ignorant  of  the  true  Senfe  of  many  Hebrew  Words ;  as  the  befl 
Learned  in  this  Language,  mufl:  acknowledge  thcmfelves  to  be.  No 
Stranger,  tho'  he  has  learn'd  to  fpeak  E»gli/h,  yet  without  being  taught, 
can  tell  what  weEnglifli  Men  mean,  by  a  Petty-weight.  For  tho'  a  Peny 
weighs  but  eight  Grains;  yet  by  z  Peny-weight,  wc  mean  14  Grains.  So 
'tisiaid,  zSam.  14.  z6.  That  Abfalom'j  Hair  weighed  zoo  Shekels  after 
the  Kings.  Weight.  By  which  Form  of  Speech,  the  y^"'^  rnight  defcend 
as  much  below  the  reputed  Weight  of  a  Shekel ;  as  we,  when  we  fay  a 
Peny -weighty  afcend  above  the  Weight  of  a  Peny.  For  zoo  of  thefe  She- 
kels, as  commonly  reckoned,  was  50  Ounces.  Whereas,  there  are  leldom 
above  30  Ounces,  allowing  3  or  4  more  for  Waftc,  in  the  mofl:  monftrous 
Peruke.  The  Excefs  therefore,  being  fo  very  great,  and  fo  far  from  a- 
ny  part  of  that  Beauty,  for  which  Abfalom  was  admired :  it  may  feem 
to  be  a|pove  Sufpicion,  that  fo  grave  an  Hiftorian,  fliould  expedt  to  be 
believed,  in  faying  what  he  is  commonly  fuppofed  to  do.  And  therefore, 
that  we  are  either  yet  ignorant  of  what  is  here  meant  by  a  Shekel^  or 
of  the  Phrafe,  after  the  Kings  weight. 

30.  And  why  not  of  the  Weight  of  a  Shekel,  as  well  as  of  a  Talent  .■» 
Of  the  feveral  kinds  whereof,  both  among  the  y^wj,  and  in  other  Nati- 
ons, we  are  Hill  in  the  dark.  This  I  prove,  by  what  is  faid  of  the  Ora- 
cle or  mod  Holy  Place.  Which  being  an  exad  Cube,  of  Ten  Yards  in 
Length,  Breadth  and  Heighth,  i  Kin.  6. 10.  it  was  comprehended  with- 
in 777600  fquare  Inches.  And  both  the  Ceiling  and  Floor,  as  well  as 
the  Sides,  were  all  over-laid  with  Gold,  i  Kin.  6.  zo.  -jo.  z  Chron.  3.  5. 
Amounting  to  600  Talents,  z  Chron.  3.8.  Should  we  then  allow,  what 
we  need  not  to  do,  that  the  Gold,  wherewith  it  was  over-laid,  was  of 
that  Thickneft,  for  every  Square  Inch  to  .contain  a  whole  Drachm,  that 
is,  one  Eighth  of  an  Ounce;  yet  it  would  have  come  in  all,  butto97zoo 
Ounces.  Whereas,  in  600  Talents,  according  to  the  received  Account 
of  a  Talent,  there  are  900000  Ounces.  That  is,  above  Nine  times  the 
former  Number;  and  would  have  made  the  Gold  a  quarter  of  an  Inch 
thick  to  no  purpofe. 

31.  A^zm-f  Eupolemus^  cutd  by  Eufehius,  Pr.  Ev.g.  ^.  faith,  That  in 
reckoning  the  Charge  for  the  Temple^  a  Talent  fignified  hut  a  Shekel. 
Which  Shekel,  if  it  weighed,  as  is  fuppofed,  half  an  Ounce:  then  there 
went  to  over-lay  the  Oracle,  but  Three  hundred  Ounces.  Now  an 
Ounce  of  Cold,  anfwering  in  Quantity,  to  about  zoco  Leaves,  three  In- 
ches, and  >  fquare,  each  Leaf  containing  a  little  more  than  10  and  a 
half  Square  Inches  ;  fuch  Leaf  Gold,  as  Gilders  now  ufe  :  'tis  plain.  That 


Chap.  IV.  the  H  1ST  ORT, 


21000  Square  Inches  of  Leaf-Gold  are  equal  to  an  Ounce  of  Gold:  and 
^00  Ounces,  to  6300000  of  Sqnare  Inches,  In  which  Number,  the 
Meafure  of  the  Oracle,  viz.  777600  Square  Inches,  is  contained  8  times, 
with  a  Fradion  of-  near  one  Tenth.  Should  we  then  allow,  th?t  Eupole- 
wus  was  not  m'i{[a.ken  in  the  Tak»t,  nor  we  in  the  Shekel ;  what  is  called 
Overlaying,  mud  have  been  Gilding,  viz.  with  a  fort  of  Leaf-Gold,  hav- 
ing fomething  more,  than  Eight  times  the  Subftance  of  Leaf-Gold  now 
inufe.  Which  yet  is  inconfiftent  with  what  isfaid,  x  Kin.  i8.  16.  That 
Hezekiah  did  cut  off  the  Gold  from  the  Doors  of  the  Tern  pie,  and  from  the 
Pillars,  ivhich  He?ekiah  A'ing  of  Judah,  had  over-laid.  Where,  by  o- 
ver-Iaying,  Gilding  cannot  be  underftood. 

31.  Yet,  from  what  Eupolemus  faitli,  thus  much  may  be  gathered,  That 
the  Jews,  befides  the  larger  Talent,  had  one  that  was  much  lefs  Which 
being  fo,  what  is  faid,  xChron.ii.x^.  ought  no  longer  to  feem  incredi- 
ble :  That  David,  even  in  the  rime  of  his  Trouble,  provided  an  Hundred 
Thoufand  Talents  of  Gold,  and  a  Thoufand  Thoufand  Talents  of  Silver. 
Where,  by  Talent,  if  we  underftand  the  Greater  ;  there  was  Gold  and 
Silver  enough,  not  only  for  over-laying  the  Temple,  and  all  the  Vellels 
belonging  to  it,  but  well-nigh  to  fill  it.  But  if  the  Lefs ;  it  was  no  more, 
than  what  was  pollible,  and  neceflary  for  him  to  do. 

3  3„  1  here  are  many  other  VVords,which  tho'  Hehrew  as  well  as  Englifh  j 
yet  cannot  be  fuppoled  to  flgnilie  the  fame  thing  in  that  Language  as  in 
our  own.  We  are  not  very  certain,  what  any  of  the  Four  Odorife- 
rous Ingredients  were,  prelcribed,  Ex.  30.23.  for  the  i\nointing  Oil. 
The  Myrrh,  which  is  alfo  Hehrew,  by  the  Arahick  Tranflator,  is  rendred 
Musk.  But  if  it  were  a  Gumm,  as  is  mofh  likely  ;  yet  it  feems  not  to 
be  that,  to  which  we  have  given  the  fame  Name.  Which,  though  a 
good  Drug,  and  yields  a  vvholfome  Scent ;  yet  none  of  the  mod  fra- 
grant, which  that  Oil  was  intended  for,  and  not  for  Phyfick.  The 
Calamus,  in  the  Hebrew,  is  Caneh,  that  is.  Cane ;  the  Stalk  of  a  Plant, 
and  not  the  Root,  as  is  the  Calamus  of  the  Shops.  The  Cinamon  in 
the  Hebrew,  Chenemon,  I  take  to  be  the  very  fame  with  that  defcribed 
by  Diof cor  ides.  Lib.  i.e.  13.  But  not  the  Bark,  we  now  caJl  Cinamon. 
This  Bark  not  growing  in  Arabia ;  from  whence,  'tis  hke,  the  Jews  had 
all  their  Spices.  And  tho'  it  agrees  in  Tafte  with  Diofcorides's  Cina- 
mon, fo  far  as  to  de  biting,  ^pijuv  -^  Svxtikov  '  yet  of  the  Dulcitude,  e- 
minently  mixt  with  the  Acritude,  and  remaining  in  an  Infufion  hereof 
in  Water,  when  the  Acritude  is  loll ;  he  fays  not  one  Tittle.  And  for 
the  Cajfta,  the  Fourth  Ingredient  for  the  faid  Holy  Oil ;  it  can  neither 
be  the  Cajia  Fiflularu,  a  Purge,  and  without  any  Scent :  nor  the  Bark 
commonly  called  Cajfia  Lignea :  the  faid  Bark,  being  moil  certainly  a 
Species  of  the  Modern  Cinamon. 

34.  /J/(?/ej  is  commanded,  £a:.  30.  24.  To  mix  with  Frankincenfe  thefe 
Sweet,  that  is,  Fragrant  Spices ;  ^hjdfj.ccvji,  viz.  Staiie,  Onycha,  and  Gal" 
hanum.  And Gtf/^i?««w  is  mentioned,  Ecclef.z^.i^,  as  yielding  a  plea* 
fant  Odor.  Not  when  mixed  with  other  Ingredients,  butofitfelf.  Nof 
as  grateful  to  fome  difeafed  Women ;  but  generally  to  all  People.  Can 
we  think  then,  that  the  filthy  ftirtkingGumm,  by  us  called  G^/^^/;«w,  tho' 
Hehrew  as  well  as  En<ili[h,  was  put  by  God  himfelf,  among  Fragrant  Spi- 
ces >  and  for  the  making  fo  choice  a  Perfume  ? 

;  )i 

35.  Tis 

tc2  As  they  apf  ear  from  Book  Wi 

35.  'Tis  faid  of  Salomon,  i  Kin.  4.  -53.  That  he  fpake  of  Plants,  from 
*  the  Cedar  in  Lekinon,  to  the  Hyfop,  alfo  Hebrew^  which  fpringeth 
'out  of  the  Wall.  As  much  as, to  lay.  From  the  Greateji^  to  the  Ltaft. 
Of  which  Leaft,  are  the  Kuta  Murarla^  Paronychia ,  and  (ome  others, 
M'hich  grow  upon  the  Walls,  But  what  we  now  call  f/j fop,  as  it  is  far 
from  being  one  of  the  Leaft,  fo  is  it  no  Wall-Plant. 

36.  Our  Tranflators  however,  have  done  well,  where  being  at  a  loft 
for  the  True  Englijh^  they  have  kept  to  the  Text.  But  in  fome  Places, 
where  the  Text  is  plain,  they  have  ventur'd,  tho'  very  Learned  Men,  to 
guefs  themfelves  into  no  Senfe.  In  i  Cant.  14.  The  Spoule  compares  her 
Beloved,  as  in  our  Englidi  Bibles,  to  a  duller  of  Camphire.  Yet  the 
Hehrevo  is,  aCluJier,  or  Bunch  of  Gopher.  Wherewith  the  Syrzac  a- 
grees,  as  to  the  Radical  Letters.  And  alfo  the  Septuagint,  ^6r^vi  -§> 
fooirpn.  Cyprus  autem,  fays  Plin.  1 1.  x^.  efi  Arhufcula  in  Syria  frequentijjt- 
ma,  Coma  odoratiffimh.,  ex  qua  fit  Unguentum  Cyrinum.  And  Tirinus,  Hu- 
jusflojculi^  inJiarUvarum^  in  Botros  coeunt.  And  what  difference  can  be 
greater,  than  between  a  Bunch  of  Copher  or  Cyprus,  that  is  of  Fragrant 
Flowers,  and  Camphire,  a  meer  Juice,  and  of  a  fcurvy  Scent  ? 

37.  The  Prophet  y^rewj*,  Chap.  4.  30.  foretelling 7«<^^/?7  of  her  Reme- 
dilefs  Condition ;  among  other  Expreffions,  according  to  our  Englifli  Bi- 
bles, hath  this  :  Though  thou  rentejl  thy  Face  with  Paint,  in  vain  Jhalt  thou 
make  thy  felf  fair.  In  the  Hebrew,  it  is  not  thy  Face,  but  thine  Eyes. 
And  Jezebel  is  faid,  z  Kin.  g.  30.  To  paint  her  Eyes.  Tis  probable,  by 
drawing  certain  Lines  between  them,  or  upon  the  Eye-Lids,  as  that  wliich 
was  efteemcd  Ornamental.  And  w  hat  is  more  material,  it  feems,  that 
hyfcinc/ere,  is  meant  no  more  than  Partes  di(iinguere.  Had  our  Tranfla- 
tors then  ventur'd  here  to  make  a  Guefs,  they  would  not  have  been 
without  good  Company  :  the  Arabick,  the  Syriack,  the  Chaldee  Para- 
phrafe,  and  the  Septuagint,  all  faying,  not  though  thou  rentefl,  but  thoug}} 
thou  paintefl  thine  Eyes.  And  it  muft  be  a  (Irange  Paint  or  Ointment,  that 
fliould  make  a  Rent,  which  ufes  to  heal :  and  a  ftrange  Rent,  that  Ihould 
make  a  Face  fair.  Which  Infliances  may  fuffice  to  fl:iew,  that  the  feem- 
ing  Faults  of  this  nature,  are  not  to  be  imputed  to  the  Sacred  Writers, 
but  to  our  own  Ignorance  and  Error. 

38.  Neither  is  there  any  thing  in  the  Scripture-Storv^,  to  be  accounted 
Trivial.  The  Paflage  inferted  of  Samuel's  Mother, ft:  Sam.  2.  19.  That 
fhe  made  him  a  little  Coat,  and  brought  it  to  him  from  Tear  to  Tear ;  may 
feem  to  be  of  this  nature.  Yet  ferves  to  fhew  the  Truth,  not  only 
of  the  Author's  Narrative ;  but  alfo  of  Hannah's  Religion  ;  tacitly  pro- 
pofed  as  a  great  Example.  For  having  devoted  her  Son,  to  the  Ser- 
vice of  God,  for  his  whole  Life,  iSam.  i.  11.  fhe  refolved,  not  to  take 
him  home  at  any  time,  tho'  fo  very  dear  to  her  ;  but  ftridly  to  obferve 
her  Vow. 

39.  The  noting  of  7^c<?^'s  homely  Speech  before  Pharaoh,  his  being 
foeafily  cheated  with- L^a/^inftead  of  Rachel,  and  fome  other  Particulars; 
not  only  make  good  the  Charadler,  of  his  being  a  Plain  Man,  25  Gen. 
2,7.  but  ferve  the  better,  to  fliew  the  Effeds  of  his  Father's  Bleding  at 
other  times.  As  in  that  piece  of  Philofophy,  his  laying  the  peel'd  Rods 
before  the  bell  of  the  Leaping  Cattel.  And  afterwards,  in  the  Meeting 
he  gave  his  Brother,  Ge».  3 z.  and  33.  managed  with  all  the  Prudence, 
wliich  a  Bufmefs  of  that  nature  was  capable  oK 

40.  The 


Chap.  IV.       from  the    HISTORT.  199 

40,  The  particular  Account  we  have  of  his  Wives  and  Children  ,• 
was  necefiary  ro  fliew  the  preferring,  by  God's  efpecial  Diredion,  the 
Younger  before  the  Elder.  And  is  that  alfo,  which  runs  through  the 
Scripture-Story.  Alel^  Seth,  Shem,  Graham,  Ifaac^  and  Jacoh^  were  all 
younger  Sons.  Judah^  one  of  Lealis  younger  Sons,  was  Head  of  the 
7eu>i//6  Nation,  Jofeph,  a  Son  of  the  younger  S\^tT  Rachel  y  ox  Ephraim, 
the  younger  Son  of  Jojeph,  was  Head  of  the  Ten  Tribes.  Mofes  was 
^^ro«'s  younger  Brother.  And  the  Charge  he  gave  the  G^ryZiowrf^ j,  was 
only  to  take  care  of  tiie  Hangings  of  the  Tent  :  Whereas  the  Koha- 
thites,  the  younger  Family  of  Levi,  had  the  more  honourable  Office,  of 
looking  to  the  Ark,  ^c.  In  like  manner,  thole  Judges,  who  were  alfo 
their  Deliverers,  were  ftill  the  mofl;  unlikely :  Jo/hua,  a  Servant;  Othniel, 
of  Caleb's  younger  Family  ;  £/W,  Left-handed  ;  Deborah,  a  V^Voman  ; 
Gideon,  of  a  poor  Family,  and  himfelf  the  Leaft  in  his  Father's  Houfe ; 
Jephtha,  a  BaflarJ^  and  excommunicated  by  his  Brethren;  Sampfon,  an 
Effeminate  Man  ;  Saul,  of  the  fmalleft  Family  of  a.fmall  Tribe:  David, 
the  youngell  of  ail  his  Brethren  ;  and  Solomon,  the  like.  All,  whom 
God  was  pleafed  to  choofe,  and  to  notifie  to  us,  partly  to  diftinguifli  our 
Saviours  Line  ;  partly,  to  Ihew  the  fulfilling  of  fundry  Prophecies,  fpoken 
of  thofe,  whom  he  preferred,  qr  otherwifedifpofed  of.  As  alfo  to  repre- 
fent  the  particular  Care  he  took  of  that  People,  as  their  King.  And  his 
Right  of  Abfolute  Dominion  over  them,  and  all  Mankind. 

41.  The  Memoirs  we  have,  of  mod  of  the  Kings  after  Solomon,  maybe 
thought  by  fome,  to  be  a  dry  Story.  But  very  vainly.  For  the  Author  hav- 
ing the  Command  of  the  Publick  Journals,  could  not  want  Materials  for  a 
large  Volume.  His  Defign  therefore,  was  not  to  give  a  particular  Ac- 
count of  the  Counfels  and  Tranfadions  of  their  Reigns  :  but  with  exad- 
efl  Truth,  «-o  demonftrate  thofe  things,  which  are  much  more  regardable, 
viz.  The  Certainty  of  the  Predidions  of  Mofes  and  other  Prophets, 
concerning  that  Nation  :  the  Patience  of  God,  in  bearing  with  their  Infi- 
nite Wickednefs,  for  the  fpace  of  900  Years  :  and  his  indifpenfable  Ju- 
flice,  in  removing  them,  at  the  laft,  out  of  his  fight.  Withal,  to  re- 
prelent  the  Pravity  of  Humane  Nature,  in  their  unexampled  Contuma- 
cy, of  breaking  through  all  the  Guards,  of  Laws  and  Miracles,  Promifes 
and  Threats,  J uiUce  and  Mercy.  And  to  admonilh  all  others,  That  Sin, 
as  Solomon  faith,  is  a  Reproach  to  any  People ;  and  fails  not,  fooner  or  I'ater, 
to  be  their  Ruin.  And  there  is  no  other  Book  extant,  fo  fully  anfwers 
thefe  Ends  of  its  being  writ. 

D  d  d  CHAP. 

iQA  As  they  affear  Book  IV. 

CHAP.    V. 

Of  the  MIRACLES. 

I."  I  HE  Account  we  have  in  the"  Scriptures  of  fundry  Miracles,  is  an 
J_  Excellent  Part  of  the  Hiftory.  The  Credibility  and  Truth 
whereof,  I  have  before  fhewed,  from  the  Veracity  of  thofe  w  ho  give  it. 
I  fhail  now  undertake  to  prove  the  fame ,  from  tlie  Nature  of 
the  Account  it  felf,  and  fuch  other  Evidence,  as  hath  relation 
to  it. 

^.  In  orderto  which,  itis  requiHte,  Firft,  to  diftinguifh  the  Original 
Works  of  God  in  the  Creation ;  from  thofe,  commonly  called  Miracles. 
The  former,  are  faid  by  Mofes^  to  be  finifhed  in  fix  Days.  Which,  by 
moft,  are  Literally  underftood,  to  be  fo  many  Natural  Days  of  24  Hours. 
But  fome  perhaps  may  think,  that  hereby  ate  meant,  as  many  Years  or  A- 
ges.  It  being  unknown  to  us,  whether,  and  how  far,  the  Deity  made 
u(e  of  Second  Caufes,  fo  as  to  keep  to  their  Pafe,  in  the  Creation  it 
felf.  Nottogive  Exiflence,  unto  the  meaneft;  Beings,  but  only  in  the 
Difpofai  of  them,  according  to  his  own  Diredtion;  unto  the  Ends  for 
which  he  did  intend  them.  Others,  it  may  be,  may  think  on  the  con- 
trary, that  the  Mention  of  Days  and  Nights,  was  to  help  us  more  diftincft- 
ly  to  contemplate  the  Divine  Operations :  but  that  the  Work  was  begun 
and  compleated  all  at  once. 

■5.  Now  let  Men  fuppofe,  which  foever  of  thefe  three  Ways  they  will ; 
-they  are  all  of  them  pofi.ble.  The  two  former  Ways,  are  poffible,  be- 
caufe  the  latter.  For  how  could  God  want  fufficient  Power  and  Skill,  to 
give  an  entire  Exillence  all  at  once,  to  that,  which  he  had  before  Entirely, 
tho'Tranfcendently,  in  Himfelf?  By  the  Firfl  Chapter  of  this  Work,  ic 
is  plain,  1  hat  it  vi  as  as  eafie  for  God,  to  make  at  once,  the  Univerfal  Mat- 
ter, as  one  Single  Atome.  We  cannot  fuppofe,  that  he  gave  Being  to 
one  Parcel  of  Matter,  after  another,  as  if  he  was  fain  to  take  Breath. 
And  it  was  as  eafie  for  him,  to  give  Exigence  at  once,  to  the  u  hole  Stock 
of  Vital,  as  well  as  Corporeal  Beings.  And  fo  likewife,  at  once,  to  give 
them  all,  their  Eflence  ;  that  is,  their  particular  Mode  of  Exiftence.  And 
therefore,  to  give  Being  at  once,  unto  Univerfal  Nature,  '  But  if  he  could 
have  made  the  Univerfe,  in  one  Moment :  it  was  then,  as  eafie  for 
him,  to  make  it  in  fix  Ages,  Years,  or  Days,  as  himfelf  plealed. 

4.  This  Work  of  Creation,  tho'  it  hath  not  the  Name  of  a  Miracle  j 
yet  of  all  Miracles,  w  as  the  greateft.  After  which,  no  other,  with  re- 
fpedttothe  Power  of  God,  can  be  looked  upon  as  Incredible.  Yet  be- 
caufe  that  for  the  working  of  Miracles,  fome  may  afcribe  more  to  God, 
than  he  thinks  fit  to  do  ;  and  others,  more  to  the  Devil,  than 
he  is  able:  I  lliall  next  define  ,  what  a  Miracle  is,  properly  fo 

5.  And  firfl,   that  I  may  not  repeat,  I  defire  the  Reader  to  review, 
■what  in  the  Chapter,  Of  the  Nature  of  Go(ts  Government,  1  have  faid,  and 
proved,  viz.  'That  God  having  made,  and  put  into  Perfed:  Order,   a 
World  of  Inflruments  or  Second  Caufes :  it  feems  not  becoming  his  Di- 


Chap,  IV.        from  the     MIRACLES,  l^ 

vine  Wifdom  and  Majelly  ;  to  do  any  thing  without;  the  Mediation  and 
Ufe  of  thefe  Caufes. 

6.  And  it  is  that,  which  the  Scriptures  alfo  teach.  So  Pfal.  78.  4:5. 
God  is  faid    to  work  his  Signs  and  Wonders  in  Egypt.     Yet,  VerC  49. 

ito  do  this,  by  fending  of  evil  Angels  among  them.  ScMnachariFs  Hofl: 
was  deftroyed  by  an  Angel ;  Daniel's  Prophefie  explained  by  an  An- 
gel ;  and  the  Law  given  ly  the  Difpofition  of  Angels.  And  many  o- 
ther  the  fame  Ad:s  and  Operations,  are  afcrib'd  to  God  in  one  Scripture, 
and  unto  fome  Second  Caufe,  in  another.  And  it  is  exprelly  faid,  Gen.  x. 
That  when  God  hadfmijhed  the  Six  Days  CreaJion,  he  thenceforward  refted, 
from  Creating  of  anj^  thing  elfe  :  that  is,  from  doing  any  thing,  without 
the  Co-operation  or  Second  Caufes. 
7.  Which  Caufes  are  all  reducible  unto  thefe  Two,  rif^a/ and  Corporeal ;^ 
both  defcrib'd  in  the  two  precedent  Books  ;  and  concurring  to  the  entire 
Frame  of  theUniverle.  And  the  Univerfe  in  Mot-ion  and  Operation,  is 
that,  which  we  are  properly  to  underftand,  by  Nature.  And  fo,  every 
Second  Caufe,  whether  belonging  to  the  Corporeal  or  the  Vital  World; 
is  properly  called  a  Natural  Caufe. 

8.  It  is  alfo  neceifary,  the  Reader  ihould  review,  what  in  the  Chapter, 
Of  Celejiial  Mind,  I  have  faid  and  proved,  viz.  '  That  God  hath  fome 
*  way  or  other,  eflabliflied  a  Pov\  er  in  the  Vital,  over  the  Corporeal 
World.  He  hath  made  the  Minds  of  Men  and  of  other  Animals,  able  to 
command  their  own  Bodies.  And  would  it  not  be  very  llrange,  if  the 
Power  v\  hich  every  Man  hath,  yea,  °v  ^  "  Child,  or  Beaft,  fliould  be  de- 
nied to  a  Superiour  Mind,  thnt  is,  an  Angel  ? 

9.  But  albeit  every  Miracle  is  efleded  in  the  Ufe  of  fome  Second  or 
Natural  Caufe :  Yet  to  make  it  a  Miracle,  it  is  requifite,  that  this 
Caufe  bfe  unknown  to  us  ;  either  in  it  ftlf,  or  as  to  the  manner  of  its 
Operation.  So  an  Eclipfe  of  the  Sun,  as  it  is  an  Eifed:  of  the  Regular 
Motion  of  tlie  Moon,  according  to  the  Laws  of  Nature  eflabliflied 
from  the  Beginning,  is  as  wondenul;,  as  any  Miracle  wharlbever.  Yet  is 
it  not  accounted  or  called  a  Miracle ;  in  regard  the  Caufe  hereof,  is  not 
unknown  to  us. 

10.  Again,  there  is  nothing  in  the  World,  but  what  is  indeed  doubly 
miraculous,  viz.  in  its  own  Nature,  and  in  the  Cait  or  Projed:  of  its  Re- 
lation to  the  Univerfe  :  Neitjier  of  which,  can  we  ever  fearch  out  unto 
Perfedlion.  But  iiowfoever  the  Caufe  be  unknown  to  us  ,•  Yet  if  the  Ef- 
fed  be  ordinary  ;  that  is  to  fay,  very  frequently  feen  and  taken  notice 
of;  it  is  not  look'd  on,  as  a  Miracle.  So  is  not,  for  Indance,  the  Splen- 
dor of  the  Sun:  tho' no  Miracle  can  bs  more  admirable.  A  Difeafe,  in 
as  much  as  it  depends  upon  Natural  Caufes,  is  a  Natural  Thing,  as  well 
as  good  Health.     Yet  is  it  faid  to  be    Preternatural ;  that  is,    fomething 

'  _>  belide  the  ordinary  State  of  Nature.  And  fo  too,  when  we  fpeak  of  Su- 
Ift  pernatural  Caufes  and  EtTeds ;  we  are  to  underftand  them  of  fuch  as  are 
IB  extraordinary,   that  is,    befsde  the  ordinary  Courfe  of  Nature. 

11.  In  the  being  Extraordinary,  there  is  required,  a  Limitation  of 
Time,  Place,  and  all  other  Circumilatrces.  Laid  by  the  Deity  in  the 
Projed  of  Univerfal  Nature.  Otherwife,  it  could  not  be  faid  to  be  a 
Miracle,  but  only  a  flrange  Accident.  And  altho'  every  thing,  which 
comes  to  pafs  in  the  World,  be  indeed  limited,  ali  origine ,  to  its  own 
Time  and  Place  :  Yet  the  Seafonablenefs  hereof,  is  mote  apparent  m  thofe 
Effeds,  which  we  efteem  Miraculous.  iz,  And 

^ ■ ■ 

?q6  ^s  they  affear  Book   IV. 

iz.  And  laftly,  That  what  comes  to  pais  ,  be  alfo  adapted  unto 
forae  good  and  necelTary  End.  Without  which,  it  were  not  a  Mira- 
cle, but  a  Trick. 

13.  A  Miracle  then,  is  the  extraordinary  EfTecft,  of  fome  unknown 
Power  in  Nature,  limited  by  Divine  Ordination  and  Authority,  to  its 
Circumflances,  for  a  fuitablc  End. 

14.  Now,  if  we  compare  this  Definition,  with  the  Miracles  report- 
ed to  us  in  the  Scriptures  ;  it  will  appear  to  be  very  applicable  to  them. 
To  none  better,  than  the  Ten  Plagues  upon  Egypt :  with  that  Pnelu- 
(imm^  the  feeming  Change  of  the  Rods,  into  Serpents.  I  fay,  the  feem- 
ing  Change :  for  as  much  as  what  is  here  faid,  is  not  to  be  underflood, 
ot  a  Real  Serpent,  but  only  the  Appearance  of  it.  According  to  the 
Scripture  Stile,  which  commonly  givcth  the  Name  of  a  Thing  to  that, 
by  which  it  is  reprefented ;  and  fo  Men  do  in  all  Languages.  So  ExoJ. 
32,  I.  the  People  bid  Aaron,  to  make  them  Gods:  that  is,  the  Images 
oi  {ovciQ  Egypt  I  aft  ox  othtr  Qo6s.  And  Verf.-\'y.  they  are  faid  to  be 
plagued,  not  for  the  Image  of  a  Calf,  but  for  the  Calf  which  Aaron 
made.  And  to  Iniknce,  in  the  very  Word  before  us ;  when  Num.zi. 
the  People  wereftung  with  fiery  Serpents  ;  God  bids  Mofes  not  to  make 
the  Image  of  one  of  thofe  Serpents,  but  to  make  him  a  Fiery  Serpent , 
and  fet  it  upon  a  Pole.  In  like  manner,  the  Rods  of  Aaron,  and  of 
the  Magicians  of  E<iypt,  which  are  faid  to  hecome  Serpents  ;  were  only 
invelled  with  the  Phantaftick  Image  of  a  Serpent.  Nor  would  it  have 
confilled  with  the  Divine  Wifdom,  then  to  lia^ve  made  a  Real  Serpent. 
For  in  fo  doing,  he  mufl  have  given  it  a  Mind,  with  all  the  External  and 
Internal  Organs,  neceflary  unto  Motion, Nutrition,  Generation,  and  Senfe. 
The  doing  of  which,  had  been  altogether  in  vain  :  as  ferving  to  no  Ufe, 
for  a  Creature,  which  was  immediately  to  be  turned  again  into  a  Rod. 
'Tisalfo  faid,  that  the  Magicians  did,  in  like  manner  as  Aaron  did,  Ex.y. 
II,  I  i.  But  no  Man  will  allow  the  Devil  a  Pow  er,  to  make  a  Real  Ser- 
pent. And  the  making  of  an  imaginary  Serpent,  being  imitable  by  the 
Devil,  w  as  more  to  the  prefent  purpofe,  than  a  Real  one  would  have  been. 
For  in  (hewing  of  this  Sign,  his  Pou  er  was  limited  by  fome  other  above 
him ;  unto  this  Circumltance,  That  Aaron  s  Rod,  Teemed  to  fwallow 
up  the  other  Rods :  which  the  Magicians  could  neither  prevent,  nor 
imitate.  Whereby  God's  Ends  were  fully -anTwered  :  as  in  permitting 
them  to  go  half  way,  to  harden  Pharaoh's  proud  Heart:  So,  in  not  per- 
mitting them  to  go  through,  to  bar  him  from  any  jufl:  Pretence 
unto  further  Oppolition.  Withal,  to  confirm  Mofes's  Faith  and  Courage, 
in  going  on  with  his  Commiliion,  and  expedling  the  Final  Ifliie.  So 
then,  the  Image  of  a  Serpent,  which  was  here  made,  was  an  extra- 
ordinary Effedt,  performed  and  limited,  we  know  not  how,  by 
fome  Created  Power,  with  God's  Authority,  and  for  his  own  weighty 

15.  Nor  is  there  any  Incredible  Power,  afcribed  to  the  Devil,  in  his 
Imitation  of  the  two  following  Signs,  viz.  The  turning  of  the  Rivers  in- 
to Bloody  and  Bringing  the  Frogs  from  thence  into  the  Houfes  of  the  Egyp- 
.tians.  By  what  means  this  great  Alteration,  and  Corruption  in  the 
Waters,  were  affedted  ;  is  wholly  unknown  to  us :  the  Scripture  giving 
no  Hint  of  any  Caufe,  as  it  doth  of  the  following  Signs.  'Tis  very 
probable,  that  the  Peftilential  Plague,  which  in  the  Procefs  of  this  Tranf- 



Chap.  V.        from  ths    Ml  KAC  L  t  S.  iqy 

Padion,  was  inflicfted,  both  upon  the  Beafts  oF  the  Field  ,  and  on  the 
f  Body  of  Man  ;  began  here,  in  the  Waters.  That  is  to  fay,  that  all 
the  FiOi,  fmall  and  great,  ^'Itlixht  Hippopotamus^  Crocodile^  and  other 
.'Amphibious  Creatures,  were  feiz'd  with  a  Dyfenterick  Murrain.  By 
which  they  were  conflrained  to  void,  together  with  their  Excrements, 
fo  great  a  Quantity  of  purulent  and  flinking  Blood;  as  was  fuiiicient 
to  difcolour  and  corrupt  the  VVater,  in  mod  of  the  Rivers.     And  it  was 

I  not  impoiTible  for  the  Devil,  being  permitted,  to  inflid:  the  like  Plague, 
upon  tlie  Fi(h  of  thofe  Rivers  and  Pits,  which  Aaron  had  left  untouched. 
Nor  was  it  lefs  eafie  for  him,  to  direct  the  Motion  of  the  Frogs  in  any 
Number,  to  the  Houfes  of  the  Egyptians^  as  Aaron  had  done.  Yet  his 
Power  was  herein  limited,  that  wiien  he  had  brought  them  thither; 
he  could  not  return  them  back  :  this  being  referved  to  be  done  by 
!   ■   Mofes. 

•  1 6.  The  next  Plague,  was  the  turning  of  the  Dufl:  of  Egypt  into 
Lice.  FIovV  this  was  done,  is  alfo  unknown  to  us.  Peradventure  the 
Eggs  of  fome  fort  of  fmall  Infedl,  here  called  Lice ;  being  mixed  every 
wh'^re  with  the  Duft,  more  numeroudy  than  in  former  Years,  and  fud- 
denly  hatched ;  fwarmed  upon  the  Bodies  of  Men  and  Beads,  as  the 
Frogs  had  done  upon  the  Land.  Howfoever  they  came,  their  Coming 
was  limited  to. that  very  Sealbn,  when  Aaron  had  ilruck  the  Duft  with 
h'.s  Rod.  Which  the  Magicians  could  neither  hinder  nor  bring  to  pafs  in 
like  manner :  but  confefs'd  to  Pharaoh  that  it  was  the  Finger  of  God. 
The  like  may  be  laid,  of  the  following  Swarms  of  Flies.  Brought,  it 
may  be,  by  a  Southern  Wind,  from  fome  Part  of  Africa,  But  a  llill 
one,  (uilicicnt  for  fo  fmall  an  Infedt,  and  therefore  not  mentioned. 

17.  'Tis  alfo  Ukely,  that  the  fame  ^/r/c^«  Wind,  which  brought  thele 
Flies  ;  being  (lill  and  hot,  brought  alio  the  Infedlion,  which  bred  the  fol- 
lowing Murrain.  And  whereas,  precedent  to  the  next  fucceeding  Plague, 
liz.  the  Boils  upon  Man  and  Bcalt-;  'tis  faid,  that  the  Allies  which  Mofes 
fprinkled  towards  Heaven,  ihould  become  imall  Dull  in  all  the  Land  of 
EgYpf ;  it  may  feem  that  hereupon  there  fell  a  Shower  of  Dull ;  fuch  as 
fometimes  happens  in  hot  Countries.  And  that  it  was  accompanied  with 
that  Infedion  in  the  Air,  which  fuddenly  bred  the  Boils.  Nor  could  the 
Devil  want  Power,  tho'he  did  Authority,  for  the  Performing  of  both 
thefe  Signs :  To  have'd  a  great  Murrain  in  the  Beails,  as  well  as  to 
make  a  Damoniac;  and  the  Boils  upon  the  Egyptians,  as  well  as  on  the 
Body  of  Joh.  But  he  was  fo  far  over-ruled,  that  he  could  neither  hurt  nor 
help  them,  as  Mofes  did. 

18.  Nor  is  it  denied  but  that  there  were  fundry  Natural  Caufes,  made 
ufe  of  for  the  following  Plagues.  The  Elail,  which  even  in  fome  Cold 
Countries,  is  now  and  then  big  enough  to  kill  the  Poultrey  :  was  then, 
it  feems,  fo  great,  as  to  kill  all  that  were  in  the  Field,  both  Man  and 
Beall,  The  Locufts,  according  to  what  I  have  fuppofed  of  the  Flies, 
are  faid  to  be  brought  by  a  Wind,  which  fwept  them  together  from  other 
Countries,  where  they  were  bred.  And  a  llrong  Weft  Wind  alfo  took 
them  all  away  into  the  Red  Sea.  Hence  Plin.  11.19.  Gregatim  fuhla- 
ta,fcil.  Locujia;^  vento^  in  Maria  aut  Stagna  decidunt.  "I  he  Darknefs, 
might  be  a  prodigious  Fog ;  becaufe  it  is  faid  to  be  thick  and  to  be 
felt.  And  the  fame  Eafterly  Wind,  which  brought  the  Locufts ;  might 
bring  with  it  from  the  Coafls  of  Barhary^    the  Nelt  of  Pcdilentiai 

E  e  e  Plagues  ; 

ic8  /h  they  af fear  Boo 


Plagues ;  that  Infcdion,  w  hich  foon  after  the  Darknefs  was  over,  pro- 
duced the  difmal  concluding  Stroke,  the  Death  of  all  the  Firft- 

19.  But  in  the  Ufe  of  all  thefe  Natural  Caufes,  there  was  a  Threefold 
Limitation,  viz.  To  the  Perfons,  the  Time,  and  the- Place.  TothePer- 
fons,  ading.  For  in  the  three  firfl;  Signs,  tho'  the  Magicians  went  half 
way  ;  yet  they  could  not  go  through,  as  Mofes  and  Aaron  did.  And  in  all 
the  reft,  they  were  bound  Hand  and  Foot,  not  being  able  to  do,  or  undo, 
any  thing  belonguig  to  them.  And  to  the  Pcrlbns,  fuffering  ;  as  in 
the  Plague  of  Peftilence.  The  Infedion  fpreading  into  every  Houfe  and 
Field  ;  yet  in  an  extraordinary  manner,  feizing  only  upon  the  Firft-born. 
To  the  time,  both  of  their  Concurrence,  and  of  the  Predidrions  made 
of  them.  Had  the  Concurrence  of  fo  many  rare  Thtznomena^  been  with- 
in the  compafs  of  One  Year ;  yet  had  it  been  a  Year  fo  flrange  ,•  as  no 
other,  there  or  eirev\  here,  ever  matcht.  But,  what  is  yet  firanger,  they 
all  met  together  in  the  Compafs  of  fix  Weeks,  if  not  in  one  Month,  or 
thereabout.  For  they  began  at  a  warm  time  of  the  Year,  fit  for  the 
Breeding  and  Multiplication  of  Murrains,  Frogs  and  Infeds,  as  in  the 
three  firfl:  Plagues.  The  Hail,  the  Seventh  Plague,  fell  about  the  fame 
time,  viz.  when  the  Flax  was  holled^  and  the  Barley  eared ;  yet  before  the 
Wheat  and  Rye  were  grown  up.  And  they  were  allfiniflied,  the  Night  fol- 
lowing the  14/^  of  the  Month  ^^/^,  the  Julian  ^th  of  May.  And  withre- 
fped  to  the  Predidions  Mofes  made,  both  of  their  Coming  and  Going  ; 
they  werefixt  to  a  Day.  And  they  were  like  wife  limited  to  their  Place. 
Sent  into  all  the  Land  of  Egypt ;  yet  excluding  Gojhan  in  the  midft  of  E- 
gypt.  Neither  the  Hail  from  Heaven,  nor  the  Lice  in  the  Earth,  nor  the 
Frogs  from  the  Water,  nor  the  Locufl:s  in  the  Air,  tho'  this  bloweth  • 
where  it  lifleth  J  nor  any  other  Plague,  touched  upon  this  Place.  Where- 
by it  is  evident,  that  albeit  fbme  of  the  aforelaid  Caufes,  are  fet  down 
by  Mofes  himfelf,  and  fome  others  we  may  guefs  at :  yet  how  far  the  O- 
perations  of  the  Corporeal  World  went  alone,  or  were  mi.x'd  with  thofe 
of  the  Intelledual  j  is  utterly  unknown  to  us.  And  the  confining  and 
matching  of  them  all  to  this  Tranfadion  ;  was  a  Work,  well  worthy  the 
Skill  of  the  Author  of  both  Worlds  to  forecaft. 

xo.  Nor  were  they  lefs  fuitable  unto  the  Ends  he  propofed  to  himfelf, 
in  this  Tranfadion.  To  fhew  us,  how  admirably  he  hath  put  together 
all  the  Parts  of  the  Creation,  or  the  Univerfal  Machine  ;  fo  as,  when 
and  how  hepleafes,  to  make  them  ferve  his  turn.  To  call  thofe,  who 
without  Caufe,  and  for  a  long  time,  had  oppreft  the  Ifraelites^  to  a  fevere 
Reckoning.  And  Egypt ^  being  the  firft  and  grand  Nurfery  of  Idolatry ; 
to  bring  the  utmoft  Contempt  upon  all  their  Gods  ;  in  maflering  Pha- 
raoh^ and  Them,  with  fome  of  his  moft  defpicable  Creatures,  Flies  and  , 
Lice.  To  difplay  his  Mercy  to  his  afflided  People ;  in  their  Delive- 
rance then,  wheninthegreateft  Defperation.  To  exhibit  the  Truth  and 
Certainty  of  his  Promife,  to  their  Fore-fathers,  upon  the  appointed  time, 
the  End  of  4^0  Years,  to  a  Day.  To  confirm  alfo  their  Faith,  in 
what  he  had  promised  themfelves  ;  That  notwithflanding  the  feeming 
Impofiibilities  they  fhould  meet  with  in  the  Wildernefs  ;  if  they  did  not 
hinder  it,  he  would  bring  them  into  Canaan.  And  to  prepare  them  with 
humble  Minds,  to  embrace  thofe  Laws,  by  which  he  intended  to  rule 
them,  when  they  were  there.     The  Wildom  and   Goodnefs  whereof, 




Chap.  IV.         from  the     MIRACLE  J.  ^^ 

they  could  not  pretend  to  difpute  ;  when  given  by  the  fame  Hand,  by 
which  they  had  been  dehvered.  The  Miracles  theretbre,  annexed  to  the 
Tranfadtion between  Mofes  3.nd  Pharaoh;  having  all  the  forementioned 
Marks  of  Credibility  belonging  to  them  :  we  have  no  Caufe  to  doubt, 
but  that  they  were  performed,  as  Mofes  hath  faid. 

XI.  But  I  further  add,  the  Notoreity,  and  Effeds,  of  all  that  was  done. 
As  in  Egypt,  the  Theatre,  fo  among  all  the  People  round  about,  the 
Spectators  of  the  fearful  Scene.  Among  whom,  Jeth'ro,  the  Prieft  and 
Prince  of  Midian,  within  a  few  Days  after  all  was  over,  came  to  congra- 
tulate yJ/o/e-j,  his  Son-in-law,  in  the  Wildernefs.  The  Hivites  of  Gibeon^ 
upon  the  Fame  hereof,  were  frighted  into  their  Wits,  to  make  their 
Peace,  and  fave  themfelves  from  utter  Delirudion.  And  the  Philifline 
Priefts,  \  Sam.  6.6.  had  kept  the  Memory  hereof  frefti  unto  the  Days 
of  Samuel.,  400  Years.  But  Sethofis,  Succeflbr  to  Amafis.,  or  Armais, 
drowned  in  the  Red-Sea  ;  was,  it  (eems,  fo  aftonilhed  hereat  ;  that  altho' 
his  Exploits  in  the  Eafl,  are  fet  down  by  Manetho,  as  performed  in  the 
firft  Nine  Years  of  the  Jews  being  in  the  Wildernefs ;  yet  he  dar'd  not 
to  touch  them  in  all  that  time  ;  tho'an  unarm'd  People  ;  and  were,  either 
in  Revenge,  to  have  been  deilroy'd  ;  or  were  as  well  worth  the  Re- 
gaining, as  his  Predeceflor  thought  them  worth  the  Keeping. 

XX.  Moreover,  as  for  other  Reafons,  fo  to  cut  off  all  pretenfes  unto 
Disbelief,  in  Ai'ter-Ages  ;  the  Divine  Wifdom  thought  fit  to  make  mention 
of  this  Miraculous  Deliverance,  the  Preface  to  the  Ten  great  Commands. 
The  Profeflion  too,  enjoin'd  to  be  made  by  every  Houlholder,  every  Y'ear 
for  ever,  upon  liis  Offering  of  the  Firft-Fruits,  Deut.  x6.  was  a  (hort  Com- 
memoration of  this  Great  Work,  and  of  all  that  was  antecedent  and 
confequent  to  it.  The  Redemption,  and  Sacrifice  of  the  Firil-born  of 
Man  and  Bead;  was  a  lively  Symbol  of  their  being  fav'd,  when  tfie  £- 
gyptiaHS  were  deftroy'd.  But  efpecially  the  Pajfover,  which  by  its  very 
Name,  (liew'dlVom  the. Beginning,  of  what  it  was  a  Sign.  And  by  the 
Circumftances  and  Ceremonies  belonging  to  it;  as  making  the  ^th  Month, 
wherein  it  was  firft  kept,  from  thenceforward,  to  be  the  Firft ;  killing  the 
Pafchal  Lamb,  on  the  fame  Night  wherein  the  Firft-born  were  (lain  j 
fprinklirig  the  Blood  upon  their  own  Houfes,  which  were  pafled  by ;  eat- 
ing it  with  Unleaven'd  Bread,  their  Loins  girded,  their  Shoes  on  their 
Feet,  and  their  Staff  in  their  Hands,  all  in  hafte  ;  and  the  Catechizing  of 
their  Children,  for  their  underftanding  the  Reafon  of  all  this  :  became  a 
vifible,  conftant,  and  everlafting  Monument  of  the  whole  Matter  of  Fact. 

x^.  In  the  working  of  moft  of  the  other  Miracles  recorded  in  the 
Scriptures ;  fundry  Natural  Caufes  were  made  ufe  of,  which  are  either 
mentioned,  or  may  be  gueffed  at.  Not  to  explain  the  Miracles;  for  fo 
far  as  the  Caufe  is  known,  theEffed:  is  no  Miracle.  But  further  to  Ihew, 
the  Subferviency  of  all  Caufes,  known  or  unknown  to  us,  to  the  Divine 
Providence.  And  by  way  of  Concedion  to  thofe,  v  ho  may  polfibly  be 
fo  weak,  as  to  argue  from  the  being  of  Natural  Caufes,  to  the  Non-being 
of  Miracles. 

X4.  The  Paflage  of  the  Ifraelites  through  the  Red-Sea ;  is  compared 
by  Jofephus,  with  that  oi  Alexanders  Army,  thro\^gh.  the  Pamphil/au^  as 
if  it  gave  way  to  them  :  but  without  any  Ground.  For  by  Straio,  Lih. 
14.  we  are  better  informed.  That  the  Hi  11  Climax,  lying  upon  the  Para- 
philian  Sea^  leavetb  a  narrow  Pajfage  upon  the  Shore,   which  at  a  loxo  Ebh^ 


200  ^i  they  appear  Book   iV. 

is  fo  clry^  that  it  may  he  forded  on  font.  But  that  Alexander  coming  thi' 
tber^  before  the  Waters  were  gon  off^  was  fain  with  his  Soldiers^  to  wade  all 
day  long  up  to  the  middle.  Neither,  as  Sir  Walter  Raleigh  well  obferves, 
could  this  Way  over*  the  PvCd-Sea,  be  fnade  by  a  lo  v  Ebb,  after  a  great 
Spring-Tide,  caiifed  by  the  Wind.  •  Becaufe  that  this  blew  full  Weft  : 
Whereas  the  Sea  ftands,  in  a  manner,  North  and  South.  And  had 
Mofes  taken  the  Advantage  of  any  fuppofed  Ebb  ;  can  we  imagine 
Pharaoh  and  all  hisHoft,  to  be  ignorant  hereof  ?  Yea,  of  that,  which 
every  Waterman's  Boy,  could  not  but  know  > 

25.  It  is  then  plain,  by  the  Hiftory,  Ex.  14.  xi,  ix.  compared  with 
the  following  Song  of  Mofes,  Ch.  15.  8,  10.  That  it  was  a  ftrong  Eaft 
Wind,  which  blowing  atlnvart  tlie  Sea,  both  divided  the  Waters,  and 
at  the  fame  time,  froze  them  with  (b  thick  an  Ice,  as  to  bound  them 
like  a  Stone  Wall,  on  both  fides  the  Way  it  had  made.  And  it  was 
this  too,  which  made  T'/'d/'W;  and  his  Army  fo  bold,  as  to  follow; 
when  they  faw  the  Way  on  both  Sides,  and  at  the  Bottom  ,  all  of 
firm  Ice.  And  when  Mo(es  firetchcd  out  his  Hand  over  the  Sea,  to  bring 
the  Waters  upon  the  Egyptians  ;  it  is  as  plain,  that  it  was  a  Wefterly 
or  other  warm  Wind,  which  thawing  the  Ice,  let  the  Sea  in  upon 
them.  Yet  the  Winds  wiiich  thus  blew,  were  truly  miraculous. 
Both  in  being  limited  exadly  to  their  fpeciai  Seafon  ;  when  the  Ifrael- 
ites  were  to  be  preferved,  and  the  Egyptians  deftroye,d  :  and  in  being  fo 
extraordinary,  as  never  to  blow  with  the  like  EfTeds,  upon  that,  or  any 
other  Sea,  before  or  fince,  * 

x6.  The  Ifraelites  were  led  over  the  Red-Sea,  and  through  the 
Wildernefs  by  a  Pillar  of  a  Cloud  by  Day,  and  a  Pillar  of  Fire  by 
Night.  Probably,  it  was  a  kind  of  Meteor,  ihining  only  in  the  Dark 
But  that  it  was  made  on  purpofe,  and  the  Motion  hereof  governed,  and. 
not  at  all  fortuitous,  is  clear  :  In  that,  as  they  pafted  through  the  Sea, 
it  was  made  to  fland  behind  them,  and  fo  between  them  and  the  E- 
.  gyptians  :  YVhereas  in  the  Wildernefs,  it  was  all  the  Way  before 
them.  Nor  did  it  reft  upon  any  Tent,  but  only  on  the  Tabernacle 
Neither  did  it  appear  only  at  fome  Seafons,  and  uncertainly,  as  Meteors 
ufe  to  do  ;  but  continu'd  throughout  all  their  Journeys,  a  Vifible  Mira- 
cle for  40  Years,"  Ex.  40.  -^o. 

zy.  Natural  Caufes  were  made  ufe  of,  for  fupplykigthe  Ifraelites  with 
Manna.  It  was  both  preceded  and  accompanied  with  a  Dew,whichfellin  the 
Night,Ex.  16. 14.  Num.  1 1. 9.  And  thereare  Honey-dews,  many  times, 
found  upon  the  Leaves  of  fome  Trees.  And  it  hath  been  a  Queftion,  a- 
mong  Botanicks  to  this  Day,  Whether  the  Honey  which  Bees  fuck ,  he  the 
Sweat  oj  Plants,  or  a  Meteor  defcendingfrom  the  Air.  I  take  it  to  be  a 
Mixture  of  both.  For  as  Honey  differs  in  Nature,  with  the  Flowers  from 
whence  it  is  fucked  :  So  thofe  Flowers  yield  moft,  which  are  beft  fitted 
to  receive  and  lodge  the  Nodurnal  Dews. 

x8.  But  whatever  Ordinary  Caufes  were  made  ufe  of;  they  were  af- 
fifted  by  Extraordinary,  and  unknown  to  us.  It  fell  upon  every  Night, 
faving  that  before  the  Sabbath  ;  and  then,  never.  For  which  Caufe  alfo, 
on  the  foregoing  Night,  they  were  fupplied  with  a  double  Quantity. 
And  if  they  kept  it  until  any  other  next  Day,  faving  the  Sabbath,  it  ftank, 
and  bred  Worms ;  but  then  never.  Neither  did  it  fall  upon  any  Trees,  or 
Flowers ;  but  upon  Grafs,  or  a  bare  SandyGrond,fuch  as  belongeth  to  a  Wil- 

HAP.  V.        from  the    Ml  KAClE  S,  201 

dernefs.  And  this  Ordinary  Courfe,  was  conftantly  obferved  for  40 
Years.  And  then  the  Manna,  of  a  fudden,  as  wonderfully  ceas'd  to  falJ, 
the  very  day,  after  the  People  had  the  Corn  of  Caman  to  eat.  Of  the 
Truth  of  all  which,  as  Six  hundred  thouland  Ifraelites  were  Eye-witnef- 
fes,  for  the  faid  40  Years  :  So  an  Omer  of  it  was  laid  up  before  the  Te- 
flimony,  as  a  (landing  Evidence  of  the  lame.  And  the  Wildernefs  it 
felf,  was,  and  is  no  lefs.  Wherein  it  had  been  impoHible,  for  fo  great  a 
Multitude,  to  have  fubfifted  an  hundredth  part  of  that  time;  but  by  this, 
or  fome  other  miraculous  Way.  And  why  not  that,  which  is  fo  plainly 
and  circumftantially  fet  down  ? 

19.  And  the  Reafons,  why  God  was  pleas'd  to  feed  them  this  way, 
were  many  and  great.  In  Jullice  to  punifli  tliem  for  their  Impatience  and 
Defperation  for  want  of  Meat  j  after  they  had  been  Miraculoufly  fupply'd, 
when  in  the  greateft  Strait  for  want  of  Drink,  Ex.  15.  In  Kindnefs,  for 
their  Health :  by  cleanfing  them  with  that  foft  Aerial  Diet ,  from  the  E- 
gyptian  Mange,  wherewith  many  of  them ,  could  not,  in  the  time  of 
their  Bondage,  but  be  more  or  lefs  infeded.  And  which  a  luxurious 
Diet,  might  have  made  fo  contagious,  as  to  have  fpread  all  over  the 
Camp.  To  bring  them,  by  a  fpare,  and  funple  fort  of  Diet,  to  comply 
the  better  with  that  Temperate  One,  he  intended  ere  long  to  prefcnbe 
them.  To  tame  their  wanton  Appetites ,  which  had  taught  them  to 
hanker  after  Egypt ,  and  to  depretiate  that  ineftimable  favour,  which 
brought  them  up  from  thence.  To  humble  thofc,  who  would  elfe  have 
conceited,  he  was  fo  fond  of  them ;  that  he  could  not  chufe  but 
pamper  them,  albeit  they  thought  or  fpake  of  him,  as  they  lifted.  To 
prove  their  Faith,  in  that  All-fufficiency,  to  which  Eden,  or  a  Wildernefs, 
wasal  one.  And  his  Ability,  not  only  therein  to  fpread  their  Table ;  but 
to  blefs  any  thing  to  them,  he  had  a  Mind  to  make  their  Food. 

■JO.  When  the  Feopleand  their  Cattle,  were  a- thirll,  Ex.ij.  upon  Mo- 
fes's  ftriking  the  Rock,  there  prefently  came  a  great  deal  of  Water  out  of 
it.  That  this  was  a  Spring,  is  allow'd  ;  and  that  then  it  firll  brake  forth. 
We  will  fuppofe  to,  that  this  Spring  arofe  from  the  ufual  Caufes.  Yet 
who,  but  the  Author  and  Difpofer  of  all  Caufes,  could  fo  exadtly  have 
fore-ordain'd  thofe  of  this  Spring  ;  and  limited  every  Circumftance  there- 
unto precedent,  as  the  Thirll  and  Importunity  of  the  People,  Mofes's  Ad- 
drefs  thereupon,  the  Orders  he  then  received  what  to  do,  and  his  Ob- 
ferving  of  them ;  fo  as  the  laft,  his  fmiting  of  the  Rock,  fliould  meet 
to  an  Inftant,  with  the  gulhing  out  of  tlie  Water  ?  And  that  all  this  was 
thus  done,  the  Names  of  MaJJa  and  Meriiah,  given  to  the  Place,  were  a 
doyble  Witnefs,  not  to  be  gain-faid. 

31.  'Tis  faid,  Numh.  11.  31.  That  the  Wind  brought  the  ^ails  from  the 
Sea,  and  let  them  fall  roundabout  the  Camp.  Probably,  a  South  Wind, 
Pf.  78.  %6.  which  blew  them  aflant  over  the  Red-Sea.  VVhencefoever 
it  came,  it  was  certainly  governed  by  an  Extraordinary  Caufc ;  in  fweep- 
ing  together,  fo  prodigious  a  Number  of  Quails,  as  fhould  make,  as  it 
were,  an  Encampment  a  Yard  high,  and  at  lead  24  Miles  in  compais. 
And  in  bringing  the  Quails,  and  letting  them  fall,  not  into  the  Middle 
of  the  Camp,  upon  the  Peoples  F^eads ;  but  only  round  about  it.  And  of 
their  Gluttony,  and  the  Plague  that  followed  thereupon  ;  the  Name  of 
Kibroth-Hattaavahjgiven  to, the  Place,  was  a  Memorial  never  to  be  tprgot. 

F  f  f  31.  Upon 

202  A f  they  appear  Book  IV'., 

■^z.  Upon  the  Rebellion  of  Korah,  'tis  faid,  Mum.-  i6.  %r.  Thaf  thS' 
Earth  opened  her  Mouthy  and  fwallow'd  up  the  AJen^  and  the  Houjes,  and- 
Goods  appertaining  to  them.  'Tis  likely  that  this  uas  an  Earthquake, 
But  the  limiting  hereof,  and  of  all  the  antecedent  Circum dances,-  fo  a«> 
it  Ihould  come  to  pafs,  in  one  only  fit  Place,  the  middle  of  the  Gamp, 
where  Korah  had  his  Station  ;  and  in  that  only  fit  Moment,  which  /yu/ef 
had  predided  ;  was  the  Contrivance  of  the  Difpofer  of  Univerfat 

33.  Prefcntly  after  this,  there  alfo  came  out  Fire  from  the  L«rd],'  mi 
conjumed  the  x(;o  Men,  that  had  offered  Incenfe.  Which,  it  may  be,  Was 
fome  Extraordinary  Lightning :  to  which,  the  Sulphureous  Steams  a- 
fcending  from  the  Earth  where  it  opened,  did  in  fome  part  contribute: 
Yet  the  Divine  Direction,  and  Authority,  were  appartently  feew,  in  its 
deflroying  every  Man  of  the  faid  250,  and  no  one  befides,  in  fb  grejlt  a 

34.  I  allow  too ;  that  the  Blofloraing  of  Aaron's  Rod ;  whofe  Pr'efer- 
ment,  as  being  of  the  younger  Houfe,  was  envy'd  by  thefe  Rebel^^  ;  and 
its  bringing  forth  of  Almonds  in  one  Night :  doth  ntot  infer,  That  the 
Blofibmsand  Almonds  were  created  ;  thatis,  that  God  did  then  u(e,  his 
own  Infinite  PoWer,  to  producethem.  For  I  have  fliewed  in  the  Anatomy 
of  Plants.,  that  the  Leaves,  Flowers,  and  Fruits,  of  all  Trees,  arfe  in  being 
or  adually  form'd,  in  the  unexpanded  Bud.  But  there  was  a  miraculous 
Acceleration  in  the  Motions  of  Nature  ;  without  v\  hich,  fo  fudden  ait 
Expanfion  and  Growth  of  thefe  Parts,  could  not  have  been  effeded.  And 
the  Covering  of  the  Altar,  made  with  the  25-0  Cenfors;  and  this  Rod," 
laid  up  before  the  Teftipiony ;  were  flanding  Witnelles  of  aU  that  was 

35.  When  the  People  were  ftung  with  Serpents,  and  thereupon  died, 
Mum. XI.  9.  if  they  look'd  upon  the  Serpent,  which  Mo/es,  by  Gods  Di- 
redion,  had  fet  upon  a  Pole ;  they  then  liv'd.  Now,  altho'  the  Strength 
of  Phancy,  hath  been  known  to  cure  an  .4gue  ;  it  may  be  one,  in  athou- 
fand:  yet  who  ever  knew  it  to  prevent,  the  fatal  Effed;  of  a  Viper's 
Bite  i'  And  of  the  mod  venemous  fort,  as  thefe,  it  feems,  were,  called 
Fiery  Serpents.  And  the  Cure  received  hereby,  was  in  all  refpeds,  fo 
wonderful;  that  the  Serpent  which  Mofes  made,  was  not  only  preferv'd, 
in  Memory  hereof,  but  worfliipp'd  with  Incenfe  by  the  People,  z  Kin.  18. 
4.  for  above  700  Years  after :  till  Hezekiah^  to  fupprefs  that  Idolatry,  was 
forced  to  deflroy  it. 

36.  Tho'  there  is  no  mention  of  any  Wind,  ufed  for  cutting  off  the 
Waters  o^  Jordan,  Jo/h.  4.  yet  from  Veife  23.  it  may  feem,  there  was. 
If  fo,  it  was  a  kind  of  Tornado,  blowing  not  athwart,  as  at  the  Red- Sea, 
but  up  the  River,  and  lefs  Horizontally.  Whatever  was  the  proximate 
Caufe,  the  Regulation  of  it  was  fuch,  as  made  the  Efled  to  be  very 
wonderful,  For  the  Waters  are  laid  to  be  raifed  above  their  Level,  arid 
to  Hand  upon  a  Heap.  And  this  was  done  at  the  time  of  Harvefl: ;  when 
the  River  was  at  thehighelf,  and  overflowed  its  Banks.  And  at  th€  very 
inftant,  in  which  the  Priefls  that  bare  the  Ark,  touched  the  Brim  of  the 
Waters  with  their  Feet.  And  as  foon  as  ever,  the  People  arid  Priells 
were  pafled  over;  the  Waters  returned,  and  overflowed  the  Banks,  as 

37-  'Tis 

Cb A  P.  IV.        from  the     MI  K  ACL ES.  oc:^ 

37.  'Tis  likely,  that  the  Fall  of  theWalls  of  Jericho,  was  cfftdled  by  ano- 
ther Earthquake.  But  the  Earthquake,  and  the  End  of  the  preparatory  7 
Days,  were  miracuibufiy  adjufted  unto  one  Moment.  And  the  Ceremony 
was  anfwerafcle,  to  fo  confpicuous  a  Miracle.     The  Men  of  War,  were  tc 
compafs  the  City  7  Days,.  7'PrielIs  were  to  bear  before  the  Ark  7  Trum- 
pets, and  on  the  7th  Day,  they  were  to  compafs  the   City  7  times.     All 
which,  may  feem  to   have  been  fitter  for  Magicians,  than  for  Soldiers. 
But  they  were  to  do  this  upon  great  Reafon.     For  firil  of  all,  in  regard 
they  had  no  fort  of  miUtary  Engines,  wherewithal  to  befiege  the  City : 
how  was  it  poifible  for  them,  as  Soldiers,  to  go  to  work  .•>  Yet  God  faw 
it  fit  they  ilioald  do  fomething  ;  and  all  they  could  then  do.     To  let  them 
know,  that  tho'  they  could  not  fee  a  Reafon  for  what  they  were  com- 
manded :  yet  tiaey  were  never  to  didruil  his  Ability,  or  difpute  his  Will. 
That  they  wei-e  not  at  any  time  to  expedt  iiis   Alliiiance,  in  fitting  iliil ; 
but  upon  their  Perfeverance,  in  the  regular  Ufeof  fuch  Means,  as  were 
m  their  Power.     To  forctcl  them  withal,  that  in  all  their  future  Wars, 
they  were  to  exped  the  Vid:ory,  more  from  the  Means  of  his  providing, 
than  their  own.     And  fcnfibly  to  admonifli  1  hem,    aad  all  Men  ,-    that 
what  is  done  by  us,  in  order  to  any  End,  is  nothing  to    what  Himfelf 
doth,  whe'^her  we  fee  it  or  no  :  VVhat  we  do,  being  but  the  Ceremony  ; 
but  what  He  doth,  the  Suhftantial  Caufeof  all. 

3-8.  Tis  faid,  That  at  the  Comina?id  of  Joiliua,  Chap.  ic.  iz.  the  Sun  and 
MoonfioodflHL  Upon  which  Paflagc,  Jojhua^^vfsSplnofa,  diuturnioris  il- 
Itus  Lucis,  can/am  veram  ignoravit :  at  putavit  illo  die,  Solem  aliqiiandiu 
(ietijfe.  N^ec  ad  id  attendelat,  (jMod  ex  nimia  glacie,  qua  turn  temporis  in 
Regione  Air  is  erat,  RefraEiio  folito  major,  oriri  potuerit.  But  fir  it,  fee 
how  he  falfifies  the  Text^  in  faying,  aliquandiu  ?  whereas  the  Sun  is  faid 
toftandftill,  for  about  a  whole  E)ay.  And  for  his  Glacial  Air,  where  is 
the  Shepherd  fo  Ample,  but  could  have  told  him,  That  Snowy^  or  what- 
ever ell'e  he  means  by  Glacial  Air,  or  Clouds,  may  ferve  to, darken  the 
Day,  but  not  at  all  to  prolong  it. 

39.  That  the  Sun  might  properly  be  faid,  then,  and  not  before,  to 
ftandftill;  I  have  fhewed  in  the  Third  Chapter.  VVhat  made  it  fo  to 
do,  whether  the  Approach  of  fome  Dark  and  Unknown  Celeftiai  Body, 
or  other  Caufe ,  w  ho  can  fay  or  gain-fay  ?  And  tho'  the  'Phcenomenon 
might  be  vifible  to  all  People,  at  lead,  between  the  Two  Tropicks  :  Yet 
is  it  not  neceflary,  we  fliould  have  it  mentioned  in  any  prophane  Wri- 
ters :  of  whom  Sanchumiathon,  the  moft  Ancient,  lived  near  300  Years, 
after  the  thing  was  done.  But  Jojlua  prayed,  and  gave  the  Word  of 
Command,  in  the  Sight  of  all  Ijrael.  And  the  Miracle  is  dill  the  mo  e 
credible,  becaufe  it  was  Regular ;  the  Moon  Handing  ftill  as  well  as  the 
Sun.  That  is,  the  Sun  ftanding  ftill  itfelf,  caufed  the  Earth  to  do  like- 
wife  ;  as  this,  did  the  Moon.  And  tho'  now,  there  was  no  need  of 
Moon-Light ;  yet  was  it  hereby  order'd,  X'lat  there  fliould  be  no  Ana- 
chronijm  in  the  Account  of  Time,  among  the  y^wy,  not  fo  much,  as  in  a 
fmgle  Day,  nor  any  Diforder  in  their  Sett-Feafls. 

40.  We  are  told,  %Kin.  to.  11.  That  upon  the  Prayer  0/ Ifaiah,  the 
Sun  went  back  ten  Degrees.  Upon  which  Words,  Ifaiah,{z.ys  Spinoja,  de 
Parelii^,  forte  nunquam,  nee  per  f omnium  cogitavit.  But  with  what  benfe  ? 
as  if  afalfe  Sun,  had  there  been  any,  were  not  much  more  to  have  been 
taken  notice  of,  and  mentioned,  than  a  falfe  Shadow,  by  him  fuppofed  to 


204  '  ^^  ^^^y  ^tP^^^  Book   IV. 

/ — —  ■  -  -  ■  I  ■ 

be  made  by  it  ?  The  PhammenoH  doubtlefs  was  miraculous.  Fortho'  the 
Retrogreft,  was  but  Ten  Degrees,  that  is,  two  Thirds  of  an  Hour  :  Yet 
was  it  fo  far  taken  notice  of  abroad,  that  the  King  of  Babylon  fent  his  Em- 
bailadors  to  Hezekiah^  both  to  congratulate  his  Recovery,  and  to  iiKjuire 
of  the  Wonder  that  was  done  in  the  Land^  z  Kin.  xo .  1 1. 

4 1.  The  confuming  of  the  Sacrifice  by  Fire  from  Heaven,  was  a  frequent 
Miracle  :  As  of  that  which  Aaron  ofTer'd  for  himfelf  and  the  People,  Lev. 
9.  24.  the  Burnt-Offering  at  the  Dedication  of  the  Temple,  2  Chron.j.  i. 
Done,  as  at  other  times,  fo  then,  in  the  Sight  of  all  the  People.  At  no 
time  more  remarkably,  than  upon  £///a^'sTranfad:ion  with  Abah,  and  the 
murderous  Prophets  of  Baal^  upon  Mount  Carmel.  And  through  the 
fingular  Wifdom  and  Magnanimity,  wherewith  Elijah  was  then  inlpir'd  ; 
nothing  could  have  been  better  attefted.  £///^^  commands  Ahah,  to  ga- 
ther all  Ifrael,  that  is,  the  Chief  of  all  the  Ten  Tribes,  and  the  Prophets 
of  Baal  before  him.  Ahah^  who  had  fought  Elijah  through  all  King- 
doms, with  a  Purpofe  to  flay  him :  is  now  afraid  to  touch  him,  or  fo 
much  as  to  difpute  his  Command.  Baal's  Prophets  mull  be  prefent,  that 
they  might  both  b»  openly  condemned;  and  ready  to  fuffer  the  Punifh- 
ment,  by  the  Law  of  Mofes  due  to  tliem.  All  Ijratl^  that  they  might 
both  be  VVitneffes  and  Executioners  of  all  that  God,  by  Elijah^  intended 
to  fay  and  do.  And  what  was  faid  and  done,  from  firfl:  to  laft,  was  fo  full 
of  Divine  Majefty,  that  the  Memory  hereof,  continued  near  1000  years 
after,  unto  Tacitus's  time.  Who,  tho'  an  Enemy  to  the  Jews^  yet  in 
his  Hiftory,  Lib.  2.  he  takes  notice,  and  fays  as  much  of  it,  as  in  his  chopt 
Latin  he  could  well  do  :  EJl  Judaam  inter  Syriamq;  Carmelus :  ita  vacant 
Montem  Deumq;.  Nee  Simulachrum  Deo,  aut  Templum,  fie  tradidere  Majo- 
res  ;  Aram  tantum  &  Reverentiam.  Undoubtedly,  the  Altar  of  the  Lord, 
then  repaired  by  Elijah^  or  another  like  it,  in  the  fame  Place,  and  (land- 
ing, it  feems,  in  the  Time  of  Tacitus^  as  a  Monument  of  that  famous 



CHAP.     VI. 


To  Prophefy  ,  in  the  largefl:  Scripiure  Senfe,  is,  to  decare 
the  Revealed  Will  of  God.  But  the  Prediction  ot"  things 
Jto  come,  is  that  in  particular,  of  the  Nature,  Truth  and  Excellency 
Evhereof,    I  am  next  to  fpeak. 

X.  And  Firft,  The  Being  of  Prophecies,  fuppofeth,  the  Non-being  of 
Contingents.  That  is  to  fay,  that  albeit  there  are  many  things,  which 
(eem  unto  us  to  be  Contingents,  yet  were  they  fo  indeed,  there  could 
have  been  no  Prophecy;  but  only  Predidions,  which  were  contingent- 
ly true  or  falfc.  So  that  with  refpcd:  to  the  Deity,  there  can  be  no  fuch 
thing :  As  in  the  Chapter,  Of  the  Nature  of  Providence^  I  have  faid  and 
proved.  Or,  which  is  all  one,  that  there  can  be  no  Contingent,  (eem- 
ingly.  To  loofc  and  independent,  but  it  is  a  Link  of  fome  Chain.  And 
consequently,  the  foreknowledge  which  God  hath  of  it,  is  as  certain 
as  that  he  hath  of  arfy  other  Event. 

3.  A  Prophecy  then,  or  Prophetick  Predidion,  is  a  Declaration  of 
the  Divine  Prefcience,  looking  at  any  diftance  through  a  Train  of  In- 
finite Caufes,  knosvn  and  unknown  to  us,  upon  a  fure  and  certain  Ef- 
fed.  So  that  the  Prophecies  contained  in  the  Scriptures,  fiippofing 
them  to  come  within  this  Definition,  are  as  wonderful  as  any  Miracles 
therein  recorded.  All  the  Qiieftion  then,  which  can  be  put,  is  only 
in  Point  of  Fad.  Whether  the  Prophecies  contained  in  the  Scriptures 
were  really  fuch,  in  the  Senfe  aforefaid  ?  or  were  only  the  Dreams  of 
Phanciful,  or  the  Conjedures  of  Crafty  Men,  who  had  the  luck,  or 
the  forefight  to  hit  upon  fome  Events?  But  that  they  are  really  fuch,  as 
aforefaid,  will  be  acknowledged,  if  we  confider,  either  the  Manner 
of  their  being  given,  or  the  Matter  of  them,  or  the£vidence  where- 
with they  have  been  fulfilled. 

4.  As  God  thought  fit  to  make  ufe  of  Means,  in  the  working  of 
Miracles ;  fo  likewife  in  the  revealing  of  Prophecies,  and  of  his  Mind 
in  other  refpeds  unto  Men.     To  Mofes^  by  real  Words  ,•  to  whom  he 
is  often  faid  to  fpeak,  while  he  was  well  awake  ,•  And  by  real  Sights  or 
Vifions ;  as  of  all  the  Patterns  which  he  faw  while  he  abode  in  the 
Mount.     The  Sight  might  be  real,  though  only  of  Similitudes.     To 
the  High  Prieffs  by  Urim  and  Thummim.     To  other  Prophets  by  fuch 
Words  agd  Vifions  as  were  impreffed,  not  upon  their  Senfcs,  but  their 
Phancies,  eitlier  in  a  Dream,  as  for  the  mofl  part;  or  fometimes, 
awake,  as  i  Kings  3.  1 5.  where  the  Eflicacy  of  the  Mufick  which  Eli" 
fba  called  for,  was  fuccedaneous  to  the  force  of  Sleep.     And  it  is  pro- 
bable, that  MuHck  wasufed  as  a  help,  in  compofingall  the  Prophetick 
Pfalms.     Which  way  foever  the  Phancy  was  wrought  upon ,  the  Im- 
prefi  on  was  many  times  fo  very  flrong,  as  to  make  them  fick,  or  faint, 
or  otherwife  to  operate  upon  the  Body,  as  all  flrong  Phancies  are  ufed 
to  do. 

Hhh  f,Yet 

2IO  As  they  Afl)ear  from         Book  iV. 

f.  Yet  we  arc  not  to  fuppofe ,  that  God  mi^de  an  Immediate 
nk  of  thefe  Means  ,-  but  that  the  Holy'Angels  wcrf.  empJo}''d  to  efTccft 
and  manage  them  all.  That  they  have  a  Pouer  to  operate  upon  the 
Minds,  as  well  as  the  Bodies  of  Men  ,  1  have  before  proved,  in  the 
Chapter,  0/  Qcckftial  Mind.  And  the  fame  is  agreeable  unto  u  hat  tiie 
Scriptures  teach.  For  Evil  Angels  themlelvcs  have  been  permitted  to 
do  it :  As  when  in  i  Kings  %i.. 1.1.  they  went  forth^  and  became  a  Ly- 
ing Spirit  in  the  Mouth  of  Ahai/s  Prophets.  And  we  have  no  ground 
to  think  that  God's  Menial  Servants  fb.culd  have  any  left  Authority 
or  Skill.'  And  whereas,  in  giving  the  Law,  God  is  o'.ten  laid,  To 
fpeak  unto  Mofes  in  the  Tabernacle  :  In  the  yth  of  Numhrs^  8,9.  'tis 
alfo  (aid,  T/Mt  when  Mofes  went  into  the  Talernacle^  he  heard  the  Voice 
of  One  f peaking  to  him,  that  is,  of  one  who  was  God's  Vicegerent  herein. 

6.  But  although  good  and  bad  Angels  have  a  power  to  offer  the 
Images  of  things,  both  to  the  Senfes,  and  the  Phancics  of  Men ;  yet 
having  brought  them  thither,  how  far  they  operate  afterwards  upon 
the  Intelled:,  is  more  than  they  can  have  any  certain  knowlcge  of. 
In  regard  the  Phancy  hath  an  Arbitrary  Power  of  forming  many  other 
Images,  wherein  they  havcno  hand.  So  that  the  utmoll;  we  may  allow 
them  to  know,  doth  not  £it  all  detrad:  from  the  Title  of  yacfkoyvJc-ri; 
as  proper  to  God  only.  Who  hath  referved  to  himfelf,  the  Power  of 
entrance  within  this  Sandum  San^orum ,  the  Intelled:ual  Part  of  the 

-I'-fj.  Neither  doth  it  follow,  that  the  Revelation  made  by  Angels  as 
God's  Agents,  was  a  meer  Phantafm  :  But  was  of  that  nature,  as  though 
it  began  in  the  Phancy,yet  it  always  terminated  in  the  Underftanding. 
The  Images  whereby  it  was  reprefented,  being  chofen  and  appointed 
by  God  himfelf  J  to  whom  the  way  and  meafure  of  Communication, 
between  the  Phancy  and  the  Underftanding,  are  perfed:ly  known.  The 
Prophets  then,  though  they  did  not  always  know  the  meaning  of  the 
Revelation  j  yet  was  it  pollible  for  them  always  to  have  aflurance  of 
the  Reality,  that  is  to  fay,  the  Divinity  hereof. 

8.  And  that  they  always  had  ,  is  very  clear,  from  various  Exam- 
ples. The  Prophet,  who  in  iKing-i^.  againfl:  the  Command  God 
had  given  him,  hearkened  to  one  who  lied  to  him  j  was  fbcn  after  flain 
by  a  Lyon,  for  fo  doing:  The  juftice  of  which  Punifliment,  ftrongly 
implieth,  the  certainty  which  the  Prophet  had  of  God's  Command  to 
the  contrary.  When  Abraham  was  commanded  to  facrince  Ifaac,  his 
dutiful,  and  his  only  Son  ;  the  Son  of  his  bed  beloved  Wife,  of  his  Old 
Age,  and  of  the  Promife  ,•  and  in  contradiction  to  a  Law,  folemnly 
given  to  the  World,  againlt  the  Ihedding  of  Innocent  Blood ;  yet  re- 
folved  to  obey.  Which  fo  pious  and  wife  a  Man  would  never  have 
done,  had  he  not  been  fure,  as  he  could  be  of  any  thing  elfe,  that  this 
Command  was  not  a  Phantafm ,  but  Divinely  given.  Neither,  with- 
out thinking  unworthily  of  God ,  can  we  fuppofe,  that  he  rewarded 
Abraham  v^nxhlht  greateft  Blefling  he  ever  beftowed  on  any  Man,  and 
with  the  greateft  Solemnity  of  an  Oath,  only  for  his  being  obedient 
to  a  Whimfey.  Elijah  then  ofTer'd  a  moft  publick  Sacrifice  upon  Mount 
Carmel,  when  High  Places  Vv-ere  forbidden.  But  who  can  think,  that 
one  of  his  Eminent  Sandity,  would  have  done  this,  upon  a  bare  Ima- 
gination, without  being  very  certain,  as  he  was,  i  J/«g.  18.  36.  of 
Authority  from  God,  for  what  he  did  ?  I  will  add  one  more  Inftance. 


Chap.  VI.     the   PKOFHEC^iES. 2_m 

Benhadan,  not  honefily  keeping  the  Articles  of  Peace,  made  with  Ahah^ 
.Ahah,  from  the  juHice  of  his  Caufe,  and  his  Succefs  in  beating  that 
King  twice  before,  was  encouraged  by  400  of  his  Prophets,  to  fight 
him  again.  Yet  one  fingle  Micaiah^  i  Kings  Z2,  with  admirable  Re- 
folution  oppofirg  them  all,  ibretels  Ahab  ot  certain  Death,  if  he  did  ; 
and  bids  all  the  People,  to  bear  witnefs  of  what  he  faid.  Which  no 
Sober  Man,  without  the  grearefi:  alTurance  of  a  Divme  Commiflioo, 
would  have  done.  And  for  his  Sobriety,  let  his  Anfwers  to  Ahah 
fpeak  for  him. 

9.  The  Matter  likewife  of  Prophecies,  iliews  the  certainty  which 
the  Prophets  had  of  the  Revelation  made  of  them.  If  of  things  of 
their  own  Age  and  Country  ,•  they  could  not  but  expe<5t,  to  be  (loned, 
or  confounded,  in  cafe  of  Falihood.  If  of  things  at  a  great  diftance  of 
Time,  to  fome  Hundreds  of  Years;  or  of  Place,  unto  which  they 
were  altogether  Strangers;  what  ground  could  they  have  for  Con- 
jectures? or  what,  for  any  to  fuppofe  their  Predictions  were  no  more; 
when  as  they  were  fpoken  of  thofe  things,  wherein  fb  many  of  t^iem, 
and  fo  often,  agreed  ? 

10.  The  Weight  of  the  Matter,  alfb  (liews  the  Majefty  of  the  Author. 
As  being,  not  only  concerning  the  Condition  of  the  Jeivifh  State, 
through  all  Changes,  until  its  final  Diflblution  :  but  likewife,  of  their 
Neighbours  round  about,  and  of  all  the  Chief  Kingdoms  in  the  World. 
Whole  Crimes  and  Punifhments,  God  was  pleafed,  by  Jenah^  Jeremiah^ 
Ezekiel,  and  other  Prophets,  folemnly  to  reprove,  and  foretel.  That 
albeit  the  Jews  were  his  cholen  People ;  yet  his  Juflice  every  where, 
and  the  Univerfality  of  his  Government,  might  be  attefted  and  own'd. 

11.  Again,  there  are  fome  Prophecies  of  that  nature,  that  they  can- 
not be  faid  to  be  fulfill'd  ,  fo  long  as  the  World  continues  ;  but  are 
always  fulfilling.  So  Mofes ,  fpcaking  of  the  Locufts,  which  God 
brought  upon  ^g^/"/ ;  tells  us,  not  only,  that  they  were  fuch,  as  never 
were  before,  but  plainly  and  peremptorily,  fuch  as  Ihould  never  he 
again  :  which  no  Man,  if  but  of  ordinary  Senfe,  would  have  adven- 
tured to  fay,  without  a  Divine  Authority.  How  great  too,  is  that 
Speech  of  God,  in  promifing,  Gen.  9.  11,  that  there  fhould  never 
more ,  be  an  Univerfal  Deluge  ?  That  neither  the  fame ,  nor  any 
equivalent  Caufes,  lliould  ever  meet  again,  to  produce  another.  And 
in  promifing,  Gen.  8.  ai.  That  While  the  Earth  remained^  Seed-time 
and  Harveji^  Summer  and  Winter^  and  Day  and  Nighty  fljould  not  ceaje. 
Neither  Mofes^  nor  any  Man,  could  have  told,  but  that  fome  time  or 
other,  the  Earth  might  be  forced,  by  fome  unknown  Caufe,  to  quit 
the  Ecliptick  Line.  Who  then  but  God,  that  made  the  World  could 
predict,  it  never  (hould  >  Or  whom  befides,  could  it  have  become  to 
utter  that  Prediction. 

IX.  But  the  Prophecies  which  are  compleatly  fulfilled,  are  much 
more  numerous.  Of  which  there  are  thofe  Inftances,  as  well  in  re- 
lation to  the  Gentile  World,  as  to  the  Jews  ;  wherein  the  Predictions, 
are  fo  fully  anfwered  by  the  Sequel  of  things ;  as  to  prove  them 
grounded  on  an  Infallible,  that  is,  a  Divine  Revelation. 

13.  Nineveh^  and  the  ^i/)'"^"^  Monarch,  repenting  uponthe  Mira- 
culous prefervation  and  preaching  of  Jonah;  were  fpared  at  that  time. 
But  growing  hereupon  more  wicked,  and  dealing  cruelly  with  the 
People  of  the  Great  God^  who  by  Jonah  had  made  himfelf  known  to 

them : 

3  13  As  they  Appear  from  Book  IV. 

them  :  their  utter  Deftrudion  was  refolved  on,  and  prcdidled  by  Three 
Prophets.  By  Ifa/ah,  Chap.  lo.  about  i8o  Years  before  it  came  to. 
paft.  By  Na hunt,  about  120.  And  by  Zephany,  about  20,  And  ac- 
cordingly, by  Nabopollafar,  General  of  the  King's  Army,  and  AflyageSy 
Vice-Roy  of  Media,  was  then  taken,  with  the  King:  and  To  far  depo- 
pulated ,  and  ruined,  and  the  Monarchy  with  it;  that  no  Prince, 
ever  after,  attempted  to  re-edify  it.  And  is,  at  this  time,  a  fmall 
Town,  which  no  Traveller,  were  it  not  for  its  antient  Glory,  would 
efteem  worth  the  feeing. 

14.  The  falle  and  treacherous  ufage,  which   the  Captive  Jeivs  met 
withal,  from  the  TyWd'wi ;  was  forelhewed  to  Joel,  Chap.  3.;  and  to 
Amos,  Chap,  i  ;  about  30  Years  before  the  partial  Captivity  of  the 
Ten  Tribes,  by  Tiglath-Pilefer-,  and  70  Years,  before  the   Univcrla/ 
by  Shalmanefer.     And  their  Punifhment  for  the  fame,  aliout  xoo  Years 
he^ova  Tyrui  \wzs  (nhdutdhy  Nehuchadnezzar.     Then  the  greatefl:  Mart 
in  the  World:  and  of  that  ftrcngth,  as  to  hold  out  a  Siege  of  Thirteen 
Ye^,     The  Calamities  they  fliould  hereby  fuftain :  and  their  follow  - 
ingTiaptivity  for  70  Years  ;  were  both  predided  by  Ifaiah,  Chap.  2  \ 
about  1 50  Years  beforehand.     And  laft  of  all,  Ezekiel ,  foretels  the 
concluding  Fate  of  this  City.     Whofe  Prophecy,  Chap.  17,  though 
pronounced  a  little  before  the  Siege  laid  againft  it  by  the  Babylonians  : 
yet  chiefly  relates,  to  that  made  by  Alexander,  about  xto  Years  after- 
ward.    When,  not  being  Surrender'd,  as  it  was  to  tJebucbadnezzar 
upon  Terms  ,•  but  taken  by  Storm  :  the  Inhabitants  were  all  put  to  the 
Sword,  or  taken  Captives ;  and  the  City  all  burnt  to  the  ground,  aad 
lieth  in  its  Ruins  unto  this  Day.     According  to  the  peremptory  Pre- 
didion  of  that  Prophet,  Verfe  3  5  of  the  fame  Cliapter :  The  Merchants 
among  the  People  fhall  hifs  at  thee ;  thou  /halt  he  a  Terror,  and  never  ■ 
Jhalt  he  any  more. 

If.  The  Egyptian  Monarchy,  was  once  very  great.  As  appears  by  - 
the  Exploits  of  one  of  their  Kings;  mtniiontdhy  Manetho,  Herodotus, 
Diodorus,  and  Tacitus,  under  the  feveral  Names,  of  Sethofis,  Sefojlris^ 
Sefoofis,  and  Ramjes ;  all  the  fame  Man  ,  as  the  Primate  l/Jher  well 
conjedures.  And  after  all  that  he  had  won  in  AjJa,  was  loft  again  ; 
it  is  yet  certain,  that  a  great  part  of  Africa,  continued  in  Subjedlion 
under  his  Succedbrs  for  a  long  time.  In  fo  much,  thzt  Apries,  whom 
the  Prophet  Jeremy  calls  Pharaoh  Hophra,  when  tlie  Ajfyrian  Monar- 
chy was  grou n  great,  was  then  able  to  take  Sidon  and  other  Cities 
iVom  the  Phanicians ;  and  getting  a  great  Vidory  over  them  and  the 
Cyprians  in  a  Sea-Fight,  returned  with  much  Spoil.  From  whence- 
forward,  he  looked  on  himfclf,  to  be  Invincible.  And  is  therefore 
perfnnated  by  Ezekiel,  Chap.  29.  3,  asfpcaking.,  like  Nebuchadnezzar 
of  Babylon,  thofe  haughty  words.  My  River  is  mine  own,  and  I  have 
made  it  for  my  f elf.  And  by  the  fame  Prophet,  is  compared,  as 
well  as  Nebuchadnezzar ,  unto  a  great  Eagle.  And  knew  his  own 
flrength  fo  well,  as  to  undertake  the  defence  of  Jerufalem  againfl  him  : 
though  afterwards,  not  out  of  fear,  but  treachery,  he  left  the  City 
in  the  Lurch.  For  which  caufe,  when  he  was  now  invefled  with 
great  Power  and  Glory,  and  in  a  fair  way,  to  fecoqd  the  Atchievements 
of  his  Anceftofs:  the  Prophet  Jeremy  predids  his  Fall,  Chap.  44.  30. 
And  both  he,  and  Ezekiel,  the  overthrosv  of  his  Kingdom,  and  tffe 
Captivity  and  Difperfion  of  his  People,  Jer.  43.46.  Ezek.  29.  30,  31. 

*  Both 

Chap.VL     the  PROPHECIES.  213 

I  Both  of  them  alfo  predid  the  return  of  their  Captivity,  Jer.  46.  x6. 
' Ezck.  19.  14.  And  the  latter,  after  the  fet  time  of  40  Years.  Notwith- 
(landing  which,  Ezekiel  ^Adts,  Ih.z.tE^pt  fliould  never  after  this  reco- 
ver her  former  ftrength,  fo'as  to  rule  over  other  Nations  as  Ihe  had  done; 
hut  he  the  hafefl  of  Kingdoms ;  which  alfo  came  ta  pafs.  For  foon  after 
their  Revolt  from  under  Cyrus ^  they  were  again  fubdued  by  Camhyfes; 
and  were  for  the  molt  part  a  Tributary  Kingdom  ,  both  under  the  Per- 
Jians  and  the  Macedonians :  'Till  the  Romans,  firfl:  difpofing  hereof,  at 
their  pleafure;  in  the  end,  made  it  a  Province.  As  at  this  day  it  is  no 
better  than  a  Bafliawlliip,  under  the  Grand S'tgnior. 

16.  Bahylon,  once  the  Glory  of  the  Eaji,  for  the  intolerable  Pride 
and  Luxury  of  the  King  and  People,  Ifa.  47.  7,  8,  10.  The  Cruelty 
wherewith  the  Prophet  iorefaw  they  would  ufe  the  ^^wj,  ver.  6.  Their 

'  Infatiable  Thirfl  of  Dominion,  Habak.  2. 6 lo.  And  the  Prophane 

and  Villanous  Riot  they  committed  in  the  Temple,  Jer.  5-1.  11.  was 
threatned  by  thefe  three  Prophets  with  utter  Ruin.  Bylfaiah,  to  Ihew 
the  certainty  of  it,  in  fix  fevcral Chapters,  viz.  13,  14,  xi,  43,  46, 47. 
about  z  lo  Years  before  it  came  to  pafs ;  by  Halakkuk,  about  1 70.  And 
by  Jeremy,  Chap.  x^.  iz.  Seventy  Years.  The  end  of  which  Years  he 
fixes  for  the  fet  time. 

17.  Their  Prcdidion  of  fundry  Particulars  relating  to  it,  is  alfb 
wonderful  :  The  Truth  whereof  is  evidenced,  partly  by  fome  Hiftori- 
cal  Remarks  in  the  Prophecy  of  Ddfwif/,  and  partly  by  the  Relations  of 
Herodotus  and  Xenophon.     Ifaiah  fmgles  out  a  Perfian,  and  gives  him 
withal  the  Sirname  of  Cyrus,  for  the  Captain  of  the  Army  againfl  Ba- 
bylon, Chap.  44.  x8.  And  Jeremy  afligns  him  itiQ  Medes ,  for  his  chief 
Conlcderates,  Chap.  51.  x8.    as  we  know  they  were.     Jeremy  faith, 
That  the  Bahyloniam  fliould  hear  a  Rumor  of  their  Enemies,  the  Year 
before  they  came  near  the  City,  ver.  46.  For  Cyrus,  when  he  came  to    - 
the  River  Gyngis,  for  want  of  Tranfport  Veflels,  could  go  no  further, 
till  by  cutting  a  great  many  Chanals  from  the  Ri,ver,  he  brought  it  to 
fo  low  an  Ebb,  as  to  be  fordable ;  and  Co  marched  thence  the  year  fol- 
lowing.    In  which  Performance,  what  Ifaiah  had  foretold.  Chap.  44. 
Z7.  began  likewife  to  be  fulfilled  :  That  faith  to  the  Deep,  Be  dry,  and  I 
will  dry  up  thy  Rivers.    Jeremy  further  tells  us.  That  though  the  bed 
part  of  the  Chaldean  Army,  the  Chivalry,  fliould  come  forth  to  fight 
with  Cyrus,  ver.  17.  yet  like  Women  they  fliould  fbon  make  a  Cowardly 
Retreat  into  the  City,  verfe  30,-  which  they  alfo  did.     With  Ifaiah, 
Jeremy  further  forefliews,  Chap.  50.38.  That  upon  the  coming  of 
Cyrus,  a  Drought  fhould  befall  the  Waters  of  Babylon.     For  Cyrus  draw- 
ing off  the  Waters  of  Euphrates,  by  feveral  broad  and  deep  Canals  ; 
he  thereupon  made  an  eafie  entrance  into  the  City.     This  being  done, 
Jeremy  alfo  faith.    Chap.  ^i.  31,   That  one  Poft  fhould  run  to  meet 
another,  to  fhew  the  King  of  Babylon  that  his  City  is  taken  at  one  end. 
Not  only  in  regard  of  its  great  extent,  zo  Miles  over :  but  becaufe  the 
King  and  his  Lords,  who  fliould  have  been  prefent,  where  there  was 
the  greatelt  danger;  were  fo  fecure,  as  then  to  be  Feafting  in  his 
Palace.     The  fame  Prophet  defcribes  beforehand,  the  Revels  of  this 
Feaft,  Chap.  51. 38,  39:  They  fhall  roar  together  like  Lyons,  they  fhall 
yell  as  Lyons  Whelps  :  in  their  Heat,  I  will  make  their  Feafis,  and  will 
make  them  drunken,  &c.     So  Daniel,  Chap.  5.  i,  4,  tells  us,  that  the 
King  made  a  great  Feajl^  to  a  Tfjoufand  of  his  Lards,  and  drank  Wine 

I  i  i  before 

2  14  As  they  Af fear  from        Book  iV. 

lefore  theThoufand :  And  that  in  their  Drink^  they  praijed^  or  zsjerem, 
roared  out  in  praijjng,  the  Gods  of  Gold,  Silver,  Brafs,  Iron,  Wood,  and 
Stone.     And  ro  Ihew,  not  only  the  Year,  but  the  particular  time  of  ir, 
wherein  the  City  fliou Id  be  Taken ;  the  fame  Prophet,  Chap.  51.41, 
doth  not  fay,  How  iSBaiylon,  hut  how  is  Shejhak  Taken}    The  Revels 
which  were  now  made,  being  upon  the  Feflival,  which  was  Inflitutcd 
in  honour  of  Sefach,  the  Goddefs  ot  Babylon,  and  called  by  the  Greeks, 
"S-aKyoLia,  &  ^Zanioui  tijj^fxti.     And  as  Jeremy  forefliews  the  Defblation  , 
which  immediately  followed  :  So  both  Ifaiah  and  himfelf,  the  final 
Ruin  of  that  C'ity.     It  /hall  never  be  inhabited,  fays  Ifaiah,  Chap.  1 3 . 
to,  x\,  from  Generation  to  Generation  ;  but  wildBeafts  of  the  Defart  fhall 
lie  there,  and  their  Houfes  fhall  be  fall  of  doleful  Creatures.    Tloe  Wild 
Beafls  of  the  Defart^  fays  Jeremy,  Chap.  50.  39,  fhall  dwell  there-,  it  . 
fhall  be  no  more  inhabited  for  ever.     Which  was,  indeed  Gradually,  but 
Literally  fulfill'd.     Firil  Cyrus  made  the  City  a  Widow  ;  not  being 
lliled  the  King  of  Babylon,  but  of  Perfia.  Then  Hiflafpis,  rebelling  againll 
Darius,  broke  down  the  Walls.     Next,  Seleucus  Nicanor,  (poyled  it  of 
the  Chief  Citizens,  with  tlieir  Wealth  ,•  both  which  he  carried  to  Se- 
leucia,  now  Bagdet,  about  50  miles  diftant.     After  which,  the  Parthi- 
ans  took  away  the  Remnant,  to  Ctefiphon.    And  in  the  time  of  Adrian, 
nothing  was  left,  but  the  bare  broken  Walls.  Within  which,  for  fome 
time,  were  kept  all  forts  of  Wild  Bcafts  for  Chafe.     But  at  this  time, 
fays  Benjamin  Bar  Jona,  in  his  Itinerary,  tho  the  Ruins  of  Nebuchad. 
ttezzars  Palace  are  flill  to  be  feen  j  yet  no  Body  dares  to  venture  in,  for. 
fear  of  Serpents  and  Scorpions  which  poffefs  the  Place. 

18.  The  Prophecies  of  Daniel,  are  alfo  great  and  Noble.     Nebuchad- 
nezzar s  Image,  Chap.  %.  is  (b  far  interpreted  by  the  Prophet  himfelf, 
verfe  38,  to  43.  as  eafily  to  be  underflood  of  the  Four  Pagan  Monar- 
chies.    The  Head  of  the  Image,  the  Babylonian,  being  of  all  the  Rich- 
eft,  is  (aid  to  be  of  Goldi     The  Silver  Breaft  and  Arms,  were  the  Se- 
cond, "yfr/e  39.  Largfr,  but  lefs  wealthy  :  arifing  from  the  Coalition 
of  Three  great  Kingdoms  ,♦  the  Breaft,  the  Babylonian ;  the  Two  Arms, 
the  Median,  and  the  Perjian.     The  Brazen  Belly  and  Thighs,  which 
fhould  rule  over  all  the  Earth,  verfe  39,  were  the  Grecian.    Still  lefs 
Opulent,  tho  of  greater  Extent :  And  the  Thighs ,  the  Two  chief 
Kingdoms  of  the  Four  into  which  it  was  divided,  in  the  North  and 
South.     The  Iron  Legs,  were  the  Roman,  verfi  40.  fignifying  the  In- 
vincible Courage  of  that  People,  without  any  Wealth.    Which  they 
neither  had,  nor  minded,  till  upon  the  Conqueft  of  Afia.    The  Feet 
and  Toes,  which  were  of  Iron  mixed  with  Clay :  forefliewed,  that  the 
Roman  Empire,  in  the  latter  end  of  it,  Ihould  be  divided,  verfe  41. 
For  irom  the  time  oi  Antoninus  Pius,  who  adopted  Marcus  Aurelius,  and 
Miius  Ferus ;  it  was  govern'd,  for  the  ftioft  part,  by  Conforts,  who 
had  their  diftind:  Provinces.  And  after  Conflantine,  was  divided  into 
Eafl  and  Weft.    And  the  Iron  being  mixed  with  Clay,  alio  forefliewed. 
That  the  Romans  fliould  mingle  themjelves  with  the  Seed  of  Men,  ver.  43. 
And  accordingly,  the  Emperors,  after  the  firft  Twelve  Romans,  were 
chofen  out  of  all  other  Nations.     In  the  Hundred  Years,  next  before 
Conflantine,  of  no  lefs  than  Seven  Nations  ,  befides  Italians.     Laltly,. 
By  the  Stone  cut  out  without  Hands ;  is  meant,  the  Kingdom  of  Chrirt, 
fee  up  without  the  help  of  any  Human  Wiftiom,  or  Military  Power. 
Tills  Stone,  brake  the  Feet  of  the  Image.     For  when  the  Roman  Empe- 


Chap.  VI.     the  PROP  HEC  lES.  21 

rors  became  Chriftian  j  as  the  Apotheofn,  was  then  laid  afide ;  fo  the 
Imperial  Power  and  Laws,  were  in  many  points  alter'd,  and  flood  en- 
tirely upon  a  New  Foundation.  And  together  with  the  Iron  and  Clay ; 
the  Brafi,  Silver^  and  Gold^  were  alfo  broken :  while  the  Stone  grew 
into  a  Mountain  which  filled  the  Earth.  For  theChriflian  Religion,  be- 
ing by  the  Apoftles  carried  into  all  Nations  ;  and  with  the  Emperors, 
the  whole  Empire,  at  length,  becoming  obedient  to  the  Faith  :  the 
Roman ^  Grecian^  Perftan^  and  Babylonian  Idolatries,  were  deftroyed 
throughout  the  World.  • 

19.  Some  of  the  following  Prophecys,  in  this  Book,  are  very  myfte- 
rious :  But  I  will  inftance  in  one  more,  Chap.  8.  which  is  fo  far  alfo  in- 
terpreted, as  to  be  fpoken  of  the  GrecianVowtr,  Verfe  2,1.  and  beyond 
all  contradidfion,  is  fulfilled  in  every  Parr.     The  Prophet  Verfe  3.  faw 
a  Ram  with  two  Horns.     Interpreted,  Ferfe  20.  to  be  the  two  Kings  of 
Media  ^nd  Perjia.     Odheih  two  Horns ^  the  higher  ^   is  faid,   to  come  up 
la(i,  Verfe  3 .  For  though  Darius  the  Mede^  upon  Bel/h^zars  being 
flain,  took  the  Kingdom,  Chap.  ^.  31.  yet  he  received  it  oi^  Cyrus  the 
Perfian,  a  younger  Man,  and  Prince  of  a  later  date  ;  b;it  in  this  Expe- 
dition the  Captain,  and  the  Conqueror.     And  is  therefore  faid,  Ver.^. 
To  fpread  his  Dominion,  and  become  great.     After  this,  ver.  5.  he  faw 
anHegoat,  which  came  from  the  Weft.     That  is,  from  Greece^  ver.  xi. 
which  lies  Wellward  of  Perfia.     And  is  faid.  To  come  on  the  face  of  the 
whole  Earthy    ver.  5".  That  is,  to  march  through  the  whole  Perfian  Em- 
pire :  And  to  come  fo,  as  not  to  touch  the  ground^  ver.  5.  That  is,  with 
that  wonderful  Expedition,  that  he  feemed  not  to  march,  but  to  fly  : 
Which  alfo  had  a  notable  Horn  between  his  EyeSy  ver.  5.  viz.  Alexander ; 
properly  called,  the  fir  ft  King^  ver.  xi.  though  not  of  Macedonia,  yet 
of  the  Grecian  Empire,     Then  ver.  7.  he  faw  him  come  clofe  unto  the  Ram. 
'i or  Alexander  carried  the  War  out  of  his  own  Kingdom,  into  the  heart 
of  the  Perfian.     And  there  was  none  that  could  deliver  the  Ram  out  of  his 
hand,  ver.  7.    For  though  Darius  had  in  his  Army  400000  Men ,  yet 
who  knows  not  of  his  woful  Overthrow  ?  But  when  the  He-Goat  was 
grown  ftrong^  ver.  8.  the  great  Horn  was  broken  :  That  is,  when  Alexan- 
der had  ereded  the  Grecian,  on  the  Ruins  of  the  Ptr^^iw  Monarchy,  he 
prefently  died  of  a  Feaver.     After  whom,  came  up  Four  notable  Horns, 
towards  the  four  Winds  of  Heaven,  verfe  8.  For  upon  Alexanders  Death, 
tho  a  great  number  of  Captains,  at  the  firft,  divided  among  themfelves, 
the  Provinces  of  the  Empire  :  yet  to  make  good  this  Prophecy,  they 
were  quickly  reduced  unto  Four  Kingdoms,  let  up  by  Four  of  the 
Chief  J  viz.  the  Egyptian,  by  Ptolemy ;  the  Syrian,  by  Seleucus ;  the 
Grecian,  by  Philip  ;  and  that  of  the  •  Leflcr  Afia,  by  Antigonus.     And 
verfe  xz,  it  is  alfo  faid,  That  thefe  Yoviv  fball  ftand  up  out  of  the  Nati- 
on :  forefliewing,  that  they  ihould  be  all  Greeks ;  as  they  were.     And 
in  the  latter  time  of  their  Kingdom,  verfe  13  ;  that  is,  a  little  before  the 
Romatfs  fwallowed  them  all  up.     When  the  Tranfgreftors  were  come  to  the 
full,  verfe  23  :  that  is,  when  the  jfeivi-,  and  their  Enemies,  were  both 
grown  to  the  height  of  Wickednefs.     Out  of  one  of  the  Four,  verfe  9. 
came  forth  a  little  Horn,  which  waxed  very  great ,  towards  the  South ^ 
the  Eaft  ,  and  the    Pleafant   Land.     That  is  ,    Anti'ochus  Epiphanes ; 
whofe  Arms,  from  a  mean  beginning,  prevailed  in   Egypt,  Syria, 
Babylonia,  Armenia,  Perfia,  and  Judea.     Who  is  faid  too,  To  be  a  King 
offeree  countenance,  and  underftanding  darkfentenceSj  ver.  xj.  Very  aptly, 


2i6  ^^  '^9  ^tt^^^  f^^^         Book  lY. 

for  he  was  cruel  and  crafty,  and  undcrftanding  this  Prophecy  to  be 
fnoken  of  himlelf ,  made  bim  refolve  to- fulfil  it.  He  is  therefore  al(b 
faid,  ver.  lo.  To  caji  doiv'nfome  of  the  Hojl  of  Heaven^  and  of  the  Stars  to 
the  ground:  For  he  conflrained  (bme  of  the  Jews,  both  People  and  Pricfls, 
to  abjure  the  Law  of  Mofes,  and  receive  iiis  own.  AnA^verfe  I^.  .'tis 
{aid,  That  becaufe  ofTranfgreJJion,  an  Hoft  was  given  him  againjt  the  daily 
Sacrifice.  And  ver.  24.  That  his  power  fhoufd  he  mighty,  hut  not  hy  his 
own  power.  For  God  being  provoked  by  the  vvickcdnefs  of  the  Jews,  ftir- 
rcdup  two  Kiqgs,  Eurnenes,  znd  Atta/us,  to  aflift  and  flrengtherr  him 
againft  that  People.  And  one  of  the  two  High-Priefts,  Jafon  and  Oni~ 
as,  to  fupplant  the  other,  perfidioufly  opened  to  him  the  Gates  of  the 
City.  And  ver.  1 4.  'tis  (aid.  That  he  Jhould  thus  prevail,  unto  two  thou- 
fand  three  hundred  Days^  viz.  Natural  Days,  as  appears  ver.  x^.  That  is, 
about  fix  Years.  And  from  the  time  that  Antiochiu  being  in  Egypt,  re- 
fblved  upon  his  Expedition  againft  Jerufalem  ;  to  the  cleanfing  and  re- 
lloring  the  Service  of  the  Temple,  were  fix  Years ,  and  (bmething 
over.  But  1^x5-  'tis  faid,  Th^it  he  Jhould  he  hroket)  without  hand .-  That 
is,  not  by  any  Human  Means,  but  the  flroke  of  Divine  Vengeance : 
And  (uch  accordingly  was  his  fearful  End.  Thus  far  of  Prophecies  re- 
lating to  the  Gf«/i/f  World. 

zo.  Of  thofe  concerning  the  jffw^,  and  their  Anceftors,  there  are 
many  which  relate  unto  particular  Perfons.    So  peculiar  was  the  regard 
the  Divine  Providence  had  towards  them.     When  Abraham  had  refufed 
the  King  of  Sodom's  Rewards,  and  might  well  have  expeded,  the  tour 
Kings  he  had  lately  overcome  by  furprize.  Gen.  14.  would  have  con- 
fpir'd  to  deftroy  him ,  God  takes  the  occafion  to  aHure  him,  Chap,  i  ^. 
i,!^.  'B.e  would  he  his  fhield,  and  his  exceeding  great  reward;  and  that 
he  Jhould  go  to  his  Fathers  in  peace.     Jofeph  dreams,  Gen.  37.  9.  That  the 
Sun,  Moon,  and  Eleven  Stars  made  obeifance  to  him .-  Upon  which  his  Fa- 
ther asks,  ver.  10,  Shall  I,  and  thy  Mother,  and  thy  Brethren  come  to  how^ 
down  our  felves  to  thee  to  the  ground  >  Which,  as  it  came  to  pafs  in  (iib- 
flance,  upon  Jo/f/^'s  Preferment,  and  his  Father's  dependance  on  him 
\n  Egypt;  fowhen  his  Brethren,  Chap.  50.  18.  Went  and  fell  down  be- 
fore his  face,  faying^  We  be  thy  Servants ;  it  was  literally  and  circumftan- 
tially  fulfilled.     Upon  Jeroboam's  ered:ing  and  offering  his  Prophane 
Altar  and  Sacrifice,  i  Kings  13.  i.  a  Prophet  was  (ent  to  tell  him,  ver.  2. 
That  a  Kipg  of  the  Pojlerity  of  David,  Jofiah  by  Name,  Jhould  offer  the 
Priejls  of  the  High  Places,  upon  that  very  Altar:  which  came  to  pafs 
about  350  years  after,  2  Kings  23. 16.  God  tells  Jeremy^  Chap.  i^.  zo, 
ITe  would  make  him  as  a  fenced  Brazen-wall,  aqjiinft  whom  the  Jews  fhould 
fight,  hut  not  prevail ;  for  he  would  he  with  him,  to  deliver  him.     Which 
he  alfb  did,  in  a  wonderful  manner.     The  people  cried  out,  He  u  wor- 
thy to  die :  The  Princes  confpired  againft  him  ,•  and  Jehoiakim  the  King 
would  have  burnt  him  alive.     He  was  caft  into  the  Dungeon,  where 
he  Tank  ,•  and  for  fome  time  remained  in  the  JVlire,  and  without  food  : 
Yet  Ebedmelick,  a  Stranger,  and  a  Courtier,  and  fome  or  other  of  the 
Princes  at  other  times,  concealing  him,  or  interceeding  for  him,  faved 
his  Life.     That  extraordinary  Prophecy  concerning  Zedekiah, 
X.V-  That  he  fhould  not  fee  Babylon,  though  he  Jhould  die  there;  I  have  al- 
ready mention'd  upon  another  Argument,  in  the  3d  Chapter.     And 
thePaffage  wherewith  this  Prophecy  is  introduced,  ver.  12.  is  alfo  re- 
markable.    He^  viz.  Nebuchadnezzar,  Jhall cover  his  face^  viz,  Zedeki- 



Chap   VI.         the  PKOPHECl  ES' 3^ 

ah'Sj  that  he  fee  not  the  ground  with  his  Eyes:  That  is,  in  difgrace,  be- 
fore his  further  Punifliment ;  as  Ahajuerus  did  Human  s,  Efth.  7.  8.  For 
God  would  the  Prophecy  fliould  be  enigmatically  declar'd  ;  that  neither 
the  Bahylonians,  nor  the  Jews^  for  fundry  reafons,  fliould  underftand  it, 
till  after  it  was  fulfilled.  Principally  for  the  hardening  of  ZeJek/ah's 
Heart;  who,  fuppofing  £2?^/^/ to  fpeak  Contradidions,  refolved  not  , 
to  regard  what  he  faid.  Befides  thele,  there  are  many  more  Predidi- 
ons  relating  to  fingle  perfbns ;  of  the  fulfilling  whereof,  the  Sacred 
Writers  make  no  Remark ,  but  leave  it  to  be  done  by  the  obferving 

XI.  The  Prophecies  of  3f<ico^  and />f(7/^j,  Gf».  49.  andDe«^.  33.  con- 
cerning the  feveral  Tribes  ;  as  they  agree  together,  fo  were  very  evi- 
dently fulfilled.     Firft,  As  Reuben  was  the  firft  Born,  Jacob  calls  him, 
The  excellency  of  dignity  and  ftrength  ,  ver.  3.  That  is,  by  Right  of  Pri- 
mogeniture, both  the  Royal,  and  tiie  Sacerdotal  Dignities,  with  a  dou- 
ble Ihare  of  his  Patrimony,  belonged  to  him.     But  in  regard  he  had 
been  guilty  of  Inceft  j  he  tells  him  plainly,  That  he  fhould  not  excel  .- 
That  is,  that  he  had  forfeited  his  Right,  to  be  diflributed  among  the 
other  Tribes  ,•  as  it  alio  was.     And  Dathan  and  Abiranty  who  being 
Princes  of  thisTribe,  Deut.  11. 6.  took  upon  them  to  affift  Corah,  in  in- 
vading the  Priefthood  ;  with  a  purpofe  to  poflefs  themfelves  of  the  So- 
vereignty, were  miraculoufly  deftroyed.     And  Deborah,  Judg.^. 1^,1 6. 
emphatically  puts  a  Mark  of  Difgrace  upon  Reuben,  for  their  flieepifli- 
nefs  above  the  other  Tribes.    But  becaufe  this  Tribe,  though  fitted 
with  a  Commodious  Country ,    on    the  Eaji  of  Jordan ;    yet    ge- 
neroufly  engaged  to  join  in  all  the  War  with  the  other  Tribes:  Mofes  Co 
far  turned  the  Curfe  into  a  BlefTing,  as  to  fay,  De«^  33. 6.  Let  Reuben 
live,  apdnot  die,  and  let  not  his  men  be  few.,    That  is,  as  a  reward  for 
his  Service,  let  not  this  Tirbe  be  extindt,  or  contemptible. 

2x.  The  Rights  which  Reuben  loll,  were  bellowed  fcverally  upoft 
Three  other  Tribes.  The  Regency,  upon  that  oijudah.  Gen.  49.  8, 10. 
Therefore,  befides  the  Kings  oijudah,  whereof  three  were  Monarchs  j 
bthniel,  the  firft  of  the  Judges,  and  Zerubbabel  the  firll  of  the  Princes 
after  the  Captivity,  with  his  Succeflbrs,  for  near  3  go  Years,  were  of 
this  Tribe.     Which  alfo  continued  more  diftind:  and  vifible  than  the 
reft,  till  the  coming  of  Shiloh ;  that  is,  our  Saviour :  And  gave  the 
Name  of  Jews  to  the  whole  Nation,-  and  of  Judea,  to  their  Country. 
By  virtue  of  the  fame  Blefling,  this  Tribe  received,  with  the  Regency, 
whatever  clfe  was  thereunto  fuitable,  viz.  Courage,  Prudence,  Plenty, 
Strength,    and  Vidlorious  Succefs  ,    ver.  8,  to  ix.  and  Deut.^^.j. 
Therefore  in  all  their  Journeys  through  the  Wiidernefs  ,  this  march- 
ed firll :  This  firft  of  all  fought  and  beat  the  Canaanites  ,•  and  of  all  the 
Tribes,  was  by  far,  the  moft  numerous,  both  in  the  Wiidernefs,  and  af- 
terwards  in  the  Land  of  Canaan:  According  to  the  additional  Blefling 
of  Mofes,,  Let  JudaUs  hands  be  fufficient  for  him.     And  laftly,  the  True 
Religion,  which  remained  in  this  Tribe,    when  in  the  reft  it  was 

2.3.  The  Priefthood  was  beftowed  on  the  Tribe  of  Levi.  True  it  is, 
that  this  Patriarch,having  a  hand  in  the  flaughter  of  the  Shechemites,  his 
Pofterity  was  accutfed  hy  Jacob,  Gen.^^.j.  Saying,  I  will  divide  them 
in  Jacob,  and  feat ter  them  in  Ifrael :  That  is,  they  Ihall  live  difperfed 
among  the  other  Tribes,  without  any  entire  fliare,  or  Lot  of  Houfes  or 

K  k  k  Lands  j 

2i8  As  they  A f pear  from         Book  IV. 

Lanes;  which  they  alfo  did.  But  Firft  Aa r oh ^  having  loldJy  afiiRtcf 
Mofes  ^  in  confounding  the  Idolatrous  Pricds  of  il^)/'/',  the  Priefthood 
was  given  to  him,  and  his  Sons  for  tvtr^  Exod.%^.^.  And  herewixh 
the  Office  of  teaching  the  Law,  Deut.  33.  10.  And  the  whole  liibe  of 
Lt'vi  afterwards,  iiaving,  at  JVIofess  Command,  performed  a  mofl  fa- 
mous Ad  of  Ju-flice,  upon  the  Worlhippers  or  the  Golden  CaJr,  Exorl.-^x. 
a<5to  r9.  was  chofen  in  lieu  of  the  firft  Born,  to  Miniftcr  in  the  Ser- 
vice of  the  Tabernacle,  and  the  Temple,  Najw.  3.6, 7.  For  which,  be- 
fidcs  48  principal  Cities,  out  of  the  other  Tribes,  they  had  alio  given 
them,  a  great  and  the  bell  part  of  the  Offerings,  and  the  Tithes,  God 
himfelf  becoming  their  Inheritance,  £><?«/. r8.i.  and  thereby  turning  the 
Curie  into  a  Blefiing.  And  as  the  Multiplication  of  the  Tribe  oijudah^ 
fo  thi;  Diminution  of  this ,  is  obfervable ;  all  the  other  Tribes  being 
more  than  double;  and  thofe  of  Judah  and  Dan^  treble  unto  this. 
Whereby  the  convenient  fliare,  which  was  allotted  to  them  ,  was  not 
overflock'd.  And  as  all  the  Male  Levites,  from  a  Month  old,  and  up- 
ward, wereziooo,  iSfunt.  3.39.  So  the  hrlt  Born  Males  of  all  the  other 
Tribes,  from  a  Month  old,  and  upward,  inilead  of  which  the  Z-fi/ir^x 
were  taken,  ^'e/'.■t^.  were  21x75.  -ytrr.  43  ;  very  near  the  fame  Number. 
So  admirably  did  the  Providence  of  God  order  this  Equation,  that  the 
Curfe  and  theBleffing  might  decently  meet  together,  and  both  of  them, 
without  interfering,  be  fulfilled.  To  thisBleding,  Mofes  adds  his 
Prayer,  Deuf.  ■^'  Smite  through  the  loins  of  them  ^  that  rife  againjl  h'ir/i. 
Anfwer'd,  not  €>n!y  in  the  rare  and  fucccfsful  Valour  of  the  MaccaleeSy 
but  herein  alfo  ,  In  that  there  never  was  any  H.  Priell,  qo  not  in,  nor 
after  Herod's  time,  when  by  Money,  or  other  Intereft  they  were  fo 
often  remov'd,  excepting  of  the  Tribe  of  Levi. 

14.  The  double  Portion  was  given  to  Jofeph,  an  eminent  Prophet 
and  Confeflor  in  tlie  Land  of  Egypt,  and  divided  between  his  two  Sons, 
Ephraim,  and  Manajfeh,  Gen.^^.z^,  z6.  and  iChron.  5.  i.  And  here- 
withal,  a  Regency  pointed  at,  in  that  part  of  Jacobs  Bleffing,  From 
thence  is  the  fhepherd  the  fione  oflfrael,  ver.  24.  Whereby  it  was  prcdi<5l- 
ed,  that  as  three  of  the  principal  Rulers  and  Deliverers  of  the  whole 
Jewifli  Nation,  T/iz,  Jojhua,  Deborah,  and  Gideon;  (b  when  it  was  divi- 
ded into  two  Kingdoms,  Jeroboam,  the  firft  King  of  the  Ten  Tribes, 
Ihould  be  of  this  Houfe.  Which  was  alfo  forelhewed  by  Mofes ;  faying, 
Deut.  33.  17.  That  Jofeph  with  his  horns ,  that  is,  Ephraim  and  Manajf- 
feh,  fhould  pujh  the  people  together  to  the  ends  of  the  Earth.  And  what 
Jacob  had  predicted,  G^w.  48.  19,  77:;^?  the  Tribe  of  Ephraim  fhould  be 
greater  than  that  of  Manajfeh ;  was  made  good.  As  in  the  fituation  of 
the  fliare  which  fell  to  this  Tribe  :  So  m  the  multiplication  hereof, 
above  that  of  Manaffeh  ;  efpecially  in  the  number  of  Warlike  Men. 
Whereof  Mofes  foreftews,  in  confirming  the  fam.e  Blefling,  Deut.  33. 
.17.     That  there  fhould  be  Ten  in  this  Tribe,  for  One  in  the  other. 

25.  The  Predidtions  likewife  of  the  other  Tribes  ,  were  plainly  ful- 
filled. 'Tisfaid  of  Benjamin^  Gen.  49.  27.  That  he  fhould  raven  like  a 
Wolf;  in  the  morning  devour  the  prey,  and  at  night  divide  the  fpoil.  Fore- 
/hewing,  that  this  Tribe  fliould  be  added  to  that  o[' Judah,  for  a  fiipply 
of  Auxiliary  Troops  upon  occafion.  And  Ehud,  Saul  and  Mordecai^ 
who  were  of  this  Tribe,  made  a  prey  of  their  Enemies.  To  Jacob's 
Blefling,  Mofes  adds,  Deut.  33. 12.  That  as  the  beloved  of  the  Lord,  he 
fhould  dwell  in  fafety  bj  him.     Therefore  as  this  Tribe  w-as  under  the 



Chap,  VI.     the   PROPHECIES,  2ip, 

proretftion  of  ^udah  ;  ib  it  dwelt,  in  part,  in  and  nesiV  Jerufaletn,  and 
had  the  Temple  witliin  it  felt'.  And  that  he  jhould  dwell  between  hisjhoul' 
ders.  Foretelling,  that  the  Lot  of  this  Tribe,  Should  come  forth  be- 
tween thofe  ofjuduh  and  Epbraim  ;  Which  it  alio  did,  Jojh.  i8.  li. 

i6.  The  Tribe  of  Simeon  was  joined  with  that  of  Levi,  in  their  Fa- 
ther's Curfe,  Gen.  49.  7.  /  will  divide  them  in  Jacob,  and  Jcatter  them  in 
Ifrael :  And  therefore  had  no  part  of  Caanan  allotted  to  it,  but  what 
was  given  it  out  of  that  belonging  to  the  Tribe  oijudah.  From  whence, 
after  they  became  numerous,  fome  of  them  alfo  made  an  Inroad  upon 
Gador,  and  Mount  Seir,  and  there  took  polTelTion.  'Tisfaidof  theTribc 
of  Zebulon,  Gen.  49, 1 5.  That  they  Jhould  dwell  at  the  Haven  of  the  Sea: 
That  is,  by  the  Mediterranean  ;  unto  which  one  end  of  their  Lot  was 
extended.  And£>^«f.3  3.1 8.  That  they  (hould rejoice  in  their  going  out :  Th?t 
isjin  theirVoyages,  And  v. n). Should  fuck  of  the  abundance  of  the  Seas,  viz. 
by  theirTraffick  with  their  Neig!ibours,the  Merchants  of  Tyre  and  'Zidon. 
OUjfachar,  Gen.  49.  1 5,  That  leeing  Reft  was  good:  that  is,  ftaymg  at 
home:  And  the  Land  P leafant :  fo  as  to  enjoy  him(e!f  in  his  Tents, 
Deut.  33. 18  :  Y{q  bowed  his  Shoulders  to  bear:  that  is,  fell  to  Husl>andry. 
Whereby,  Deut.  33.  19,  he  fucked  the  Treafures  hid  in  the  Sand:  as 
Zebulon  did  thole  which  came  by  Sea;  and  fo  enjoyed  great  Plenty. 
Out  of  which,  he  was  well  contented  to  pay  Tribute,  Qen.  49.  1 5-. 
Of  Dan,  Gen.  49, 16,  That  he  fliould  judge  his  People.,  as  one  of  the 
Tribes.  So  did  Samfon  z  Danite.  And,  verfe  17,  be  a  Serpent  by  the 
way,  that  biteth  the  Horfe'beels  ,  fo  that  his  Rider  (hould  fall  backward. 
Elegantly  expreffirtg,  how  Samfon  dealt  with  the  Philiftines,  chiefly  at 
his  Death.  And  verfe  18,  that  he  fhould  wait  for  the  Salvation  of  the 
Lord:  That  is,  for  the  Affiftance,  which  the  Houfe  of  jF(>/^/*  gave  this 
Tribe,  againft  the  Amorites ,  f''^g- 5-}4-  And  D^«/.  35.22.  That 
as  a  Lyon's  Whelp,  he  fhould  leap  from  Bafhan :  as  they  did,  vehen  thev  took 
Lefttem,  Jofh.  19.  47.  Of  Gad,  That  a  Troop  Jhould  overcome  him^ 
hut  he  Jhould  overcome  at  the  lafl.  Gen.  49. 19.  As  they  alfo  did,  with 
Saul's  artilfance,  when  Nahap  the  King  of  the  Ammonites,  came  up  and 
encamped  againft  Jabejh  Gilead,  i  Sam.  11.  To  which  Mofes  adds, 
Deut.  3  3 ,  20,  That  he  dwelt  as  a  Lyon,  and  feared  the  Arm,  with  the 
Crown  of  the  Head.  fore(he\ved  01  Jephtha  the  Gileadite,  who  over- 
threw with  a  great  Slaughter,  both  the  faid  Kings,  arid  the  Tribe  of 
Ephraim,  Judg.  11.  12.  Oi  Naphthali,  Gen.  49.  21,  That  he  wzsa 
Hind  let  loofe.  Very  aptly  applied  ,  as  having  excellent  Pafture , 
wherein  to  range ,  as  ijfachar  had  Tillage.  And  therefore  faid  by 
Mofes,  Deut.  33.  i 3,  To  be/«//  with  the  Bleffings  of  the  Lord.  Aflign- 
ing  him  his  Poflelfions,  in  the  Weft  and  South :  where  accordingly, 
this  Tribe  obtained  their  Lot,  Jefb.  19.34.  And  laftly^  of  AJher, 
Gen.  49.  20,  That  his  Bread  Jhould  he  fat.  And  Dent.  33.  24,  That  ht 
.fhould  dip  his  foot  in  Oyl.  Hereby  fignifying,  his  Lot  fhould  abound, 
not  only  with  Corn,  as  Ijfachar  s,  but  alfo  with  Wine  and  Oyl. 

27.  The  Predidions  Hkewife  of  the  Nation  of  the  Jews,  and  the  ful- 
filling of  them,  wiiether  with  refpect  to  thek  Adverle,  or  Profperous 
Edits,  arc  no  lefs  Remarkable.  The  falfe  w^  cowardly  report  of  all 
the  Spies,  fent  to  fcarch  the  Land,  excQ^t  Caleb  zvidjofhua,  2^«>w.  13.  ' 
f :  occafioncd  the  Peoples  disbelief  of  God's  Power  and  Promifc  to 
bring  them  thither,  Nm?w.  i  4.  For  which  caufe,  he  palled  that  juft 
Sentence,  That  all  who  were  in  the  Mufter-Roll,  except  the  two  afore. 

faid  .' 

-iao  As  they  Appear  from  Book  IV. 

• ■ — — 

{aid,  fliould  die  in  the  Wildernefs,  verfe  19.  30.  And  u  hen  they  were 
numbred  again,  about  x8  Years  after,  of  more  than  600000  Men, 
who  were  of  the  firft  Mufter,  not  one  fave  Calei>  and  Jo/hua,  was  tiien 
left  alive,  verfe  64,  6j. 

28.  If  what  the  Jews  faw  done  by  God,  againfl  their  Enemies,  and 
for  themfelves;  the  Terror  wherewith  his  Laws  were  firil  delivered ; 
the  Comminations,  Promifes,  and  vehement  Suafions,  wherewith  they 
were  reinforced  ,•  and  the  Three  Solemn  Covenants,  wherewith  they 
had  bound  themftlves ;  be  well  confidered  :  it  may  Teem  Impoifible  for 
them  ever  to  have  forgotten  ail.  Yet  they  are  foretold.  Dent.  31.16, 
and  Chap.  32,  that  they  would  as  certainly  do  it,  fo  as  to  commit  the 
moft  abominable  Idolatries,  as  if  it  were  already  done.  And  fb,  no 
Iponer  was  fojhua  dead,  and  the  Elders  his  Contemporaries,  but  all 
came  to  pafs,  Judg.  x .  1 1 . 

29.  And  the  Predidion  of  their  Puniihment  for  the  fame,  is  as  clear 
and  exprefs.  fo(hua  tells  them,  Chap.  z3. 1 2, 1 3,  That  if  they  joyned 
affinity,  with  the  remnant  of  the  Nations,  they  had  fiibdued ;  they 
Ihould  continue  as  Snares  and  Traps  to  them^  and  as  Scourges  in  their 
Sides^  and  Thorns  in  their  Eyes.  And  it  appears,  Judg.  i ,  That  not 
any  one  Tribe,  was  able  totally  to  rid  the  Country  ot  them,  where 
they  had 'their  Lot.  And  as  Mofes  had  before  told  them,  in  that 
famous  Prophecy,  Deut.  i8,  that  if  they  were  guilty  as  aforefaid,  they 
fhould  by  one  Enemy  or  another,  be  continually  opprefTed,  verfe  3  3. 
So  it  appears  by  the  Book  of  Judges  ^  that  in  the  {pace  of  about  400 
Years,  viz.  from  their  firft  fettlement  in  Canaan^  to  the  Reign  of  David; 
they  were  by  Six  feveral  Tyrants,  one  after  another,  very  gnevoufly  Op- 
prefledj  taking  all  together,  for  above  100  Years  ;  a  4th  part  of  the 
whole  Time.  After  the  Reign  of  5o/owo«,  were  continual  Wars  be- 
tween Rehohoam  and  Jeroioam  :  and  between  their  Succeflbrs,  ^fa  and 
Baa/ha.  And  efpecially  between  that  wicked  ^/;<7z  and  Pekah;  who 
Slew  in  Judah^  izoooo  in  one  Day.  Befides  the  vexations  they  gave 
to  one  another;  Their  Temple,  and  the  King's Treafiiries,  wererobb'd 
and  rifled  by  Shifhack  King  of  Egypt ;  Samaria,  and  other  principal 
Cities  of  the  Ten  Tribes,  taken  by  the  King  of  Syria ;  firft  in  the 
Reign  oi  Baajha,  then  oi  Ahah,  and  of  his  Son  Jehoram,  when  the 
Siege  was  accompanied  with  a  difinal  Famine. 

30.  But  the  Prophets  chiefiy  infift  upon  the  Captivity.  Predided 
by  God  himfelf,  Deut.  3Z.  Z4,  25,  x6.  By  Mofes,  Deut.  28.  41,  63. 
By  Jofhua,  23.  i^,  16.  By  Solomon,  i  Kings  8.  46.  By  thefe,  of  the 
whole  Nation.  Of  the  Ten  Tribes,  by  Hofea,  9.  17.  11.  5.  and  13. 
,16.  ^y  Amos,  5'.  5.  and  6.  7.  And  by  Micah,  Chap.  i.  Oijudah, 
hy  Habakkuk,  1.9.  By  Zephany,  1.4.  By  If  a  i  ah,  1,^.6,  j.  By  Je- 
remiah, 15.3.  By  Ezekiel,  12.  11.  And  by  thefe  two,  at  fundry 
other  times. 

31.  Accordingly,  firHTiglath-PileferKingo^  Affyria,  carried  away 
Captive,  part  of  the  Ten  Tribes,  x  Kings  i^.i^.  Then  Shalmanefer, 
befieging  Samaria Tlvce^lQzxs,  2  Kings  17.  5,  took  away  all  the  reft, 
and  fo  put  an  end  to  tl^^iCingdom.  About  the  fame  time,  Sennache- 
rib took  the  fenced  Cities  ot  Judah,  2  Kings  16.  13  ,•  and  carried  a 
multitude  of  the  People  to  Damafcus.  After  whom,  the  King  of -Sj^- 
lon  Befieged  and  Took  Jerufalem  twice,  %  Kings,  24,  and  2,5,  and  fo 
compleated  the  Captivity  of  the  whole  Land.  Mofes  foretels  them, 
■•i/??  that